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The Editors, owing to the rapid call for new issues 
of this Dictionary, have had frequent opportunities of 
removing any inaccuracies, and they trust it may now 
be found a reliable work of reference. They cannot but 
feel orratified at the manner in which it has been received 
by musicians and the public generally, and they venture 
to hope that students will always find it a useful storehouse 
of facts associated with the art, science, and archaeology' 
of music. 

Oxford, November, i88g. 

The following gentlemen contributed articles or otherwise rendered laiuablc assistance 
to the Editors : — 
R. H. M. Bosanquet, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, author of the article 

" Temperament." 
J. F. Bulley, M.A., of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law, author of the articles 

■' Licensing ' and " Copyright." 

F. Champneys, M.A., M.D. (Oxon.), F.R.C.P.. F.L.S.. Obstetric Physician to St. 
George's Hospital, Examiner in Obstetric Medicine in the Universities of Oxford 
and London, late Radcliffe Travelling Fellow of the University of Oxford, author of 
the articles " Ear," " Larynx," and " Laryngoscope " ; and the explanation of the 
formation of the hand given in the article " Fingering." 

W. Chappell, F.S.A., author of the articles " Ballad ' (Old English). " Greek Music " 
(Ancient Systems of), and " Notation " (Early Systems of). 

A. E. Donkin, M.A., F.R.A.S., late Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, author of the 
article " Acoustics." 

A. J. Elhs, B.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.C.P.S., F.C.P., formerly Scholar of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, author of the article " Duodene." 

Henry Gadsby, author of the account of Sonata Form in the article " Form." 

Rev. T. Helmore, M.A., author of the article " Plain Song." 

John Hullah, LL.D., author of a paper read before the Musical Association on 
" Nomenclature." 

W. G. McNaught, A.R.A.M., author of the article " Tonic Sol-fa." 

"W. H. Monk, Mus. Doc, author of the article " Hymn Tunes." 

W. H. Husk, who contributed an important list of early printed music. 

They also tender their thanks to — 

Messrs. Broadwood, for permission to publish diagrams of their pianoforte action. 

Messrs. Cassell, for permission to" quote from " The Music of the Bible." 

Messrs. Chappell, for permission to quote from " Popular Music in the Olden Time." 

Messrs. Erard, for permission to reproduce their diagrams of pianoforte action. 

A. J. Hipkins, for valuable information on the subject of Tuning-Forks and Pitch. 

Messrs. Murray, for permission to quote music from Lane's " Modern Egyptians." 

Rev. J. Troutbeck, D.D., Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the Queen, for permission to reprint 
diagrams from Troutbeck and Dale's " Music Primer." 

Henry Willis, for diagrams and explanations of his Pneumatic Bellows. 





A. (i) The note called Proslambanotnenos 
in the greater perfect system of the Greeks. 
The letter-name of Mese, the highest note 
of the middle tetrachord; and of Nete, the 
highest note of the upper tetrachord. [Greek 

— (2) The first note of (a) the Hypo-Dorian 
mode, or church-scale, commencing four 
notes below the Dorian ; (6) the Hyper-Phry- 
gian mode, or church-scale, commencing four 

^ notes above the Phrygian; (c)the Eolian mode. 
^ [Greek Music] 

— (3) The next note above Gamma Ut, 
in the Grave Hexachord of the Guidonian 
system, where it is A re. Also, the first note 
of the acute and super-acute Hexachords, in 
which it is a la tni re. [Notation.] 

— (4) The normal minor scale of modern 
music, so called because it is the relative 
minor of C. It is sometimes also named the 
natural minor scale, because no sharps or 
flats are required in its signature. 

— (5) The normal sound {Ger.Normalton), 
because the instruments of an orchestra 
tune to this note, as given by the Oboe or 

— (6) The key-note of the major scale 
which has three sharps for its signature. 

— (7) The name given to a string tuned 
to the sound A. The A-string of a violin is 
its second string ; of a viola, its first string ; 
of a violoncello, its first string ; but on this 
instrument it is one octave lower in pitch 
than the A-string of a violin or viola ; of a 
double-bass, its third string, which is two 
octaves lower in pitch than the first string of 
a violoncello ; of a guitar, its fifth string. 
The string tuned highest in pitch is called 
the first string of an instrument; the next 
below it, the second ; and so on. 

— {?>) The actual sound W^^ is in some 
systems represented by A (capital letter), while 
AA represents the note one octave below that 
sound, and AAA the note two octaves below 

it. Proceeding upwards, the note one octave 
above A is represented by a (italic); that two 
octaves above it by a (once underlined); that 
three octaves above it, by ^ (twice underlined), 
and so on. [Pitch.] 

A (7^.) At, by, in, for, to, with, towards, 
&c ; a prima vista, at first sight; a battuta, 
lit. by the beat, in strict time ; a tempo, in 
time, &c. &c.; q.v. sub vocibus. 

A (Fr.) For, by, on; a deux mains, for 
two hands, &c ; q.v. sub vocibus. 

Abacus {Lat.) afta^ (Gk.) Any square 
tablet ; hence, a board on which calculations 
were made ; hence, in music, a diagram of 
the notes with their names. 

A ballata (7^.) (i) In the ballad style. 
Applied to any song, duet, or chorus, con- 
structed in the ballad or narrative form. 
Also to a song with a refrain in chorus, as 
is found in many old and modern English 
songs ; for example, the song of which a 
portion runs : 

" Ich have house and land in Kent, 

And if you love me, love me now; 
Two pence halfpenny is my rent, 

Ich cannot come everich day to woo." 


" Two pence half penny is his rent, 
He cannot come everich day to woo " 

— is a song, a ballata. 

(2) The term is also used to describe a 
vocal piece, that may be danced to. [Ballad.] 

Abbandonamente (7^.) With self-aban- 
donment, despondingly. 

Abbandonarsi (It.) To abandon one- 
self (to the influence of the music). 

Abbandono, con (7^.) With self-aban- 
donment, passionately. 

Abbassamento (7^) A lowering. Ab- 
bassamento di tnano, a lowering of the hand ; 
abbassamento di voce, a lowering of the 

A battuta (7^.) In strict time. This term is 
usually employed when a break in the time of 


a movement has occurred, an.-j it is desirable 
to resume the original pace " by the beat." 

Recit. tempo a battuta. 





-dieangstdie je - de Hoffnung raubt. 

Abbellire (7^.) To overload a plain melody 
with ornaments. 

Abbellitura(/;^.)Ornament, embellishment. 

Abblasen [Ger.) To sound a trumpet call. 

Abbreviare (It.) To shorten. 

Abbreviation. A system frequently em- 
ployed in music, by which a portion of a 
technical term is made to stand for the whole. 
The following is a list of the abbreviations in 
most common use; the explanation of each 
term may be found on reference to the word 
itself in its proper place : 


Accom... ^ 
Accomp. 3 



Adl ■) 

Ad lib ... J 
Affett" ... 
Affrett" ... 

Ag" \ 

Agit" .../ 


Allgtt" ... 
AU'ott... ) 
All' 8™.../ 

Al seg 




Arc I 




Ad libitum 





A tern ... 
A temp .. 




Air ottava 

.Al segno 

Coir Arco, or 


-A tempo 

By augmenta- 

{Bass (voice) 
Contra basso 

B.C Basso continuo 

Brill Brillante 

C.B Col Basso 

CD Colla destra 

C.S Colla sinistra 

Cad Cadence 

Cal Calando 

Can Cantoris 

Cant Canto 

Cantab ...Cantabile 

Cello Violoncello 

Cemb Cembalo 

Ch Choir organ 

Chal Chalameau 

Clar Clarinet 

Clar"" ...Clarinetto 

Clar Clarino 

Co. So. ...Come sopra 
Col C. ...Col canto 
Col otta ...Coir ottava 
Col Vo. ...Colla voce 

' Con espres- 

Con. esp. 


Cres., Cres" ) , 

Cresc J 

C.S Colla sinistra 

C. 8"* Coir ottava 

C° 1"'° Canto primo 

Co. l"'" ...Come primo 
C'o Concerto 


f Destra, droite, 
•■■•{ right 

D.C Da capo 

Dec Decani 

Decres ...Decrescendo 

Delic Delicamente 

Dest Destra 

Diap Diapasons 

Dim By diminution 

Dim Diminuendo. 

Div Divisi 

Dol Dolce 

Dolcis Dolcissimo 

Dopp. ped..Doppio pedale 
D.S Dal segno 

Energ Energicamente 

EsP^ -JEspr 
Espres ... j ^ 


F. or for ...Forte 

Fag Fagotto 

Falset Falsetto 

Ff. or Fff... Fortissimo 
Fl Flauto 

R Org.".". } F"" '^'■S^" 


G Gauche 

G. O. ...] 

G. Org... V Great Organ 

Gt J 

Grand" ...Grandioso 

Graz" Grazioso 

Gr Grand 

Hauptw. ") 

Hptw. ... > Hauptwerk 

H'= J 

Haut Hautboy 

H.C Haute Contre 

Intro Introduction 

Inv Inversion 

L Left 

Leg Legato 

Legg° Leggiero 

L.H Left hand 

Lo Loco 

Luo Luogo 

Lusing. ...Lusingando 

M ] 

Main. ... I Manual 

Mano. ... J 

Maest° ...Maestoso 

Magg Maggiore 

Man Manuals 

Mane ... 1 ,,r J 

Manoo... 1^^"^^"'^° 

Marc Marcato 

fMano diritta 
Main droite 
Manu dextrS 

M.G Main gauche 

f Maelzel's Me- 
■" I tronome 

The beat of a 
crotchet is e- 
qual to the 
pulse of the 
pendulum of 
the Metro- 
nome said to 
be Maelzel's, 
with the 
weight set at 
■ 92. 

..Mezzo piano 
' Manuscript 
Mano sinistra 



J = 92 




Men ..Meno 

Mez Mezzo 

M.V Mezzo voce 

Mf. or Mff .Mezzo forte 
Mod'° ...Moderato 
Mus. Doc. Doctor of Music 

^, f Oboe, or Haut- 

"■^ \ bois 

Obb Obbligato 

Oberst. ...Oberstimme 

Oh. Ped....Ohne Pedal 
Org Organ 

gi, " > Ottava 

8"alta ...Ottava alta 
8'» bas. ...Ottava bassa 

P Piano 

Ped Pedal 

Perd Perdendosi 

P.F Piu forte 

Piang Piangendo 

Pianiss. ...Pianissimo 
Pizz Pizzicato 

p •■••(. Pianissimo 

Pnn'n I Pi'^nississimo 

Prin Principal 

1™* Prima 

1°»° Primo 

4«e Quartet 

5"e Quintet 

Rail Rallentando 

Raddol. ...Raddolcendo 
Recit. .......Recitative 

■' ■ c [ Rinforzando 
or nnf. J 

R.H Right hand 

Ritar Ritardando 

Riten Ritenuto 

S.or Sen...Senza • 

K Segno 

Scherz. ...Scherzando 

2'^^ Seconda 

2>'o Secondo 

Seg Segue 

Sem. ••• 1 o 

7" Septet 

6" Sestet 

Sfz. or Sf. Sforzando 
Smorz. ...Smorzando 

Sinf. Sinfonia 

o T .. f Senza interru- 

S. Int i 

I zione 

llord". } S^"^^ S°'^'^'"' 


Spir Spiritoso 

S.T Senza tempo 

Stacc Staccato 

^ (^ son 

String Stringendo 

Sw Swell organ 

Sym Symphony 

„ f Tenor, tutti, 

I tempo, tendie 

T.C Tre corde 

Tern Tempo 

Tern. 1° ...Tempo primo 

Ten Tenuto 

Timb Timballes 

Timp. Timpani 

Tr Trillo 


(2 ) 


Trem Tremolando 

3" Trio 

Tromb. ...Trombi 
Tromb. ...Tromboni 
T.S Tasto solo 

U Una 

U.C Una corda 

Unis Unisoni 

V Voce 

V Vohi 

Va Viola 

Var ..Variation 

Velio Violoncello 

Viv Vivace 

Vo. ... -, 

Vno. ... [^Violino 

Viol" ... •' 

V.S Volti subito 

Vi "I 

V.V. ... J 


There are other abbreviations employed in 
manuscript or printed music, the chief of which 
are as follow : 

In time, a dash with a figure above signifies 
the length of the pause in bars, e.g. : 


In notes, the trouble of writing a passage in 
full is saved by the use of abbreviations, e.g. : 









Repetition phrases are thus shortened: 

Abbreviations, by signs, of musical graces : 

The Turn. ^ 

Written ^ Sung 

The back Turn, / or t 

Written ^E 

Passing shake, ^ 

Written z 

Beat, -±- 

Written m 










Played J,. J m 

Abbreviature {It.) Abbreviations. 
Abbreviazione {It.) An abbreviation. 

Abcidiren {Ger.) (i) To use a system of 
solmisation. A series of exercises in which 
the names of the notes are used instead of 
words. (2) A method of instruction for sight 

Abbellare {It.) To decorate, ornament, or 

Abbellimento {It.) A decoration, orna- 
ment, or embellishment. 

Abendglocke {Ger.) The Curfew, evening 

A bene placito {It.) At pleasure. The 
singer or performer may alter the time, intro- 
duce ornaments, cadenzas, &c., according to 
fancy, or may use certain instruments speci- 
fied, or not, without detriment to the effect 
required. [Chamber Music] 

Abenteuerlich {Ger.) Strange and uncouth. 
The music of the new German school is so 
called by the unthinking. 

Abgestossen {Ger.) Struck off. Staccato. 
AbgeleiteterAkkord {Ger.) An inversion 
of a chord. 

Ab initio {Lat.) From the beginning. [Da 
capo. J 

Abkiirzungen {Ger.) Abbreviations. 
Abnehmend {Ger.) Lit. taking away, decres. 
Abrege {Fr.) Shortened. 
Abreger {Fr.) To shorten, curtail, abridge. 
Abreissung {Ger.) A sudden pause. 
Abrupt cadence. An interrupted cadence. 
Abrupt modulation. A sudden change 
of key for which no preparation has been 
made. [Modulation.] 

Absatz {Ger.) Cadence. [Cadence.] 
Abschnitt {Ger.) Section. [Form.] 
Absetzen (Ger.) \ To render music 'stac- 
Abstossen(Ger.) J cato.' 
Abub. [Ambubajse.] 

Abwechselnd (Ger.) Alternating, mit ab- 
wechselnden Manualen, alternately from one 
manual to another. 

Academie de Musique {Fr.) An aca- 
demy of music. 

Academie Royale de Musique {Fr.) The 
opera house in Paris. 

Academie Spirituelle {Fr.) A concert 
or performance of sacred music. 

Academy of Music. A name given to 
an organised society of perforrners and 
teachers of music; originally applied to the 
Royal Academy of Music, founded 1824 in 


A cappella,o;',Allacappella(/^) (i) In the 
church style ; vocal pieces unaccompanied, 
especially those of the Italian school, because 
the music sung in the Sistine Chapel was never 
accompanied by instruments. 

(2) Church music in a duple time (two or 
in each bar), this being for a 

four mmims 

long period considered 

than triple measure. 

more ecclesiastical 

(3 ) 


A capriccio {It.) At will, according to 
individual fancy. 

Acathistus. A hymn of praise, sung in 
the Greek Church in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin, upon the Saturday in the fifth week 
in Lent, by the whole congregation stand- 

Accarezzevole (7^.) (Lit. flatteringly.) 
Agreeable, pleasing; used occasionally to de- 
scribe the anticipation of notes. 

Accarezzevolmente {li.) In a caress- 
ing style. 

Accelerando or Accelerato (7^.) Gra- 
dually increasing the pace. 

Accent (Fr.) A sign used in old French 
music for the Harpsichord : 







The custom of employing a variety of orna- 
ments in harpsichord music, arose from the 
fact that the instrument was not capable of 
sustaining tone without the use of repeated 

Accent. — In its ancient and widest sense, 
a sign placed over a syllable to indicate the 
elevation of the voice when pronouncing it. 
Hence, the term came to imply a raising up- 
wards of the voice in the scale series from the 
monotone or note of recitation, to a sound of 
higher pitch. By using various forms of 
accents, different elevations of the voice were 
obtained, until a rude sort of chant resulted. 
The most ancient known accents, those of the 
Hebrews as found in the Pentateuch, Psalms, 
and Book of Job, were interpreted only by tra- 
dition, not according to definite rule. Unfor- 
tunately therefore in comparing the musical 
rendering of them as taken down in modern 
notation by authors in various parts of Europe, 
it will be found that their original force is 
now quite unknown, and that the various 
" foliations " which are supposed to repre- 
sent their meaning, are the growth of many 
surrounding musical or other indirect in- 

2. In early Greek Church music, the accents 
had to a great extent, a plain and definite 
intention, and as they were fixed and adapted 
to various poems by John of Damascus in 
the 8th century, and their use has been kept 
up in its purity to this day in Byzantine 
music, a very good insight into early forms 
and principles of notation can be obtained 
by their study. 

3. In medieval music the term accent was 
also applied to musical notation, the first two 
and most common of the signs being the 
accentus actitus, and accentus gravis. After- 
wards the term came to signify the system 
generally, and so became synonymous with 
neutna, under which head information as to 

mediaeval notation will be found. [Neuma.] 
[Old systems of notation.~\ 

4. In plain song, the term accent, or accen- 
tus ecclesiasticns, was used to designate that 
system of movement of the voice, by learning 
the principles of which {modus legendi chor- 
aliter), a chanter could read collects, epistles, 
gospels, &c., from an un-noted book. Hence, 
it resolved itself into a series of rules relating 
to the inflexions or intonations of the voice on 
reaching a comma, semicolon, colon, full stop, 
and also a note of interrogation. But perfect 
uniformity is not to be found in these regula- 
tions regarding the puncta. According to 
its position in the sentence, or the interval 
covered by the movement of the voice, accent 
was said to be (i) immutabilis, (2) medius, 
(3) gravis, (4) acutus, (5) moderatus, (6) in- 
terrogativus, (7) finalis. The following are 
examples of these different species : 


Lec-ti - o E - pi-sto-lae Sane - ti Pau - li 



o - pe - ra - tur vir - tu - tes 

vo - bis : 

Be - ne - fi- cen- tur in Te om-nes gen -tes. 



Cum Spi - ri - tu coe - pe - ri - tis nunc, 

cum fi - de - li, ex o - pe - ri - bus le - gis, 





di - tu fi - de - i ? 


m - ma me 

ad Te De - us 

But according to some authors, the epistle 
should be on monotone, except at a point of 
interrogation, e.g.: 


Lee - ti - o li - bri Sa - pi - en - ti - ae 

Be - a- tus vir qui in-ventus est si - ne ma-cu-la, &c. 

Qiiis est hie et lau-da - bi - mus e - um ? 



But in somf countries, the epistle is chanted 
with the greatest elaboration, the note above 
the reciting note being introduced before the 
full stop, and the whole of an interrogative 
sentence being recited on a note below the 
ut. But as these uses differ not only in 
various places, but according to the Church 
seasons, an exhaustive account is impossible. 

In chanting the gospel, an accentiis medius 
takes place at the fourth syllable from a full 
stop, or thereabouts, and also the accentus 

Se- quen - ti - a Sane - ti Ev- an - ge - li - i 

se - cun-dum Mat - thae - um, &c. In il - lo 

tem-po-re dix-it Si-mon Pe-trus ad Je-sum, &c. 

quid er - go e - rit no - bis ? &c. Et vi - tarn 

e - ter - nam pos - si - de - bit. 

In the chanting of collects, a fall from Ut 
to La, or from Fa to Re takes place at a 
punctnm principale, and from Ut to Si, or 
Fa to Mi once only at a semipunctum. 

The accentus ecclesiasticus of lections and 
prayers must not be confused with those in- 
flexions which tradition assigns to other parts 
of the service, such as confessions, proper 
prefaces, and lections of the Passion ; all 
of which are to be found noted in authorised 
books. It should be remarked that the Belgian 
and French uses often differ much from that 
of the Romans, although uniformity in such 
things is without doubt desirable. 

5. In modern music, accent is the stress 
which recurs at regular intervals of time. By 
the proper grouping of a series of accents, 
rhythm is produced. When music was in- 
dissoluble from poetry, a sign for marking 
accent was not needed, but it is necessary to 
point out in order to avoid confusion, that 
our word accent corresponds more to the 
ancient icttis than to arsis. For although 
the latter represented a raising of the voice, 
it did not necessarily occur on a long syllable, 
whereas it is considered a fault in modern 
music, if a short syllable occurs on an accented 
note. The position of the accent is plainly 
and simply indicated by upright strokes called 
bars [Bar], it being understood that the first 
note inside a bar is without exception accented. 
The measurement of the whole duration of 

the notes between these accents, is recorded 
at the commencement of a movement, and 
constitutes what is called the time-signature. 
In bars containing more than one group of 
notes, as is the case in compound times, other 
accents occur on the first note of each group, 
but they are not so strong as that falling on 
the first note of the first group. The latter 
therefore is called the primary or principal 
accent ; the former secondary or subordinate. 
Besides these normal positions of accents, 
there are others which can be produced at 
any point by the use of a sign => or 5/. An 
accent can also be displaced for a time from 
its usual seat by binding an unaccented chord 
to a like chord at a point of accent, and so 
preventing its repercussion ; or, by both com- 

Beethoven's Sym., No. 








^^^ 7 4 




















■r f r^ 


The throwing of the accent on to an unac- 
cented part of the bar is called syncopation. 
A similar effect can be produced by a process 
the converse of the above, that is by making 
rests fall where an ictus is expected, e.g. : 

Beethoven's Sym. No. 3. 

J I 





«/ sf sf 


This intentional upsetting of our accepted 
notions of the expected position of accent is 
capable of a most remarkable and powerfuJ 
effect. Heard by a musician just two centu» 
ries ago, its effect would probably not have 
been so striking, as he would have supposed 
the writer to have changed from triple to 
duple time, a constant habit in those days. 
Such accents are sometimes called cross, or 

( 5 ) 


Accentuare {It.) To accent. 
Accentuation. The act of accenting, or 
giving to certain notes their due emphasis. 
Accessory stops and movements. 

Stops and movements acting only on the 
mechanism of an organ, not having pipes 
in connection with them, as. Couplers, Tre- 
molo, Signal to the blowers ; Composition 
pedals, &c. 
Acciaccatura [It.) A short appoggiatura,(?,o-.: 


$ . 



lightly yet clearly to be sung, or played. 

Accidentals. Sharps, flats, or naturals, 
introduced into a piece of music, beyond 
those already in the signature. 
A cinque [It). In five parts. 
Accolade {Fr.) A brace, uniting several 
staves, as in pianoforte or organ music, or in 
a score. 

Accommodare (It.) To tune an instru- 
ment in agreement with another. 

Accompagnamento (It.) i [Accompani- 
Accompagnement (Fr.) ) ment.] 
Accompaniment ad libitum. Accom- 
paniment at will. That is, one which can 
be played or omitted without injury to the 
harmonic construction of a composition, c.f. 

Accompaniment obbligato. [Obbligato.] 
Accompaniment. A separate part or 
parts, for voices or instruments, added to 
a solo or concerted piece. Accompaniment 
may consist of a single simple instrument, 
such as a violin or flute, or a single com- 
pound instrument as an organ or pianoforte, a 
combination of selected orchestral instruments, 
or a whole band, or of voices in harmony. 
Accompaniments are those portions of a 
composition which are independent of the 
principal parts, and which are added to sup- 
port, or to produce such effects as would 
be otherwise unattainable. Accompaniment 
should always be subservient to the chief 
part, so as not to overload or obscure it, 
and should be so constructed, that the voice 
or voices or solo instruments should be made 
to appear to the most favourable advantage. 
In the earliest records we possess, it is found 
that some sort of accompaniment was gener- 
ally employed either to assist the voice, or 
mark the time or rhythm of the songs sung : 
of these many examples could be quoted if 
it were necessary. In the Bible, instances are 
mentioned in which singing is accompanied 
by musical instruments ; but of the nature 
of these accompaniments we can form no 
definite idea, beyond the fact that, from a 
comparative knowledge of the instruments 
spoken of, it is presumed that little, if any 

attempt was made to gain independent effects. 
The ancient Greek dance, and the poetry of 
the tragedy, was always accompanied, at first 
with the lyre, afterwards with the flute. 

Donaldson, in his "Theatre of the Greeks," 
says, that the Ancient Dorian Choral song, 
the Poean, was originally accompanied with 
the Harp {(popniy^.) 

According to modern views, an accom- 
paniment implies some construction in har- 
mony, but the ambiguity with which the 
terms melody and harmony are employed 
by the ancient Greek and Latin, as well as 
by the more modern writers, has given rise 
to a doubt as to whether they had any know- 
ledge of the art of combining certain concords 
according to such rules as we now possess. 
The science of harmony is of relatively 
modern growth, and the art of employing 
instruments in combination, as accompani- 
ments to vocal music, is more recent than the 
growth of harmony. 

It has been stated that dancing is of greater 
antiquity than singing, and that singing was 
generally the usual accompanimentto dancing. 
The same root supplying many words refer- 
ring alike to dancing, singing, and playing, 
suggests a common origin for dancing and 
its accompaniment. Most of the words of 
ancient ballads are set to tunes that were 
danced to, and the practice is still observed 
of arranging words to melodies, that were 
originally intended to accompany the dance. 
So that the " new " idea of singing waltzes 
or other dance measures, is but a revival of 
the ancient practice. Nothing seems more 
natural than that those not actually engaged 
in dancing, but as interested spectators, upon 
the recurrence of a musical phrase should 
accompany it with the voice. This would 
form such a burden or chorus as that alluded 
to by Shakespeare : 

" Foot it featly here and there, 
And let the rest the burden bear." 

Some simple instrument would be employed 
to play the tune, either with or without some 
means of marking the time or rhythm ; a 
combination like that of the pipe and tabour, 
would form an adequate accompaniment to 
the dance, as the burden would to the song. 
As most of the mediaeval learning and accom- 
plishments came through the Church, it is 
very reasonable to assume that the methods 
of the Church would be reflected in the prac- 
tices of every-day life. And as it is known 
that the organs employed in the service were 
so constructed as to be adapted only for the 
purposes of melody, it is scarcely probable 
that harmony should have been in use as an 
accompaniment to secular songs and tunes. 
Although instruments were employed as ac- 



companiments to the voice, there is no reason 
for supposing that they were hot at times 
engaged in the performance of purely in- 
strumental pieces, but on the contrary, the 
numerous instances in which musical in- 
struments are mentioned in ancient English 
poetry, show that the performers were not 
only accustomed to accompany singing with 
their several instruments, but they also imply 
that they were able to play independent 
pieces. [Mediaeval musical instruments.] 

In some instances we find that the accom- 
panist was distinct from the singer, for 
example : " In Alwyni episcopi . . . et durante 
pietancia in aula conventus, sex ministralli, 
cum quatuor citharisatoribus, faciebant minis- 
tralcias suas." Regis. Prior: S. Swithini 
Winton (c. 1374). It cannot be ascertained 
whether the harpers did anymore than play the 
same melody to which the poems were recited, 
or by the constant repetition of certain notes 
serve any other purpose but that of main- 
taining the pitch or rhythm. 

The following quotation from David Lynd- 
say's poem, "The Dreme," 1579, implies 
the performance ofa purely instrumental piece: 

" Thay beir ane aid stok-image throu the toun, 
With talbrone, trumpet, shahne, and clarione." 

Whether this combination produced con- 
cord, or unison, it is impossible now to de- 
cide, for, as before stated, the loose manner 
with which the terms melody and harmony are 
employed helps to confuse, rather than to 
make clear all conjecture. For example: 

" And all above there lay a gay sautrie, 
On which he made on nightis melodye." Chaucer. 

Again, in the " Lyfe of Saint Werburge," 
printed by Pynson in 1521, we read: 

" Certayne at each course of service in the Hall 
Trumpettes blewe up, shalmes, and claryouns 
Shewynge theyr melody, with toynes musycall " 

and again in the same poem : 

" A singuler Mynstrell, all other ferre passynge 
Toyned his instrument in pleasaunt armony." 

In the two first quoted examples, that which 
is called melody might well be harmony, and 
in the third, that which is called harmony 
might well be melody. 

In nearly every list of instruments of min- 
strelsy, there are one or two pulsatile instru- 
ments spoken of — " Tymphans, tabours, 
nacaires," whose use was to mark the rhythm, 
sung, played, or danced to ; but where these 
regular instruments were wanting, the clap- 
ping of hands, the beating ofa stick upon a 
shovel, or the clashing of two sticks together, 
or the "ancient natural instruments of our 
islands," as Dr. Burney calls the tongs, 
marrow -bones and cleavers, salt -box and 
rolling-pin, with the hurdy-gurdy, were em- 
ployed as accompaniments to rustic songs 

or dances. These " natural instruments" 
required little skill to use, beyond a correct 
sense of rhythm, though there are instances 
on record where some degree of science was 
brought to bear in their employment. The 
butchers of Clare Market, in the parish of 
St. Clement Danes m London, were at one 
time noted for their aptitude in playing tunes 
with marrow-bones upon cleavers of various 
sizes capable of sounding a scale of notes, in 
a manner somewhat similar to the hand-bell 
ringing in the North of England, but their 
performances were ultimately made independ- 
ent, and therefore could scarcely be considered 
as accompaniments. Addison's description 
ofa Burlesque musician, and his cultivation 
of strange instruments for accompaniment, 
may be read with interest in reference to this 
subject (Spectator, No. 570.) Skelton, in his 
description of Riot, speaks of one, who 

" Counter he coulde, O Lux, upon a potte," 
probably meaning that while he sang the 
melody of the ancient hymn, " O Lux, beata 
Trinitas," he would beat upon the vessel he 
had been drinking out of, a part, in derisive 
imitation of the florid counterpoint sung 
by the monks during service. The poets and 
authors of the middle ages give no lucid in- 
formation concerning the abilities of the 
musicians of their times, probably on the 
presumption, that because the method of 
their performances was well known and 
understood by every one, no particular de- 
scription was needed. All our knowledge on 
the subject is derived from inference, and so 
it is assumed that the minstrels and later 
musicians, previously to the i6th century, 
had little, if any, knowledge of harmony; or 
It they had, they probably left the practice of 
it to the Church. 

There is a further reason for supposing 
that the ancient minstrels accompanied their 
songs by playing the same melody which was 
sung, in the character of the majority of the 
instruments alluded to in old writings : — 

" Harpys, fythales, and eke rotys 
Lutys, ribibles, and geternes, 
Orguys, cytolis, monacordys 
.... trumpes, and trumpettes 
Lowde shaluys, and doncettes." 

The drone of the bagpipe and the funda- 
mental sound of the drum might suggest the 
formation of harmony; the character and con- 
struction of the earliest piece of harmony we 
possess, " Sumer is icumen in" offering 
curious confirmation of this notion. 

All writers are agreed as to this being the 
oldest song with musical notes extant. War- 
ton believed it to belong to the 15th century, 
but Sir Frederick Madden showed it to be at 
least two hundred years older; and judging 
by the character in which it is written, and 



other evidence, fixed its date at about the year 
1250. It is among the Harleian MSS. in the 
British Museum. The piece is arranged as a 
continuous melody ; but by commencing that 
melody at certain indicated places, it forms a 
canon in the unison in four parts, with a "pes," 
a foot, or burden for two other parts. 

The first attempts at accompaniment in har- 
mony were arranged for the voice, in a manner 
that to our ears would be simply barbarous [Dia- 
phony], [Descant], [Fa burden]. It was only 
by slow degrees that it was discovered that 
certain instruments were capable of producing 
complicated sounds forming harmony, and 
were therefore especially valuable for accom- 
paniment. The chief among these instruments 
was the Lute, which appears to have been a 
favourite instrument in Chaucer's time, and to 
have continued in favourin one form or another, 
until the virginals and spinets, being of more 
convenient form and less trouble to keep in or- 
der, completely superseded it. [Tablature.] 

The opportunity the virginals and spinets 
gave for the employment of both hands, 
tended considerably towards the improvement 
of accompaniments, as well as developing 
the power of execution for solo purposes. 
" Consorts of viols " were at first used only 
" for Cantilenas and tunes for dancing," 
though compositions were occasionally so 
arranged as " to be apt for viols or voyces," 
and when instruments were employed with 
voices they generally played the same notes 
as the voices, a practice observed until the 
time of Handel. No doubt an organist ac- 
companying some of the services and anthems 
in Church, occasionally indulged in a little 
license in the matter of fingering, and intro- 
duced flourishes and cadences according to 

were singing the plain 
copy of a portion of 
F [1583- 1624] found 
in Magdalen College, 
Oxford, in which such variations are written 
down, is still preserved. Although the MS. 
belongs to the middle of the 17th century, 
there is no doubt but that it records a con- 
tinuation of a custom of long standing. The 
character of this accompaniment may be seen 
by the following quotation : 


j^jg^i p 

i-j ■ • =j- 


' &c. 





fancy, while the choir 
vocal harmonies. A 
Gibbons's service in 
the old music 







the low - li - ness of His 












= ^ . j- 






hand - maid - en. 











rrrrrrr i [^' 









W- I iV ■^'^ 


A comparison of the vocal with the organ 
score, here shows that the ornaments intro- 
duced are such as involve little, if any depar- 
ture from the rules of harmony, while they 
impart a distinct character to the accompani- 
ment, such a character as most of the spinet 
or harpsichord music of the period possessed. 
The peculiarity of all old key-board stringed 
instruments, their feebleness of tone and 
their lack of sustaining power, probably sug- 
gested to the skilful player the necessity of 
breaking up the accompaniments to vocal 
music, ornaments and graces being considered 
perfectly legitimate so long as they did not 
interfere with the essential notes of the har- 
mony as represented by the figured bass. 
But as in many cases it was doubtless deemed 
unwise to attempt display in the accompani- 
ments during the singing, therefore all exhi- 
bition of skill on the part of the accompanist 
was reserved for the ritornelli, with which 
songs of the 17th century abound. 

It was Monteverde[i568-i643]who, among 
other of his art-benefiting inventions, con- 
P rCr r r,^ 7 t ceived the idea of constructing independent 
' ^ay r r^ i accompaniments for instruments, breaking 


^- p- '^~ P 


My soul doth mag - ni 

I ' 'J 




up long notes into effective repetitions, and 
so imparting novel rhythms and striking in- 
strumental figures. From his conception 
arose the Italian school of accompaniment — 
a school which influenced all musical teaching 
for more than a hundred years, and only de- 
cayed with the growth of a distinct style of 
mstrumentation, the result of Italian ideas 
implanted in the German mind, after which 
the Symphony and Sonata, retaining names 
derived from their connection with vocal 
music, became independent and distinct, and 
accompaniment once more was lifeless and 
uninteresting, a mere adventitious aid. In- 
difference with regard to the part accompani- 
ment should play, marked most of the 
music produced for a long period, but the 
power of the genius of Mendelssohn aroused 
new thoughts and new deeds, and care as 
great as that involved in the production of a 
vocal piece was employed in accompaniments, 
with true artistic effect. The followers of 
Wagner, in imitation of him, are striving 
to impart a new form to accompaniment, 
by giving to every instrument employed, 
a certain amount of independent work to 
do — a practice at once laudable and in- 
genious, but neither novel nor needful. It 
is laudable, for the reason that it is as well to 
interest the performer; it is ingenious, as no 
common amount of thought is involved in its 
production; it is not novel, for it was the 
practice of the Italian writers, and it is not 
needful, as accompaniment should always be 
subservient to the thing accompanied. 

Purcell was among the first of the musicians 
in England who attempted to give colour to the 
accompaniments in the scores of his operas, 
but only occasionally introduced variety in the 
organ parts of his Anthems. The works of 
the musicians of the latter portion of the 17th 
and the commencement of the i8th centuries, 
show a desire to depart from the habitual rule, 
by giving independent melodies to the accom- 
panying parts, specimens of which may be 
traced in Blow's Amphion, and contemporary 
works. The scores of J. S. Bach's "Passions" 
and other of his compositions, contain some 
excellent specimens of free instrumental parts 
in the accompaniments, and many of Handel's 
obbligati foreshadow the true use of orchestral 
colouring, a shadow to which substance was 
given by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 

The influence of conventionality may be 
observed in accompaniments from the earliest 
period to the present day. Because it was 
the practice in olden time to accompany 
recitative upon the " cembalo," composers 
rarely thought of setting down more than a 
figured bass to these parts of their scores, 
excepting when the recitative took something 
of the form of the " soliloquas ;" and because 

the " maestro di cembalo" became an obso- 
lete office in the orchestra, as soon as 
conductors considered it to be undignified 
to do other than direct with the baton, it 
was necessary that some mode of accom- 
panying recitative should be devised, and 
the figured bass was interpreted by a violon- 
cello and double bass. Trumpets and drums 
were generally employed together, as much 
for rhythmical, as for any other purpose ; 
and many other instances of the thoughtless 
practice of taking things for granted, and 
doing that which was held to be correct, 
because it was the custom, are to be found 
in well-known works of the lesser lights in 
music, the great thinkers constantly de- 
spising ordinary forms, and inventing new 
ones, which in their turn became models 
for imitation, and therefore standards of con- 

The bagpipe, fiddle, lute, cittern, virginals, 
spinett, harpsichord, pianoforte, harp, and guitar 
have each had their turns of favour and appre- 
ciation at several times. 

The use of the guitar for an accompani- 
ment became exceedingly popular during 
the latter part of the last century, to the in- 
jury of the makers of pianofortes, until Kirk- 
man gave away a number of cheap guitars to 
milliners' apprentice girls, and so made the 
instrument unfashionable. The portability of 
both harp and guitar rendered them useful 
for the purposes of accompaniment, more 
especially at a time when the pianoforte was 
less frequently found in dwelling-houses 
than it is now; but improved mechanism and 
tone, together with smallness of cost, have 
made the pianoforte the most available ac- 
companying instrument in private as well as 
in public ; and the fact that one is to be found 
in nearly every house has contributed greatly 
towards the neglect of more portable means 
of accompanying songs and other household 

Accompanist. The player who accom- 
panies. The qualities necessary to form a 
good accompanist are, (i) that he possess a 
knowledge of reading music at sight, and of 
harmony; (2) that he should be acquainted 
with the style of the music performed ; (3) 
that he should know the characteristics of 
those performers whom he is called upon to 
accompany; (4) that while playing with firm- 
ness and decision, he shouldnotattempttolead. 

Accoppiato(/^.) Joined or connected. 

Accord (Fr.) (i) The series of notes to 
which an instrument is tuned, e.g., Accord 
du Violon, .j) * — 

hence, Accord a Vouvert, open strings, q.v. 

(2) A chord. Concord, hence, d'accord, ir 

( 9 ) 


Agreement in tune. 

Accord de sixte Ajoutee (Fr.) The 
chord of the Added Sixth. [Added Sixth.] 

Accordamento (It.) 

Accordanza (It.) 

Accordando (It.) Tuning. 

Accordare (It.) To tune. 

Accordato (It.) Tuned. 

Accordatura (It.) [Accord.] 

Accorder (Fr.) To tune an instrument. 

Accordeur (Fr.) A tuner. 

Accordion. A simple musical instru- 
ment, of oblong form, invented by Damian, 
of Vienna, in 1829. The tone is produced 
by the inspiration and respiration of a pair 
of bellows acting upon metallic reeds or 
tongues. [Free reed.] 

The first instruments had only four buttons, 
or keys, each of which acted on two reeds, 
making the compass one octave of diatonic 
scale, but with a separate arrangement, by 
which these notes might be accompanied with 
a tonic and dominant harmony. At first it 
was used only as a toy, but the introduction 
of a chromatic scale made the Accordion more 
capable of producing a varied melody and 
harmony, although the awkwardness of the 
form was always a hindrance to its use. The 
German Accordion or Concertina (q.v.) of 
hexagonal form made the principle of the 
accordion more acceptable. The English 
concertina (g.z;.)and the harmonium (9. i^.) are 
superior instruments constructed upon similar 

Accordo (It.) Concord, agreement, har- 

Accordoir (Fr.) A tuning key or hammer. 

Accresciuto (It.) Increased. Augmented 
as applied to intervals. 

Acetabulum. An ancient instrument, 
originally made of earthenware, afterwards 
of metal, which, when struck with a rod, 
produced a sweet sound. [See an allusion 
to it in Boet. de Inst. Mus., Lib. i. cap. xi.] 

Achromatic. Not chromatic. 

Achtelnote (Ger.) A quaver J^ The 
eighth part of a semibreve. 

Achtelpause (Ger.) A quaver rest 1 

A chula (Port.) A dance similar to the 
Fandango, q.v. 

Acoustics. The science which treats of 
the nature and laws of sound. 

2. The sensation of sound consists in the 
communication of a vibratory motion to the 
tympanic membrane of the ear, through slight 
and rapid changes in the pressure of the air 
on its outer surface. 

3. The mode of propagation of sound in 
air may be explained in the following manner. 
Suppose a small particle of fulminating silver 
to be exploded in free air ; the air particles 
immediately contiguous are driven outwards 
in all directions by the explosion, their motion 


is almost instantaneously communicated to 
the adjacent ones, those first agitated coming 
at the same time to rest; the adjacent ones 
pass on the impulse in the same way to those 
at a greater distance, and so on ; thus the 
explosion gives rise to what may be looked 
on as a rapidly expanding shell of constant 
thickness, containing at any instant between M 
its exterior and interior surfaces a stratum of 
agitated air particles each one of which per- 
forms a single vibration to and fro during the 
passage of the shell over it ; in other words 
the exterior and interior surfaces of the shell 
are at any time the loci of all those points at 
which the particles at that instant come under 
the influence of the impulse, and are left at 
rest by it respectively, so that its thickness 
depends both on the rapidity of their vibration 
and the rate at which they pass on the 
impulse, one to another.* Let us suppose 
now that immediately after the first explo- 
sion a second were to take place ; then, in 
exactly the same way there would be a 
second pulse propagated in all directions. 
If a series of explosions at regular intervals 
were to take place, there would be a regular 
series of these expanding shells ; and if the 
intervals were sufficiently small, the alternate 
changes of pressure, due to the successive 
collisions of the air particles against the tym- 
panic membrane of an ear in the neighbour- 
hood of the explosions would convey to the 
brain a sensation of a continuous note. Ex- 
actly the same thing occurs if, for a series of 
explosions, are substituted the vibrations of 
an elastic body ; and it is, in general, by the 
latter means that all sounds, and especially 
musical ones, are produced. The motion of 
a sound wave must not be confounded with 
the motion of the particles which transmit 
the wave. In the passage of a single wave ' 
each particle over which it passes makes 
only a small excursion to and fro, the semi- 
length of which is called the amplitude of 
the vibration, the time occupied during one 
vibration being called its period. 

4. The intensity of a sound is proportional 
to the square of the maximum velocity of the 
vibrating particles. It also approximately 
varies inversely as the square of the distance 
from the origin of the sound ; for, supposing 
the latter to be produced at a uniform loudness, 
the same amount of energy has to be com- 
municated to the particles contained within 
the external and internal surfaces of shells of 
the same thickness but of different radii. For 

* The word vibration must be taken in its full sense, 
viz. : as meaning the whole motion of the particle dur- 
ing the time that elapses from the instant it sets off 
from its original position to the instant when it next 
regains that position, and is ready to start again over 
the same path. 

( 10 ) 


example, if we take a shell of air whose in- 
ternal radius is one foot, one of the same thick- 
ness whose radius is two feet will contain 
four times the quantity of matter ; one whose 
radius is three feet, nine times the quantity, 
and so on. Thus the amount of matter 
over which a given quantity of energy has 
to be distributed augments as the square 
of the distance from the origin of sound, and 
therefore the amount of energy, or, what 
comes to the same thing, the intensity of 
the sound, diminishes in the same ratio. 

5. At a temperature of zero Centigrade 
sound is propagated at the rate of about 
1090 feet per second, and this speed aug- 
ments about two feet per second for every 
additional degree of temperature ; thus at 
15^ C, the rate of propagation would be 
about 1 120 feet per second. The velocity 
of sound in air depends on the elasticity 
of the air in relation to its density. It is 
also directly proportional to the square root 
of the elasticity, and inversely proportional 
to the square root of the density. Now 
for a constant temperature the elasticity 
varies as the density, hence in this case 
they neutralise one another, and the velocity 
of the sound is independent of the density 
of the air. 

6. One sound differs from another not only 
in quantity, but also in quality and pitch. * 
The pitch of a sound depends on the num- 
ber of vibrations per second by which it 
is caused : the greater this number is the 
higher is the sound, and vice versa; thus 
pitch is a more or less relative term, and it is 
therefore necessary to have some standard to 
which different sounds may be referred. This 
standard is so chosen that the middle C of the 
pianoforte shall be produced by 264 vibrations 
per second .+ 

7. Knowing the velocity of sound in air 
we can estimate the different wave lengths 
corresponding to notes of different pitch in 
the following manner. The wave length is 
the distance through which the sound tra- 
vels while any particle over which it passes 
describes a complete vibration; hence, if 
we know the number of vibrations the par- 
ticle performs per second, the required wave 
length will be found by dividing the number 
of feet over which the sound travels per 
second, by that number. Now, by means 
of an instrument invented by Cagniard de 
la Tour, and by him named the syren, the 
number of vibrations corresponding to a note 

* For the cause of the different qualities of sound 
see § 16. 

t That is, according to German pitch ; at present 
there is no definitely fixed standard in general use in 

of any given pitch can be determined very 
exactly. For a detailed account of this 
instrument and of its improvements by Helm- 
holtz, the reader is referred to Tyndall's 
Lectures on Sound, p. 64 ; but to describe 
it shortly it may be said in its original form 
to consist of two equal discs, one forming the 
top of a hollow fixed cylinder into which air 
can be driven, the other capable of revolving 
concentrically upon it with the smallest pos- 
sible amount of friction. A circle of small 
holes equidistant from each other is bored upon 
each disc and concentric with it ; those in 
the upper disc being inclined slantwise to its 
plane, those in the lower being slantwise 
also but in the opposite direction ; there are 
also arrangements both for driving a constant 
supply of air into the hollow cylinder, and for 
registering the number of revolutions the 
upper disc performs in a minute ; thus, when 
the upper disc is so turned that its holes co- 
incide with those of the lower, and air is forced 
into the cylinder, it will pass out through the 
perforations, and by reason of their obliquity 
will cause the moveable disc to revolve with 
a rapidity corresponding to the pressure ; and 
each time that the holes of the former coincide 
with those of the latter a number of little puffs 
of air get through simultaneously, giving rise 
to an agitation in the surrounding atmosphere 
which spreads round in all directions in the 
way before described, and if the pressure of 
the air in the cylinder is sufficient, the series 
of impulses thus given will link themselves 
together, forming a continuous note.J 

Hence, to determine the number of vibra- 
tions per second, corresponding to a sound 
of given pitch, we have only to maintain 
such a pressure of air in the syren as will 
cause it to produce the same sound for the 
space of a minute, and note the number 
of revolutions registered in that time. Now, 
for every revolution of the upper disc, the 
same number of sound waves are propagated 
around as there are perforations, hence the 
whole number propagated in a second will 
be the product of the number of holes and 
number of revolutions per minute divided by 
60 ; and this result will evidently be the 
required number of vibrations per second 
caused by the given sound. 

To apply this to find the wave length cor- 
responding to the note given by the open C 
string of the violoncello, we should adjust the 

X It should be remarked that the pitch of the sound 
would be exactly the same if there were only one per- 
foration in the revolving disc, the number of holes 
merely serving to increase its intensity ; if the number 
of holes in the revolving disc is less than the number in 
the lower one, those of the former must be situated so 
as all to coincide simultaneously with an equal number 
of the latter. 

( II ) 


supply of air to the syren till it gives a note 
of the same pitch. Supposing the number 
of holes in each disc to be i8, the number of 
revolutions per minute would be found to be 
220. Hence the number of vibrations per 
second of the string, and therefore of the sur- 
rounding particles of air, would be --^^ '° =66. 
Supposing the temperature were i6° C the 
velocity of sound would be about 1122 feet 
per second, and the quotient obtained by 
dividing this number by 66 gives the wave 
length corresponding to that number of vi- 
brations per second; that is, just 17 feet ; the 
sound then will travel through this distance 
during the time the string takes to perform 
one complete vibration. 

8. If the number of vibrations per second 
be increased, the pitch of the sound caused 
by them is raised, and vice versa, as can easily 
be illustrated by driving more or less air into 
the syren, and observing the sound it pro- 
duces. Dr. Wollaston has shown (Phil. Trans. 
1820, p. 336) that if the number be increased, 
beyond a certain limit the sound becomes 
inaudible, although this limit is not the same 
for all ears, some persons being perfectly 
sensible of sounds inaudible to others. In 
general it is probable that no sound is heard 
when the number of vibrations per second 
exceeds 40,000 ; while on the other hand the 
perception of pitch appears to begin when 
the number of vibrations is somewhere be- 
tween 8 and 32, the wave length being in 
the former case about 0-03 of an inch — in 
the latter ranging from 140 feet to 35 feet. 

9. Sounds are primarily divided into two 
classes, musical and unmusical ; the former 
being defined as those produced by regular 
or periodic vibrations, the latter by such as 
are irregular or non-periodic. These defini- 
tions require some explanation, since, by 
sounding together a sufficient number of notes 
sufficiently near in pitch, it is plain that we 
could produce as unmusical a sound as we 
pleased, although the components would be 
themselves due to periodic vibrations, and 
would be therefore musical. The answer to 
this is found in the fact that when two or 
more sets of sound waves impinge on the 
ear at the same instant, since each one cannot 
impress its own particular vibration on the 
tympanum contemporaneously with those of 
the others, the motion of the latter membrane 
must be in some way the sjan of all the 
different motions which the different sets of 
waves would have separately caused it to 
follow ; and this is what in fact does happen, 
i.e., the vibrations due to each set combine and 
throw the tympanum into a complicated state 
of vibration, causing the sensation of the conso- 
nance or combination of the different sounds 
from which the sets of sound waves proceed. 

Now the unassisted ear is only able to dis- 
tinguish the separate notes out of a number 
sounded at once up to a certain point; beyond 
this it fails to distinguish them individually, 
and is conscious only of a confused mixture 
of sounds which approaches the more nearly 
to the character of noise the more components 
there are, or the nearer they lie to one another. 
A noise, then, may be defined as a sound so 
complicated that the ear is unable to resolve 
or analyse it into its original constituents. 

10. As the character of a sound depends 
upon that of the vibrations by which it is 
caused, it is important to know of what kind 
the latter must be in order that they may give 
the sensation of a perfectly simple tone, i.e., 
one which the ear cannot resolve into any 
others. Such a vibration is perhaps best 
realised by comparison with that of the pen- 
dulum of a clock when it is swinging only a 
little to and fro. Under these circumstances 
it is performing what are called harmonic vi- 
brations, and when the air particles in the 
neighbourhood of the ear are caused by any 
means to vibrate according to the same law 
as that which the pendulum follows, and also 
with sufficient rapidity, a perfectly simple 
tone is the result. Such a tone is, however, 
rarely heard except when produced by means 
specially contrived for the purpose. If a note 
on the pianoforte is struck, the impact of the 
hammer on the string throws it into a state 
of vibration which, " though periodic, is not 
really harmonic; consequently we do not hear 
a perfectly simple tone, but one which is in 
reality a mixture of several higher simple 
tones with that one which corresponds to the 
actual length of the string. The former are, 
however, generally faint, and become associated 
by habit with the latter, appearing to form 
with it a single note of determinate pitch. 
These higher tones are the hanno7iics of the 
string, and are produced by vibrations whose 
numbers per second are respectively twice, 
three times, four times, &c., as great as those 
of the fundamental tone of the string (§ 13). 
The same may be said of the notes of all 
instruments, including the human voice, which 
are usually employed for the production of 
musical sounds. 

11. Since the consonance of two or more 
such simple tones always gives a more or 
less musical sound, and since also the ear 
is always more or less capable of resolving 
the latter into its components, the question 
naturally arises whether all sounds are not, 
theoretically at least, resolvable into simple 
tones. The answer to this is contained in a 
celebrated theorem due to the French mathe- 
matician Fourier. He has shown that any 
periodic vibration is the result of combining 
together a certain number of simple harmonic 

( 12 ) 


vibrations whose periods are aliquot parts of 
that of the former ; and we have conclusive 
reasons for supposing that, in the same way 
as a compound periodic vibration gives rise 
to a compound sound (§ 9), so the simple tones 
into which the ear resolves the latter are re- 
spectively due to the simple harmonic vibra- 
tions which, as the above mentioned theorem 
proves, make up the former.* 

12. The theorem of Fourier referred to in 
the preceding article is of such great impor- 
tance in all questions connected with acoustics 
that a few words illustrative of it may not be 
out of place. f 

If a peg is fixed into the rim of a wheel 
capable of revolving about a fixed centre, and 
at right angles to the plane of the wheel, and 
if the latter is caused to rotate uniformly and 
is looked at edgeways the peg will appear to 
move up and down in a straight line, its velo- 
city being the greatest at the middle of its 
course, and diminishing as it approaches each 
end. Under these circumstances the peg 
appears to perform harmonic vibrations. 

Now suppose a second wheel, also fur- 
nished with a peg in its rim, is made to 
revolve about the peg of the first as an axis. 
If the latter is at rest the peg of the second 
will appear, looked at as above, to perform 
harmonic vibrations ; but if the former is also 
caused to revolve these vibrations are no 
longer harmonic, but are the result of adding 
together the separate harmonic vibrations of 
the two pegs, in other words of superposing 
the harmonic vibrations which the second peg 
performs if the first wheel is at rest, upon 
those which the first peg performs when it is 
itself in motion. Now it is evident that by con- 
tinuing this process indefinitely, and by giving 
the wheels different radii, and different uniform 
velocities of rotation, the final motion of the 
last peg looked at sideways as before, would 
be an exceedingly complicated one, and that 
an infinite number of different vibrations could 
be produced by varying the number, position 
at starting, radii, and velocities of the wheels, 
thou"gh it could not be assumed without proof 
that every possible variety could be so pro- 
duced. This however is what Fourier's 
theorem asserts, provided that the velocities 
of rotation of the several wheels of the series 

* A periodic vibration is any movement which recurs 
after equal intervals or periods of time, such as that of 
a uniformly working puncliing machine, or of the ham- 
mer of a clock bell when it is striking, and so on. It 
should be observed that though all harmonic vibrations 
are periodic, it is by no means the case that all periodic 
vibrations are harmonic. See foot note to § 3. 

f For a complete discussion and demonstration of 
the theorem, the reader is referred to the work on 
Acoustics by the late Professor Donkin, published in 
the Clarendon Press series. 

are in the proportion of i, 2, 3, 4, &c. \ In 
other words, every periodic vibration is the re- 
sultant of a certain number of harmonic vibra- 
tions whose periods are one-half, one-third, 
one-fourth, &c., &c., that of the former. 

13. A harmonic scale is lormed by taking a 
series of notes produced by vibrations whose 
numbers in a given time are respectively as 
I, 2, 3, 4, &c. 

If we take as fundamental tone the open C 
string of the violoncello, the series of tones 
which with it form a harmonic scale will be 
as follows : — 






The notes marked with an asterisk do not 
exactly represent the corresponding tones ; but 
are the nearest representatives which the 
modern notation supplies. All the notes of the 
harmonic scale can theoretically be produced 
by either a single string, or by a simple tube 
used as a trumpet. If we lightly touch the 
string of a violin, without causing it to come 
in contact with the finger board, at any one of 
a series of points dividing it into a number of 
equal parts, and excite it by means of a bow, 
it no longer vibrates as a whole, but separates 
into the number of equal vibrating segments 
which is the least possible consistent with 
that point forming one of their points of di- 
vision ; the latter remain stationary, or very 
nearly so, and are called nodes, their number 
being evidently just one less than that of the 
segments. It is plain that if the point of ap- 
plication of the bow be one of a series of 
nodes, no sound will be produced, provided, 
of course, the finger remains on any other oi 
the same series, and this may serve to ex- 
plain why it is sometimes difficult to bring 
out the higher harmonics of a violin, as the 
bow may, unconsciously to the performer, 
be passing exactly over one of the corres- 
ponding nodes. The first harmonic, as it is 
called, of the open string is produced by 
touching it while in a state of vibration at its 
middle point, and thereby dividing it into two 
equal portions, both of which vibrate twice as 
fast as the whole, and accordingly give the 
octave. The second harmonic, or the twelfth 
of the fundamental, corresponds to a division 
of the string into three equal portions, and so 
on. And generally, in order to produce the 
«th harmonic the finger should touch the 
string at any one of the series of points 
which divide it into 11 equal portions. § In 

% The order in which the wheels are arranged with 
respect to their velocities is quite arbitrary. 

§ That is supposing 11 to be a prime number [i.e. 
having no divisors). If such is not the case, it is plain 
that some points of the series v. hen touched would give 
harmonics of lower pitch. 

( 13 ) 


practice, however, the finger should always 
touch the string at the point of division adja- 
cent to either end. 

14. The harmonics of a simple tube used as 
a trumpet are the same as those of a vibrating 
string, viz., the octave, twelfth, fifteenth, &c., 
and are produced by modifications of the breath 
and lips ; but there is a great difference be- 
tween the nature of the vibrations which 
produce sound, in the case of strings and 
pipes. In the former case the vibrations are 
executed at right angles to the length of the 
string, that is, are lateral, while in the latter 
they are in the direction of the pipe, or longi- 
Uidinal, and are the vibrations of the air itself 
within it. 

15. When an open organ pipe is sounding 
its fundamental tone, the particles of the 
column of air within it are all, more or less, 
in a state of vibration parallel to the length 
of the pipe, of which the intensity is at its 
maximum at the two ends, growing less and 
less towards the middle, where there is a 
node, that is, a point of no disturbance. The 
harmonics of an open pipe follow the same 
law as those of a simple trumpet, or vibrating 

The fundamental note of a stopped organ 
pipe is an octave below the fundamental note 
of an open one of the same length. When it 
is sounding this note there is no node, and 
the first harmonic is a fifth above the octave, 
the second a major sixth above the first, the 
third a diminished fifth above the second, and 
so on. Or, more simply, the successive tones 
of the harmonic scale of an open pipe are 
produced by vibrations which are as i, 2, 3, 4, 
&c., those of a stopped pipe by vibrations 
which are as i, 3, 5, 7, &c. 

16. It was stated (§ 10) that the sound of a 
vibrating string was in general compounded 
of a number of simple tones, and a well 
trained ear can detect a considerable number 
of them. If it were not for these harmonic 
components the tones of strings, pipes, of 
the human voice, or in short, of every instru- 
ment most generally used for the production 
of sound, would be flat and uninteresting 
like pure water. Each harmonic compo- 
nent is by itself a simple tone, and is due 
to the vibration of the corresponding seg- 
ment of the string superposed upon that 
of the whole. The same statement applies, 
mutatis tnutandis to pipes, whether open 
or stopped. That the harmonics of different 
instruments greatly influence their several 
characters is observable in the difference of 
the tones of a flute, and clarinet. A flute 
is an open pipe, a clarinet a stopped one ; 
in the former, therefore, the harmonics follow 
the order of the natural numbers i, 2, 3, 4, 
and in the latter the order i, 3, 5, 7 ; — the 

intermediate notes being supplied by opening 
the lateral orifices of the instrument. 

17. When two simple tones, that is (as ex- 
plained above), notes deprived of all the har- 
monic components which under ordinary 
circumstances accompany them, are sounded 
together very nearly in unison, there are heard 
what are called heats succeeding one another 
at regular intervals, their rapidity depend- 
ing inversely on the smallness of the interval 
between the two tones. Their origin may 
be explained thus : Suppose the tones to be 
produced by vibrations numbering 500 and 
501 per second respectively, then every 
500th sound wave of the former will strike on 
the tympanum at exactly the same instant as 
every 501st of the latter and will reinforce it; 
while at the 250th of the first the correspond- 
ing wave of the other will be just half a period 
in front of it. Now a sound wave consists 
of a condensed and rarefied stratum of air par- 
ticles, and therefore the condensed portion of 
one wave here coincides with the rarefied por- 
tion of the other and neutralises it. Thus there 
will be an alternate reinforcement and dimi- 
nution of sound, every second, from the maxi- 
mum intensity when both waves impinge on 
the tympanum at the same instant to the 
minimum when they counteract each other 
as much as possible and vice versa. 

In the above case it was supposed that the 
number of vibrations of one tone were only 
one more per second than those of the other; 
but if the difference of the numbers had been 
two, for instance, then in one second the first 
tone would have gained two vibrations on the 
other, and there would have been two beats ; 
and in general the number of beats per second 
is always equal to the difference between the 
two rates of vibrations per second. 

18. In the preceding section, the cause of 
beats due to two simple tones of nearly the 
same pitch was explained, and it was seen 
that the number of beats per second was 
always equal to the difference of the numbers 
of vibrations per second of each tone ; so 
that as the interval between them increased so 
would the number of beats increase in a given 
time. Hence it is obvious that if the interval 
became sufficiently large, the beats would suc- 
ceed each other so rapidly as to become un- 
distinguished. For instance, in the case of the 
fifth whose lower and upper tones are pro- 
duced by vibrations numbering 264 and 396 
per second respectively, the number of beats 
per second would be 132 and would therefore 
be undistinguishable — and still more so sup- 
posing the upper tone to have 397 or more 
vibrations per second; but, on the other hand 
it is a well-known fact, that if an imperfect 
fifth, octave, or any other tolerably simple 
interval is played on a violin or violoncello, 

( i^) 


the beats are most distinctly heard succeeding 
each other at perceptible intervals — whereas 
according to what was said above they should 
occur so rapidly as not to be heard at all. 
Two explanations of this phenomenon have 
been given, of which by far the most simple 
is due to Helmholtz — and which here follows. 
It appears that when the tones are simple 
and at a sufficiently large interval the beats 
should occur too rapidly to be heard, whereas 
when the interval is played on a violin they 
are easily distinguishable. The reason of 
this fact is that in the latter case the tones 
are no longer simple but compound — and 
the beats which are heard are not due to 
the fundamental tones themselves but arise 
from two of their harmonic components 
which are nearly in unison. Suppose the 
ratio of the interval between the fundamental 

tones to be — , that is, let — be the fraction, re- 
re n 

duced to its lowest terms, which is formed by 
putting in the numerator the number of vibra- 
tions per second of the upper tone, and in the 
denominator those of the lower. Then it is 
plain that the n^^ harmonic component of the 
tone 771, will be of the same pitch as the w'*^ 
harmonic component of the tone « ; for they 
will each have exactly wn vibrations per 

second. Now let -^ be the ratio, expressed m 

the same way, of another interval, nearly, but 

not quite, equal to — ; then the 11^^ harmonic 

component of M will have Mn vibrations per 
second,while the m^^ component of N will have 

Nt7i. Now since jr is nearly equal to — , the 

difference between Mn and N77t will be a 
small number; and when the two notes are 
sounded together the number of beats per 
second will be equal to that difference. 

For example, let — be the ratio of a fifth, 

that is the fraction f , and let -rj represent very 

nearly the same interval, say |-||^; then the dif- 
ference between Mn and N7n, or 794 and 792, 
is 2; hence if two strings tuned apart at an inter- 
val represented by ffl^ are sounded simultane- 
ously there will be two beats heard per second. 
19. When the vibrations of the air due to 
a number of different sounds which co-exist 
at the same time are infinitely small, they are 
merely superposed one on another, so that 
each separate sound passes through the air 
as if it alone were present ; and this law of 
superposition holds, though only approxi- 
mately, until the vibrations have increased 
up to a certain limit, beyond which it is no 
longer true. Vibrations which give rise to a 
large amount of disturbance produce secon- 

dary waves ; and it is to these that the phe- 
nomena of resultant tones are due. 

Thus if two notes a fifth apart, for in- 
stance, are forcibly sounded together, a third 
tone is heard an octave below the lower of 
the two, and this ceases to be perceptible when 
the loudness of the concord diminishes. In 
general the resultant tone of any combination 
of two notes is produced by a number of vi- 
brations per second equal to the difference of 
the numbers per second of the notes. This 
fact formerly led to the supposition that the 
resultant tone was produced by the beats due 
to the consonance, which, when they occurred 
with sufficient rapidity, linked themselves to- 
gether so as to form a continuous musical 
note. If this were so it is clear that the re- 
sultant ought to be heard when the original 
notes are sounded gently as well as forcibly ; 
and it was the failure of this condition that 
led Helmholtz to the re-investigation of 
their origin. These resultant tones have been 
named by him difference tones; he has also 
discovered the existence of resultant tones 
formed by the sum of the numbers of vibra- 
tions of the primaries. These su77i77iation 
to7ies as they are called cannot be explained 
on the old theory. 

20. The theory of beats explains the law that 
the smaller the two numbers are, which express 
the ratio of their vibrations, the smoother 
is the combination of any two tones. When 
two simple tones are sounded together whose 
rates of vibration per second differ by more 
than 132, the beats, according to Helm- 
holtz, totally disappear. As the difference 
grows less the beats become more and more 
audible, the interval meanwhile growing pro- 
portionately dissonant, till they number 33 
per second, at which point the dissonance 
of the interval is at its maximum. 

This, however, depends upon the position 
of the interval as regards its pitch. For it 
should be remembered that though the ratio 
of any given interval remains the same what- 
ever the absolute pitch of its tones may be, 
yet the difference of the actual numbers of 
their vibrations, and therefore the number of 
beats due to their consonance, alters with it. 
And vice versa, if the difference of the number 
of vibrations remains constant, the interval 
must diminish as its pitch rises. For in- 
stance, either of the following combinations 




would give rise to 33 beats per second, since 
the numbers of vibrations of their tones 
per second, are 99-66, and 528-495, respec- 
tively. Now it is obvious that in the latter 
case the dissonance would be far greater than 
in the former. 

( 15) 


The above explanation of the cause of dis- 
sonance is also due to Helmholtz, and com- 
pletely solves a question which had remained 
unanswered since the time of Pythagoras, al- 
though that philosopher made the important 
discovery that the simpler the ratio of the two 
parts into which a vibrating string was divided, 
the more perfect was the consonance of the 
two sounds. 

21. The sound of the piano, violin, &c., 
is only in a small measure due to the actual 
vibration of the strings themselves. The 
latter communicate their own motion to the 
sound board of the piano, and to the front, 
back, and encloaed air of the violin. In the 
latter instrument communication is made to 
the surrounding air from that within it by 
means of the / holes. 

If a string were merely stretched between 
two pegs firmly fixed in a stone wall and 
caused to vibrate, scarcely any sound would 
be heard at all, owing to the mass and rigidity 
of the wall, which would refuse to be thrown 
into vibration by so small an amount of energy 
as that which the string would possess. On 
the other hand, the sound board of a piano 
readily answers to the vibrations imposed on 
it when the string is struck, and having a 
large surface in contact with the air, every 
point of which originates a system of waves, 
it causes a full and powerful sound. 

22. The vibrations of straight rods may be 
either longitudinal or transversal. The former 
have not been generally employed for the 
production of musical sounds ; the latter are 
such as take place when a tuning fork is 
struck, or when a musical box or triangle is 
played. In the case of a curved rod the 
vibrations are more complicated, but there is 
one interesting case, namely, that in which 
the curved rod takes the form of a circular 
ring. In this case the fundamental tone is 
obtained by suspending it horizontally by 
four strings attached at equidistant points in 
the circumference, and by lightly tapping it 
midway between any two. If the number of 
vibrations then given be 2n per second, those 
of the successive harmonics are proportional 
to sn^'d, 4"Vl3, 5"V^, &c. 

23. The nature of the vibrations of a bell 
may be partly inferred from those of a ring, 
as the bell may be considered as consisting of 
a connected series of rings of different dia- 
meters all vibrating simultaneously ; thus the 
fundamental tone of a bell would cause it to 
divide itself longitudinally into four equal 
segments, corresponding to the four quadrants 
into which the suspended ring divides. The 
period of its vibrations could not, however, be 
similarly inferred. 

24. The vibration of pJates is not, musically 
speaking, a subject of .-nuch interest, as the 

only instruments v/hich depend upon it directly 
for the production of their sounds, are gongs 
and cymbals, and the same may be said of 
membranes. Chladni was the first to show 
the positions of the lines of nodes on a plate, 
by clamping it horizontally in a vice, and 
causing it to vibrate by passing a violin bow 
over one edge, having previously sprinkled 
it with a little sand. The lines of nodes being 
those parts of the plate which, like the nodes of 
a string (§ 13), are not thrown into vibration, 
remain covered with the sand which collects 
there from the vibrating portions, and in this 
way very curious and interesting figures are 

Act (Acte, Fr.; Akt, Ger.; Atto, It.) A 
distinct division in the plot or design of a 
drama or opera, forming an incident complete 
in itself, but bearing reference to the general 
idea of the whole. Every dramatic plot natu- 
rally divides itself into three portions : the 
exposition, the development, and the conclu- 
sion ; and this division would seem to point 
to the separation of a dramatic design into 
three acts, but where the piece is in four, 
five, or more acts, it will be found on exami- 
nation that the tripartite division is essenti- 
ally the same, greater prominence or care in 
detail being given to one or more of the 
sections. Thus the exposition may be spread 
over two or three acts, the development over 
one or two, and the conclusion or unravelling, 
reserved for the final act. 

The classical trilogies — groups of three tra- 
gedies — were most frequently united by a 
common idea, each forming a complete in- 
cident, connected by a bond of sympathy, 
sentiment, or subject with the grand design. 

Bartholome Torres Naharro, of Torre in 
Spain, who wrote at the commencement of 
the 1 6th century, is said to have been the 
first who suggested the division of plots into 
acts, or jornados, although Cervantes claims 
the invention for himself. It is certain that 
Naharro's printed dramas are not so divided. 

Donaldson, in speaking of the ^Eschylean 
Trilogy (the Agamemnon, Choephoroe, and the 
Eumenides), says, that the three plays mutu- 
ally cohere, is plain ; and as they were actu- 
ally brought on the stage in sequence, they 
may be regarded as so many acts of one 
grand heroic drama. This is mentioned, in 
order to vindicate the practice of Shakspeare 
and other modern dramatists, in compressing 
into one drama an extensive cycle of human 
destinies ; because the very objection that 
has been made to the practice is the alleged 
example of the ancients to the contrary. 

Wagner's N ibelungen trilogy, though stated 
to be " new from end to end" in idea and 
design, bears a close affinity to the ancient 
Greek drama. For the subject is mythical 

( 16) 


and '' the mythical subject has a plastic 
unity; it is perfectly simple and easily com- 
prehensible, and it does not stand in need of 
the numberless small details, which a modern 
playwright is obliged to introduce to make 
some historical occurrence intelligible. It 
is divided into a few important and decisive 
scenes, in each of which the action arises 
spontaneously from out of the emotions of 
the actors ; which emotions, by reason of 
the small number of such scenes, can be 
presented in a most complete and exhaustive 
manner." In many modern operas, the di- 
vision of the work into acts is made, less 
with reference to dramatic principles, than to 
the requirements of the stage-manager. 

Act Music in Oxford. Cantatas com- 
posed by the Professor of Music, to words 
written by the Professor of Poetry, and per- 
formed at grand commemorations in the 

Act tunes. [Playhouse tunes.] 

Acte de Cadence (Fr.) Certain chords by 
means of which the final cadence is introduced. 

Action. The mechanism of an organ or 
pianoforte, or other compound instruments. 

Acuta. The accent attached to certain 
letters in the Greek system of musical no- 
tation, thus, M' 

Acuta (Lat.) An organ stop of high pitch. 

■ (It.) High, sharp. 

Acutae claves, acuta loca, acutae voces. 
Those keys, places, and sounds which lie be- 
tween 'alamire acutum'and'alamire superacu- 
tum' of the hexachords, that is between little a 

and A 



High as to pitch ; opposed to grave. 
Adagietto (It.) A diminutive of Adagio. 
Adagio (It.) Slowly ; also a name given 
to a movement written in that time. 
Adagio assai 1 ,r , , 
— di molto j V"^ "^°^^^>'- 

cantabile. Very slow, and sus- 

tained, as if being sung. 

patetico. Slow and with pathos. 

pesante. Slow and weighty. 

sostenuto. Slow and sustained. 

Adagiosissinio(/^.) (superlative of Adagio). 

More than usually slow, very slow indeed. 

Added Sixth, Chord of the. This 
dissonant combination of sounds is so called 
because it has the appearance of a common 
chord of the Subdominant of the key in which 
it occurs, with the addition of a sixth from the 
bass note, e.g. : 

Ex. I. 









—IS — 

— «> 



-j — 


The above example being in the key of C, 
the Subdominant of the scale is F, and a 
common chord of F consists of F, A, and C, 
to which is found added at * the sixth of the 
bass note : namely, D. Although as a mere 
name, the expression added sixth may not bt 
without value, it is by many authors con- 
sidered very doubtful whether the notes, F, 
A, C are really the constituents of a Sub- 
dominant common chord ; and the fact that 
the apparent fifth of this chord (C) is nearly 
always treated as a discord, and made to 
descend, is rightly cited as the cause of their 

This naturally leads to the second explana- 
tion of the chord, which is, that it is an 
inversion of the chord of the seventh on the 
supertonic, e.g. : 

Ex. 2. 


Seventh on ist Inversion. 


But, the system of constructing chords on 
every degree of the scale, though once much 
adopted, is daily losing ground ; and justly, 
because by it, the particular progression of 
each component note of a chord, either has 
to be ignored, or else treated of with an 
amount of detail which is puzzling to the 
student, owing to the impossibility of laying 
down several laws as to the usual progression 
of stated intervals. 

A third explanation is, that it is a dominant 
chord — consisting of the fifth, seventh, ninth, 
and eleventh from that root, e.g. : 





The objection to this is, that the bass note 
of the chord (F), in nine cases out of every 
ten, ascends in the resolution, as seen in 
Ex. I. But, on the other hand, it will be 
found that the ninth (A), and the eleventh 
(C), descend properly, and it is a fact well 
known to careful analysts of harmony, that 
when several discords are heard simultane- 
ously, the regular resolution of part of them 
often completely satisfies the ear; and also, 
that when the root or generator of a chord 
is omitted, there is more license in its treat- 

A fourth explanation has been offered : it 
is to the effect that the chord contains two 

( 17 ) 


minor sevenths, namely, F and C, derived 
from two roots, G and D respectively: 





If both sevenths were properly resolved, 
consecutive fifths would ensue, therefore one 
(and generally the lower one) is made to 
ascend, on the principle just mentioned 
above. It is also urged that the lower 
seventh, F, is practically resolved, if the pro- 
gression be followed to the cadence in C. In 
favour of this view, it is also stated that 
chords built upon the dominant of a scale 
and its fifth are not uncommon, as for in- 
stance chords of the augmented sixth, &c. 

Whatever explanation be accepted, it is 

manifest that as this chord is made up of 

four notes, it can occur in as many positions, 

each note forming it being in turn placed in 

the bass, e.p^.: _ 

* Ex. "^ 

I 1 






I J 1 

I I 







It is resolved generally as in the above 
example, but many other resolutions are 
occasionally met with, e.g.: 







! ! 1 


■ ^ c- ' . 





r- c? 


I I ' r f^ 


J J J. ^Jj,^ 

p- P ' 


When the other positions of the chord are 
used, greater scope for varied resolution will 
be found. 

The chord of the Added Sixth is also to be 
found in the minor series of chords amongst 
those authors who accept, though perhaps 
under protest, the exigencies of the tempered 
scale, e.g. : 

( i8 

From this source a vast number of resolu- 
tions of the chord of the Added Sixth will be 
attainable, the tracing of which in the works 
of great masters will be found as instructive 
as interesting. 

Additato(/^.) Fingered; having signs point- 
ing out what fingers are to be used for certain 
passages. [Fingering.] 

Addition. The old name for a dot or 

Additional accompaniments. Parts not 
in an original score, but added by another 
hand. Such additions may be made for the 
following reasons: i, because the author acci- 
dentally left his score in an incomplete state: 
2, for the supposed purpose of beautifying the 
original, by supplying parts for instruments 
either unknown or imperfectly known in the 
author's time: 3, to enable modern performers 
to play such parts as were intended for in- 
struments now obsolete, or those of a similar 
tone now in use : 4, in order to compensate 
for the altered constitution of the orchestra, 
in which the number of stringed instruments 
is now larger in proportion to the number of 
reed wind-instruments, than formerly : 5, that, 
when for the sake of adding to the power or 
volume of tone other instruments must be 
added, they should be of varied qualities of 
tone instead of a mere numerical reinforce- 
ment of those already used in the original. 

Additional keys. Keys added to enlarge 
the compass of any instrument. 

Addolorato [It.) In an afflicted manner, 

A demi jeu {Fr.) W'ith half the power of 
the instrument. 

A demi voix {Fr.) With half strength 
of voice. [Mezzo voce.] 

''For two voices or instruments. 
When the parts of two instru- 
ments are written on one line 
the portion to which this term 
is prefixed is intended to be 
performed by both in unison ; 
the opposite term is divisi 

A deux temps {Fr.) In common time of 
two in a bar. 

A deux valse (Fr.) [Valse.] 
Adirato (It.) In an angry manner. 
Adiaphonon. An instrument of the 
Pianoforte class, not liable to get out of 
tune. Invented by Schuster of Vienna in 

Adjunct notes. Short notes, not essen- 
tial to the harmony, occurring on unaccented 
parts of a bar. [c./. Auxiliary notes.. Passing 

Ad libitum (Lat.) At will, (i) In pas- 
sages so marked, the time may be altered at 
the will of the performer. 


A due {It.) 


(2) A cadenza ad libitum is a cadenza, the 
construction of which is left to the performer. 

(3) Accompaniments ad libitum are addi- 
tions to a piece, which may be performed, or 
not, at discretion. 

(4) The word is also used to indicate the 
point at which a cadenza may be introduced 
in a concerto. 

Adornamento {It.) An ornament, or grace. 

Ad placitum {Lat.) At pleasure. A free 
part. A part added to a strict Canon, which 
does not come under the laws which govern 
that class of composition. 

A due corde(/^.) On two strings. [Adeux.] 

stromenti {It.) For two instruments. 

A due voci (It.) For two voices. 

A dur {Ger.) The key requiring three 
sharps to complete the major scale. The 
key of A major. 

Ad videndum {Lat.) A species of coun- 
terpoint, which was written down or noted, 
as opposed to that which was alia mente or 

.^olian harp. [Eolian.] 

.ffiolian mode. [Eolian.] 

iEolian piano. A piano having wooden 
bars, instead of strings, which, when struck 
by the hammers, produced a tone of peculiar 

^olodicon. ^Eolodion. A musical instru- 
ment, the sounds of which are produced by 
the striking of steel springs by hammers set 
in motion by an ordinary key-board. 

.ffiolomelodicon, called also a Choraleon ; 
an ^olodicon having brass tubes over the 
metal springs, for the purpose of giving more 
power to the tone. 

.^olopantalon, a pianoforte in connection 
with the ^olodicon. 

.^quisonae voces {Lat.) Equal sounds, 
but not unison ; that is, such a consonant 
combination as, a note and its octave ; or a 
note and its super-octave. 

AEVIA. The vowels in the word Alle- 
luia, used in mediaeval " prick song" as an 
abbreviation for that word, especially in An- 
tiphons and endings of chants. 

No-tum fe - cit Do-mi-nus, AEVIA. 

Sa - lu - ta - re Su - um. AEVIA. 
Cf. EVOViE. 

Affabile (7^) In a pleasing kindly manner. 
AfFannato (it.) In a distressed manner. 
Affannosamente {It.) Restlessly. 
Affannoso (7^.) Mournfully. 
Affetto, con (7^.) With affection. 
Affettuosamente (7^.) Affectionately. 
Affettuoso (7^.) Affectionately. 

Affinity. Connection by relation. Keys ot 
affinity. [Relative Keys.] 

Afflitto, or con afflizione {It.) Af- 
flictedly, with sadness. 

Affrettando (7^.) 
Affrettore (7^) 


Affrettato (7^.) >■ Hastening the time. 

A fofa {Port.) A dance, like the Fandango, 

Agevole {It.) jWith facility and light- 

Agevolezza (7^.) J ness. 

Aggraver la fugue {Fr.) To augment 
the subject in a fugue. 

Agilita, con (7^.) With sprightliness. 

Agilite {Fr.) Lightness and freedom in 
playing or singing. 

Agilmente {It."\ \ Cheerfully, in a liveh 

Agilmento (7^.) / manner. 

Agitamento (7^.) Restlessness. 

Agitato (7^.) An agitated or restless style 
of playing or singing, in which the time and 
expression is broken and hurried. 

Agitazione, con. (7^.) With agitation. 

Agnus Dei {Lat.) [Mass.] 

Agoge {Gk.), aywyr]. {Lat. ductus; It. con- 
ducimento.) The name of one of the sub- 
divisions of Melopceia,g'.t^., among the Greeks. 
The order in which successive notes of the 
scale followed each other, with regard to 
their pitch, in a melody. It is thus defined 
by Aristoxenus : 'aywyii ^ev ovy, effrlv f] }>ia. twv 
eL,rJQ (pdoyyiov oZoq tov fdiXovQ. There were three 
kinds of Agoge: ist, evdeia (ductus rectus), 
when the melody proceeded from a grave to 
a higher sound by single degrees, evdE'ia fikv 
KaXtlrai ii atvo jjapvTrjToc sic 6E,vTr]Ta (Aristides, 
Quin) ; 2nd, avaKainrrovGa (ductus revertens), 
when a higher sound was followed by a 
lower ; 3rd, irepK^epyjc (ductus circumcurrens), 
when a modulation was introduced in an as- 
cending, and afterwards, descending succes- 
sion of notes, by making one of the notes, 
which was flattened in ascending, sharp on 
descending ; or, vice versa, e.g. : 

I. Direct. 2. Reversed. 


3. Circumcurrent. 


^^ f rr^^ ^^=r^ ^^ 


Agoge rhythmica. The succession of me- 
lodic sounds viewed with regard to their 
accent, and rhythm. 

A grand chceur {Fr.) For the full choir or 

A grand orchestre {Fr.) For the full 

Agremens {Fr.) Turns, graces, and 
embellishments in harpsichord music. 

Aigu {Fr.) Acute, high. 

Air. In its modern sense, a tune, or the 
tune. The word air was formerly used to 

( 19) 



describe dance tunes, as " Court Ayres, Pavins, 
Corants and Sarabands," also melodies for 
instruments ; for before the invention of the 
Sonata, the music for concerts [concertos) of 
violins, consisted altogether of airs in three 
and sometimes four parts. The word air 
(aria), first used by Italian writers in the i6th 
century, was, when translated into English, re- 
presented by the word " fancy." Lord Bacon 
in his essay on " Beauty," uses the word air, 
and perhaps unintentionally describes its cha- 
racter thus — "the sweetest airs in music are 
made by a kind of felicity, and not by rule." 
The air was formerly assigned to the middle 
voice part or jnediiis, corresponding to our 
tenor. The practice of giving the air to the 
soprano, or upper part, arose from the custom 
of the Italian theatres, where the "musico," 
while being supposed to sing the air in the 
tenor, really sang it in the soprano range. It 
was afterwards adopted by the composers of 
instrumental music, and the habit of giving 
the principal melody to the highest voice or 
instrument has continued until now. [Ballad.] 
[Sonata.] [Song.] 

Ais (Ger.) The note A sharp. 

Akkord (Ger.) A chord, as Noneti-akkord, 
chord of the ninth, &c. 

A la, Al, All', Alia (It. and Fr.) Like, 
in, at, in the style of. 

A la meme (Fr.) In the original time. 

A la mi re. The name of the note a in 
the acute and super-acute hexachords of the 
Guidonian system. [Notation.] 

Alamoth [Heb.) This word occurs in 
Ps. Ixviii. 25. "First go the sharim (singers), 
then follow the negijiim (kinnors), in the midst 
are alamoth (damsels playing on the timbrels)." 
Gesenius and others understand the word to 
signify treble music, " vox clara et acuta, 
quasi virginum." But, on the other hand, in 
I Chron. xv. 20 the names o{ meti are given 
as players of " nebels on alamoth." It is one 
of the many obscure musical terms which 
are met with in the Bible. It howevc seems 
to have been associated with nebels, much as 
the expression sheminith is with kinnors, and 
may therefore be supposed to refer to the pitch 
or method of playing on those instruments. 

Alarum, All'armi {It.) A call to arms. 

" Alarums sounded, and ordnance shot off." 


Originally a general shout; afterwards, a 
recognised signal by trumpets and drums. 

Alberti Bass. A bass consisting o{ arpeg- 
gios or broken harmony, e.g. : 

m r ^'-^t^ 


so-called after its reputed inventor, Domenico 
Alberti, who died in 1739. 

Alcuna licenza, con (It.) With a little 
license ; that is, the power of altering the time 
at will. 

Aliquot tones. Overtones or harmonics. 
[Acoustics, § g.] 

A livre ouvert {Fr.) At sight. 

Alia breve {It.) A direction that the notes 
are to be made shorter; that is, the pace taken 
quicker than usual. It is generally found 
attached to movements having four or eight 
minims in a bar, and is expressed in the sig- 
nature by (tj. The following unusual sign 

for alia breve is found in the signature of one 
of the exercises "pour le Clavecin," by J. S. 
Bach, as published about 1760 : 





-«* ^ 


Alia caccia {It.) In the hunting style. 

camera (7^) In the style of cham- 

ber music, q.v. 

cappella (It.) [A Cappella.] 

diritta. By direct intervals. 

hanacca. In the style of the hanaise, 

a sort of polka, or polacca polonaise. 

marcia. In the style of a March. 

Alia mente (7^.) A barbarous species of 

counterpoint in thirds and fifths, improvised 
upon the plain song, called in France " Chant 
sur le livre," and in England " Fa burden." 
This peculiar harmony is said to have had its 
rise in the 12th century, but it is probably 
older, as Hucbald, who was living about the 
year 880, describes it, as also did Odo, Abbot 
of Cluny, in his Enchiridion [c. 920.] While 
the use of this hideous harmony was encour- 
aged by the church, musicians of feeling never 
failed to protest against it, therefore we find after 
Hucbald, Odo, and Franco of Cologne — ^Johan- 
nis de Muris, and others complaining of its 
use, and suggesting various measures for its 
reform, and by degrees paving the way to the 
modern system of counterpoint. The decree 
of the Pope John XXII, dated at Avignon 
1322, had some effect in checking its use, but 
did not entirely suppress it, as it was sung as 
late as the middle of the 15th century. 

Alia militare. (7/.) In a military manner. 

moderno(7^.) In the modern method. 

Air antico (7^.) In the old style. 

Alia polacca (7^.) Like a polonaise. 

quinta (7^.) At the fifth. 

rovescio (7^.) By contrary motion. 


siciliana (7^.) A species of melody 

^" l> V^' °^ f> having the longest note at the 
accented pulse. Handel's Pastoral Symphony 
is alia siciliana. 

Alia stretta(7^.) Bringing closer and closer, 
alike as to subject and movement. 

( 20) 


Alia zoppa {It.) Lamely, halting, against 
time, syncopation. 






Allegro agitato 
„ assai 



or \„ 
comodo ) 

con brio ,, 
con fuoco „ 
con moto „ 
con spirito „ 
di bravura ,, 


Allegramente {It.) Joyfully. 

Allegretto {It.) (Diminutive of allegro.) 
(i) Slower than allegro. (2) A movement in 
this time. 

Allegrettino {It.) (Diminutive of alle- 
gretto.) (i) Not so fast as allegretto. (2) 
A short allegretto movement. 

Allegro {It.) {Lit. joyful.) Quick, lively. 
The word is occasionally employed to describe 
a whole movement of a quartett, sonata, or 
symphony. In music it is sometimes qualified 
as : — 

{It.) Quick and in an excited manner. 
„ [Lit.) Fast enough. A quicker 
motion than simple allegro. 

V„ An easy, graceful allegro. 

,, Quickly and with spirit. 

Rapidly and with fire. 

With sustained joyfulness. 

Joyfully and with spirit. 

A movement full of executive 
difficulties intended to exhibit 
the capacity of the singer or 

Exceedingly quick. 

Rapidly and with fury. 

In quick but steady time. 

Lively and with graceful 

Rapidly, but not too fast. 
Quickly, but not too much so. 

Lively, but not too fast. 

Moderately quick. 

Very quick. 

Lively and with firmness and 

Lively and with speed. 
Lively and brisk. 
Quick and lively. 

Allein {Ger.) Alone, as Sanfte Stimmen 
allein, soft stops only. 

Alleluia. Latin for Hallelujah. {Heh.) 
Praise ye the Lord. An invitation to praise, 
used in every Christian community with vary- 
ing regularity. St. Augustine says that the 
African Church used it between the feasts of 
Easter and Pentecost, and it is at that time 
that its use is more prevalent in the ritual of 
the Eastern and Western churches than at 
other seasons of the Christian year. In the 
Roman Catholic Church it is not employed 
from Septuagesima to Easter, but in the 
Anglican Church it is said twice at least every 
day throughout the whole year, the English 
form, "Praise ye the Lord," being substituted 



di molto 

ma non 

ma non 

ma non 






in the present Prayer-book for the ancient 
Hebrew word which was inserted in the first 
Prayer-book of Edward VI. The word Halle- 
lujah being a short, musical, and rhythmical 
word, is frequently used by many anthem- 
writers — apparently without a just understand- 
ing of its meaning — to eke out an idea in 
music ; but at other -times the word has been 
set to music with sublime effect, as by 
Beethoven in his " Mount of Olives," and by 
Handel in his " Messiah." Carl Engel, in 
"The Music of the Most Ancient Nations," 
gives examples of melodies sung by the Copts, 
and the women of Syria, Arabia, and Persia, 
to the word. 

Allemande {Fr.) Alemain, Allemaigne, 
Almain. A dance in duple time, said to have 
been invented by the French in the reign of 
Louis XIV. as a symbolical allusion to the 
newly-acquired German provinces. It was re- 
vived and frequently performed at the theatres 
during the time of the First Napoleon, during 
whose rule it became exceedingly popular. 
The measure was slow, and the steps were 
made in a rapid sliding manner as in the 
modern waltz, but there was no turning, only 
a peculiar entwining and unloosening of the 
arms of the dancers in the various steps. It 
is said by some that the Allemande was 
invented in the lesser provinces of Germany 
or Switzerland. Scarlatti, Corelli, Bach, 
Handel, and other composers of the period 
they represent, incorporated the measure of 
this dance in their Suites, Sonatas, and 
Lessons, in which it was written in common 
time of four crotchets in a bar. 

The tradition concerning the origin of its 
invention, mentioned above, is very pic- 
turesque, but it is not founded in fact. Louis 
XIV. took Strasbourg by surprise in the time 
of peace, in the year 1681, and the treaty of 
Ryswick which confirmed his possession was 
not made until 1697. It is quite possible to 
believe that the fulsome flattery of his flippant 
court would magnify an act of rapine into a 
worthy victory, and that empty-headed adu- 
lators would find heels light enough to dance 
their joy at the same; but unfortunately for 
the story, there were Allemandes in exist- 
ence before the time of the illegal seizure. 
In England, Almaines as musical composi- 
tions were published in 1662, in a book called 
" Courtly Masquing Ayres," and there were 
those by LuUy, issued in France, bearing 
date 1670; the subjoined one, by Dumont, is 
even earlier, as it is to be found in " Meslanges 
a 2, 3, 4 et 5 parties, avec la basse continue, 
contenante plusiers chansons, motets. Mag- 
nificat, preludes et allemandes pour I'orgue 
et pour les violes ; livre i"" ; Paris, Robert 
Ballard, 1649." It is not even possible to refer 
the origin of the dance to the recovery of the 

( 2' ^ 


towns in the Low Countries, as Turenne did 
not win them until six years after Dumont's 

The mention of the word as a dance is to 
be found in earlier writings than either of the 
above-mentioned, for there is a passage in 
Ben Jonson's play, " The Devil is an Ass," 
first acted in 1610, v/hich proves the dance to 
have been known in his time : 

" He may, perchance, in tail of a sheriff's dinner. 
Skip with a rhyme on the table, from New-nothing, 
And take his Almain-leap into a custard. 
Shall make my lady mayoress and her sisters 
Laugh all their hoods over their shoulders." 

The old Almains probably had leaping 
steps, as the foregoing passage, and another 
from George Chapman's " Alphonsus, Em- 
peror of Germany," would imply : 

" We Germans have no changes in our dances. 
An Almain and an Up-Spring — that is all." 

This play was printed in 1599. 

Henri Dumont, 1610-1684. 










1 ^Ml imh^it ■ 





ggg-^-^ t.^r_^^p=c 


.X:^-f^J^H ^^ J^ -^ ./ A 


r ^ir r rr^ ^ 










^ ^^1' ^^I 'l 





' ' • 

■J— ^T I — 



r- i J J 






^••1, ^ 




,j- s 1 Yielding, slackening 
)j:{ I the time, giving 
^^^•)] way. 

Air improvvista (/^.) Without prepara- 
tion, extemporaneously. 

Al loco {It.) {Lit. in the place.) (i) A term 
which is used to counter-order a previous 
direction to play an octave higher or lower. 

(2) A direction to a violinist to return from 
a shift to his previous position. [Shift.] 

Allonger I'archet {Fr.) To prolong the 
stroke of the bow. 

Air ottava {It.) At the octave, a direc- 
tion to play an octave higher, or lower, than 
is written. 

Air unisono {It.) In unison or octaves. 

Alphorn. Alpine horn. A long tube of 
fir-wood played by the herdsmen of the Alps. 
It has the same natural series of sounds as a 
trumpet, but does not possess any means of 
reducing the tenth harmonic to the ordinary 
pitch of our scale. [Ranz des Vaches.] 

Al piacere {It.) At pleasure. 

Al rigore di tempo {It) ) j^ ^^^.^^ ^.^^^ 

Al rigore del tempo {It.) ) 

('By contrary motion, that 
is, answering an as- 

Al riverso {It.) 
Al rovescio {It.) 

interval by 


one descending a like 

distance, e.g. 



jiU ^ J^J^ =^^^^ 

Egypt was glad. 

m ^ () - 

rr rcif=r=f=^ 

Answers al rovescio are found in Imitation, 
Fugue, and Canon. 

Al segno {It.) To the sign. Dal segnc 
{It.) from the sign %. Directions that the 
performer must return to that portion of the 
piece marked with the sign f^, and conclude 
with the first double bar which follows, or go 
on to the word Fine, or to the pause r^,. 

Alt {Ger.) Alto voice, part, or instrument. 

Alta {It.) High or higher. As, 8"" alta, 
an octave higher. 

Alterata {Lat.) A name given to those 
scales into which notes were introduced 
foreign to the old church modes. 

22 ) 



Alteratio {Lat.) In mediaeval music, the 
doubling of the value of a note. " Alteratio 
est proprii valoris alicujus notae duplicatio" 
(Tinctor). This alteratio only took place when 
a note was in a certain relation to those near 
it; e.g., if two longs preceded a maxim "in 
modo majori perfecto " [Modus] the latter of 
them underwent alteration : and if two breves 
" in modo minore perfecto " preceded a long, 
the latter underwent alteration ; and so on, 
A perusal of the eight general, and four par- 
ticular rules which governed alteration, will 
cause the reader to be thankful that modern 
music has been relieved of such complica- 

Alterato (It.) ") Altered, augmented (with 

Altere (Fr.^ J reference to intervals). 

Alternamente {It.) ^ Changing by turns. 

Alternando {It.) V To choose one of 

Alternativo {It.) j two ways of per- 
forming a passage. 

Altgeige {Ger.) The tenor violin, the 
viola. [Viola,] 

Altieramente (It.) Proudly, grandly, 

Altisono (It.) Sonorous, ringing. 

Altissimo {It.) The highest. 

Altista {It.) A name formerly given to an 
alto singer. 

Alto-basso {If.) An ancient Venetian 
stringed instrument, a Hackbret, q.v. It 
was formed of a square box of pine-wood, 
supported on legs and strung with cat- 
gut. The player struck the strings with a 
sort of bow, which was held in the left hand, 
the right hand being engaged in holding a 
sort of flute or flageolet with which a melody 
was performed. The instrument was only 
used by the lower class of people, and is now 

Alto clef. The C clef, placed upon the 
third line of the stave, in order that the notes 
proper to the Alto voice may be conveniently 
represented : 





The Alto clef is used for the tenor violin or 
viola and the alto trombone. [Clef.] 

Alto viola (It.) The tenor instrument of 
the violin family, called Alto, Tenor, or Viola. 
{Ger.) Bratsche or Altgeige. [Viola.] 

Alto voice. Called also counter-tenor, 
when used by men, and counter-alto or con- 
tralto, when used by women. It is the deepest 
tone of voice among women and boys, to 
whom it may be said to be natural, and it is 
called the highest voice among men for lack 
of a better term to describe it. Properly 
speaking, the tenor voice is the highest 
man's voice, the alto or counter-tenor voice 
being entirely an artificial production, and 

simply a development of the falsetto. Tha 
register usually written for this voice lies 
between tenor G and treble C, 


As the best notes of the alto voice are within 
the octave from B flat, those notes are most 
generally employed, for the higher notes are 
harsh and discordant, and the lower of small 
musical quality, and therefore ineffective. 
The alto voice in man is mostly formed 
upon an indifferent bass voice, and there 
is always a break between the chest and 
the head voice; this break varies between 

C and E 

and the careful union 

of the chest and head qualities of voice, and 
the judicious employment of the "tnezza 
voce" are characteristic of every good alto 
singer. The alto voice is almost peculiar to 
English singers, not one of the continental 
nations possessing the capability of producing 
the quality or of appreciating it when pro- 
duced; the consequence is, that there is no 
music written for this voice by any but 
English composers, and the majority of 
writers of the present day forming their style 
upon the foreign model, neglect and ignore 
the voice, disregarding its claim to useful- 
ness, in places and at times, when and where 
female voices are unavailable. The value of 
the voice, its flexibility, sympathetic quality, 
and harmonious power, when carefully culti- 
vated, are well displayed in cathedral music, 
and glee singing : a great number of melodious 
compositions by the most noted English 
writers, depend upon the alto voice for their 
proper effect. Many of the songs in Handel's 
oratorios were assigned to this voice, which 
are now, in consequence of the heightened 
pitch at present employed, sung by females : 
for instance, the part of Solomon in the 
oratorio of that name; of Barak and Sisera in 
the oratorio of "Deborah;" and of Daniel in 
" Belshazzar;" are each given to an alto voice. 
As this practice is of quite recent growth, it 
is but reasonable to conclude that Handel 
intended the music of the wisest king, and 
that of the two brave warriors to be sung by 
men altos, rather than by women, for the 
sake of appearance, if for no more powerful 
reason. The fact before alluded to, of the non- 
recognition of the voice by foreigners, has 
given an advantage to English musical 
literature not enjoyed by any other people, 
in the cultivation and sole possession of the 
Glee and the Anthem, 

As many of the principal effects are obtained 
in these two species of composition through 
the medium of the alto voice, if only for the 
sake of the performance of the many noble 

(23 ) 


specimens of art in these two styles, the 
alto voice will always be cultivated in Eng- 
land until such time as the Glee and Anthem 
cease to exist. The cultivation of the Part- 
song has almost superseded the use of the 
alto voice in modern music, for the upper 
part in this class of composition is given 
to tenor voices, and the difficulty in pro- 
ducing the notes of the higher register so 
far influences the character of the music 
written, that many of the part-songs for male 
voices are of a bold, boisterous style, entirely 
different to that of the glee, which by reason 
of the peculiarity of the alto voice is of a 
more quiet character, depending in a great 
measure for its effect upon delicate and 
expressive singing. Many composers of 
eminence have completely ignored the alto 
voice, whether male or female, a quantity of 
music for Church use being written for treble, 
tenor, and bass, as by Cherubini and others. 

In quality and power of expression the 
female alto voice is peculiar, and unlike any 
other voice. Its character is grave, tender, spi- 
ritual, and moving, and is admirably adapted 
to express emotions of dignity, grandeur, and 
piety. The male alto being an artificial voice, 
its usefulness is of limited duration, for when 
the singer is past fifty years of age the voice 
becomes harsh, reedy, nasal, and the break is 
painfully apparent. 

Alt-Posaune [Ger.) The alto trombone. 

Altra, fern., Altri, //., Altro, mas. {It.) 
Other, another, others. 

Altschliissel (Ger.) Alto clef. 

Altviole (Ger.) [Alto Viola.] 

Alzamento di mano (It.) Raising the 
hand in conducting. 

Alzando (It.) Lifting up, raising, elevating. 

Altzeichen (Ger.) The alto clef, 

Amabile (7^.) Lovely, gentle, tender 
Amabilita, con (It.) With gentleness, 

Amarevole (It.) Sad, bitter. 
Amarezza, con (It.) With sadness. 
Amarissimamente (7^.)),^ , .^^ , 
Amarissimo (7^.) j ^ery bitterly. 

In a mournful, sorrowful style. 

Amateur (Fr.) A lover of music ; one 
who pursues the practice of any art for pure 
love, in distinction to one who is engaged 
in its employment for pay. 

Ambira (Afr.) A kind of drum or pulsatile 
instrument, made of wood, in cylindrical 
form, upon which a series of tongues of iron, 
cane, or wood are so arranged that they may 
be made to vibrate upon pressure. The 
Ambira is used by the negroes of Senegambia 
and Guinea. 

Ambitus (Lat.) {lit. circuit.) The com- 
pass of an ancient church tone. The word is, 

however, used sometimes in a more extended 
sense than our word compass, as it is made 
to signify the proper steps which lie between 
the extreme limits of the tone — "Toni debitus 
ascensus et descensus." The rules (regulae) 
which govern the ambitus depend upon the 
position of the Jinal of the tone, and although 
much elaborated in mediaeval treatises, their 
force seems to be that the proper ambitus 
should (regulariter) not exceed the octave 
(diapason) included between the highest note 
of the mode above the final and the lowest 
below it, except " by licence" (licentialiter). 
These dispensations only allow the intro- 
duction of three notes outside the ambitus in 
each direction, an authentic mode being 
allowed a descent to the lowest note of its 
corresponding plagal tone ; a plagal tone 
being allowed to ascend to the highest note 
of its corresponding authentic. This fact, 
simple enough in itself, is cleverly put into a 
shape as unintelligible as possible in the 
following lines, framed for the supposed 
assistance of the student : 

" Undenis gradibus vult juste vadere prothus. 
Per sex et quinas claves vult deuterus ire. 
Octo tribus gradibus vult juste cepere tritus. 
Per sex quinque gradus juste capit ire tetrardus." J 

Ambo or Ambon {Gk., anjouy from 
avaPaiPio.) A desk or pulpit. The raised 
platform in Eastern churches, on which the 
singers mounted when they sang. A canon 
of the Council of Laodicea (a.d. 360-370) 
decreed that no one should sing in the church 
besides the regular singers {TrXijy tCjv KavoviKiov 
\pa\Twy), who ascended the ambo and sang 
from the parchment (dTro 3/00fpae). This early 1 
attempt to bring about the separate perform- i 
ance of trained choir-singers did not obtain 
any favour in the Western churches of that 
period, and with the introduction of congre- 
gational song, the ambo became disused. 

Ambrosian Chant. The system of church- 
song introduced by Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, 
in the fourth century. It formed the basis of 
the Gregorian system. [Plain Song.] 

Ambrosian Hymn. The " Te Deum" 
so-called, because, by some, its authorship 
is attributed to Bishop Ambrose. 

Ambrosian Te Deum. A musical set 
ting of the Te Deum in plain-song, called after 
Bishop Ambrose because of its antiquity 
and the possibility of its having been the first 
setting of the Hymn after the introduction of 
properly-regulated song into Christian wor 
ship. Marbecke, who adapted it to English 
words, chose a simple setting, and a com- 
parison between his version and others will 
be found interesting. Meibomius (in his well, 
known work. Ant. Mus. Auct. Septem. 1652), 
published it with Greek notation, as an ex- 

( 24 ) 


ponent of his own principles, not as a copy 
of any authorized edition. [Plain Song,] 

Ambubajae [Lat.) Companies of immoral 
Syrian women, who attended festivals and 
gatherings among the Romans as minstrels. 
Their instruments were called abub, or ambub, 
whence their name. 

Ambulant (Fr.) Wandering. Applied to , 
strolling musicians. 

Ame (Fr.) The sound-post of a violin, or 
other stringed instrument of its kind. 

American Organ. An instrument having 
one or more manuals, and registers which 
control series of free reeds. It is, in its 
principles of construction, diametrically 
opposed to the Harmonium, for v/hereas 
in this, air is forced through the reeds from 
a bellows, — in the American Organ the 
action of the treadle exerts suction. When 
it is required to shut off a row of reeds, 
the putting in of the stop-handle places a 
thick air-tight covering of felt over the outside 
of the row of reeds, so that the air cannot be 
sucked through them, — the drawing of the 
stop, by removing this obstruction, allows the 
free passage of the air through the reeds. In 
short, in the Harmonium, air is blown from 
the bellows through the reeds ; but in the 
American Organ, air is sucked through the 
reeds into the bellows. There are, however, 
other differences. The reeds of the American 
Organ are thinner than those of the Har- 
monium, and are slightly curved in shape, by 
which greater quickness of speech is insured. 
A very beautiful undulating tone is obtained 
by setting in motion a rotating fan, imme- 
diately above one of the rows of vibrators. 
This, by producing a variable pressure of air 
just outside the reeds, affects also their vibra- 
tion as they draw it in. The mechanism 
which sets the fan in motion is called the 
Vox Humana stop. When there is an 
Expression stop it gives the player some 
control over the pressure of suction, and thus 
it is the converse of the stop of the same 
name in the Harmonium ; but the effects 
which can be produced by its use are more 
striking in the latter instrument. The tone 
of American Organs is extremely melodious 
and sweet, but it does not travel well. For 
chamber music these instruments are emi- 
nently qualified, not only because of the 
character of their tone, but because they 
possess the enormous advantage of remaining 
for a longer period and under varying circum- 
stances — in tune. 

A mezza aria (It.) A compromise be- 
tween Air and recitative. [Aria parlante.] 

A mezza voce (It.) With half the strength 
of the voice. (2) The quality between the 
chest and head voice. (3) The subdued tone 
of instruments. 

A moll (Ger.) A minor, the tonality of 
the relative minor to the key of C. 

A monocorde (Fr.) On one string. 

Amore, con (It.) With love, affection, 
tenderness, ardour. 

Amorevole (It.) Affectionately. 

Amorevolmente (It.) Tenderly. 

A Moresco (It.) In the Moorish style. 

Amorosamente (It.) Lovingly. 

Amoroso (It.) In a loving style. 

Amor-schall. A horn of peculiar con- 
struction invented in the year 1760, by Kolbel, 
one of the musicians of the Emperor of Rus- 
sia. It was intended as an improvement upon 
the ordinary French horn, but the introduction 
of the cylinder and valve system led to the 
disuse of the Amor-schall. A duet for these 
instruments was composed by Cherubini, and 
dedicated to Lord Cowper. 

A.mphibrachys. A metrical foot consisting 
of a long between two short syllables,- — . 

Amphimacer. A foot consisting of a 
short between two long syllables, - - -. 

Amplitude of vibration. The distance 
from the point of rest of a particle, to either 
end of its journey, when a sound-wave passes 
over it. [Acoustics, §3.] 

AmpoUosamente (7^.)) In a bombastic, 

Ampolloso (It.) ) inflated style. 

Ampoule (Fr.) Bombastic. 

Amusement (Fr.) A short and lively 
piece of music. (It.) Divertimento. 

Anabasis (Gk.), avajjaaig, a succession of 
ascending sounds. 

Anabathmi (Gk.), avafiaQ^ol, the name 
given to certain antiphons in the Greek 
Church ; so called because their words were 
selected from the Psalms called in the Sep- 
tuagint ulai Twv uva(jadfj.d)p (Ps. 120-134 in 
Eng. version), " Songs of degrees," the gra- 
dual Psalms of the Roman use. 

Anakampsis (Gk.), avaKaiji\j,iQ, a succes- 
sion of descending sounds. 

Anakamptos. (Gk.) [Anakampsis.] 

Anakara (Gk.) The ancient kettledrum. 
A larger sort was used for battle purposes, 
and there was a smaller drum which a woman 
could hold with one hand and beat with the 
other. [Drum.] [Nacchera.] 

Anakarista (Gk.) A drum player. 

Anapaest. A foot consisting of a long pre- 
ceded by two short syllables, ^^.. [Metre.] 

Anaploke (Gr.) avaTrXoKi). A combination 
of notes ascending the scale ; opposed to 
KaTaTrXoKi'i, a descending series of combined 

Anche (Fr.) The reed in the mouth-piece 
of a hautboy, bassoon, &c., the name also 
applied to a reed in an organ. [Reed.] 

Ancia (It.) [Anche.] 

( 25 ) 


Ancora (7^.) Again, once more, encore. 

Ancor piu mosso (It.) Still quicker, 
more motion yet. 

Andacht (Ger.) Devotion. 

Andachtig (Ger.) Devotionally, devoutly. 

Andamento (7^.) (i) An accessory idea, 
or episode ; an accessory part, in a Fugue. 
(2) In the style of an Andante. 

Andante (7^.) Walking. In the early part 
of the last century, music so marked was un- 
derstood to be of a grand yet cheerful style, but 
in the present day it implies a movement 
which is slow, graceful, distinct and peaceful. 
The word is sometimes used as a substantive, 
in speaking of that portion of a symphony or 
sonata so marked. The many modifications 
both of pace and style are expressed as below: 

Andante affettuoso. Slow, and in an easy, 
pathetic style. [style. 

Andante cantabile. Slow, and in a singing 

Andante con moto. With energy or 
emotion. Faster than andante. [motion. 

Andante grazioso. Slow, and in graceful 

Andante maestoso. Slow, and with 

Andante non troppo. Moderately, but 
not too slow. 

Andante pastorale. Slow, graceful, and 
with pastoral simplicity. 

Andantemente (7^) Easily, fluently, 
without interruption, in the manner of an 

Andantino (It.) A diminutive of Andante, 
unfortunately interpreted in two directly oppo- 
site ways. By some it is understood to mean, 
not so slow as andante ; by others, rather slower 
than andante. This difference of opinion 
results from the ambiguity of an expression 
which literally means "rather going." 

Andante sostenuto. Moderately slow, 
and very smoothly. 

Andar diritto {It.) Go straight on. 

An dare in tempo (7^.) To go in time. 
Keep to the time. 

Anelantemente (7^) Ardently, eagerly, 

AneUto^^ (7^.) | Shortness of breath. 

Anemochord. A variety of. the Eolian 
harp, made by Jacob Schnell, in Paris, 1789, 
[Eolian harp.] 

Anemometer. [Wind-gauge.] 

Anesis {Gk.) aveaiQ, from uvh^iii, to loosen, 
(i) The progression from a high sound to 
one lower in pitch. (2) The tuning of strings 
to a lower pitch [avtiriQ yoplQv) 

Anfangs-ritornel {Ger.) Introductory 
symphony. [Symphony, §4.] 

Anfangs-griinde [Ger,) Rudiments, prin- 
ciples, beginnings. 

Angelica {Ger.) \ . y angelica 1 
Angelique (j7^.) | L vox angelica. j 

Angenehm {Ger.) Pleasing, agreeable. 

Anglaise {Fr.) } The English country 

Anglico {It.) ) dance, q.v. 

Anglican Chant. [Chant.] 

Angore (7^.) Anguish, grief, distress, 

Angosciamente {It.) "» Sorrowfully, 

Angosciamento (7^.) I anxiously. 

Angosciosissamente (7^) With extreme 

Angoscioso (7^.) Anxious, painful. 

Anhaltende Cadenz {Ger.) A lengthened 
cadence, an organ or pedal point. 

Anhang {Ger.) A coda. [Coda.] 

Anima, con (7^.) With animation, spirit. 

Animato (7^) Lively, animated. 

Animazione {It.) Liveliness, animation. 

Animo, con {It.) With courage, spirit, 
dash, and fire. 

Animo Corde (7^.) [Anemochord.] 

Animosamente (It.) Spiritedly, ener- 


Animosissimamente(7^) , j^ energelic 

Animosissimo (7^.) |^^^ '^^-^-^l^^ 

Animoso (7^.) Lively, energetic. 

Anklang {Ger.) Tune, harmony, accord. 

Anklingeln {Ger.) To sound or ring a bell 

Anklingen {Ger.) To accord in sound, to 
be in tune. 

Anlage {Ger.) Indication of talent : 
the sketch of a musical thought ; also the 
plan or design of a composition. 

Anlaufen {Ger.) To increase or swell in 

Anleitung (Ger.) Instruction, guidance, 
direction, preface. 

Anmuth {Ger.) Charm, sweetness, grace, 

Anonner {Fr.) To stutter, to hesitate. 
To stumble in performing, to play in an un- 
skilful style. 

Anpfeifen {Ger.) To whistle at, to hiss 
at; in music, to condemn. [Fiasco.] 

Ansatz {Ger.) (i) Attack, q.v. (2) The 
adjustment of the mouth to the position 
required for the production of the voice in 
singing. (3) The adjustment of the lips 
necessary for the proper production of the tone 
of wind instruments, as in French, "embouch- 
ure," and in English, "lipping," q.v. 

Anschlag {Ger.) (i) Touch, or the pro- 
duction of tone upon such keyed instruments 
as the organ, pianoforte, or harmonium. 

(2) The clash of a discord before resolution. 

Ansingen {Ger.) To welcome with song. 

Ansprechen {Ger.) ") To sound, to sing, to 

Anstimmen {Ger.) J give out tone. 

Anstimmung {Ger.) Intonation, sound- 
ing, smging. 


(i) A phrase or point pro- 

( 26 ) 



posed for Imitation. (2) Any passage which 
is answered. (3) The subject of a Fugue. 

Anthem. — A composition for voices, with 
or without organ or other instrumental ac- 
companiment, enjoined by the Ritual of the 
Anglican Church to be sung at Morning and 
Evening service, " in choirs and places where 
they sing." The words are generally selected 
from the Psalms, or other portions of the 
Bible, but paraphrases of Scripture, and 
words in prose and metre, of less authority, 
are sometimes used. It is the one ornament 
of the Service, reserved for the Choir, in 
which the congregation takes no part. 

2. Anthems may be divided into various 
kinds, according to the character of the words ; 
but with this division it is not our province to 
deal. The form of the music suggests four 
divisions, namely : the Full, the Full with 
verses, the Verse, and the Solo. When 
Anthems were accompanied with instruments 
other than the organ, they were formerly 
called Instrumental Anthems. 

3. A Full Anthem, which is the earliest 
model, consists entirely of chorus, with or 
without Organ accompaniment. A Full and 
Verse Anthen^ is one in which certain parts 
are assigned to voices soli, with choruses to 
commence and conclude. A Verse Anthem 
is one that begins with portions intended to 
be sung by a single voice to a part, the word 
verse probably meaning a turn of thought 
to be forcibly or clearly expressed, a change 
of treatment or sentiment properly echoed 
in the style of the music. The words of 
the verse are often chosen from portions of 
Scripture other than the main body of the 
Anthem, by way of gloss. The chief voices 
on one side. Decani or Cantoris, usually 
sing the Verse, and the whole choir, both 
sides, the chorus or Full part. The character 
of the Solo Anthem is sufficiently obvious, 
through its title ; in every case there is, how- 
ever, a concluding chorus, even if it be 
only the word Amen once sung. An Instru- 
mental Anthem may partake of either or all 
the characteristics of the Anthems above 
described. At the end of the 17th and the 
beginning of the i8th centuries the Instru- 
mental Anthem was in frequent use at the 
Chapel Royal, St. James's; and, until thirty 
years ago, the whole of the music sung at the 
Festival of the Sons of the Clergy, at St. 
Paul's Cathedral, was regularly given with 
the accompaniment of a full orchestra. This 
custom was revived on the like occasion in 
1873 with fine effect. 

The Anthem is especially an English pro- 
duction, a development of the Motett; but the 
Antifona of the Italians, the Antienne of the 
French, and the Wechselgesang of the Ger- 
mans, preserve to this day the character of 

the same prototype. The Antiphon was a 
special selection of words intended to be 
suitable to the service for the day, and was 
invariable, but the words of the Anthem in 
the Anglican Church were chosen by the 
composer, v/ith or without reference to any 
particular Season, the early composers very 
rarely mentioning the special season for which 
they intend their music. The ignorance of 
Prascentors and other rulers of the choir, or 
their partiality for some one class of compo- 
sition has often led them into having Anthems 
performed that are ludicrously inappropriate 
to the Season. 

4. The history of the Anthem may be com- 
prised within a period of little more than 
three centuries, and falls into three divisions, 
namely: the Motett period, the Verse period, 
and the Modern period. The Motett period 
lasted from the time of the Reformation to the 
death of Henry Lawes, say from 1550 to 1650. 
During the troublous times of the Common- 
wealth, the Anthem, in common with nearly 
all other Church music, excepting hymn tunes, 
had little or no life or character. The Verse 
period existed from 1670 to about 1777, the 
time of the death of the elder Hayes. To 
this succeeded another lapse of more than 
forty years, during which time Church needs 
in this matter were supplied by a series of 
adaptations from Oratorios and Masses, which 
were greatly favoured,— even Madrigals were 
laid under forced contribution. The absence 
of proper encouragement to original com- 
posers prevented many able writers, the 
elder Samuel Wesley among others, from 
employing their talents towards relieving the 
want of the Church. That Wesley was a 
writer of no mean order of genius the 
existence of his Latin Motetts " Omnia 
Vanitas," " In Exitu Israel," " Exultate 
Deo," sufficiently proves. 

The modern period commenced with 
Thomas Attwood, and was continued by 
the younger Samuel Sebastian Wesley, and 
John Goss. The earliest composers of 
music for the Reformed Church have left 
no examples of either solo or verse Anthems, 
their contributions to this order of music 
being similar in character and construction 
with the Motett of the Italian Church. 
The greater portion of the Anthems, by the 
early English writers, were adaptations of 
English words to music formerly set to Latin 
words, a proceeding both useful and needful 
in the shifting period immediately succeeding 
the Reformation. The first music set to Eng- 
lish words for the service of the Church — 
exclusive of Marbecke's plain-song — was the 
work of Thomas Tallis, organist to the Court, 
in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., 
Queens Mary and Elizabeth ; and much of his 



music, which is still extant, is a mere collection 
of dry contrapuntal exercises without much 
attempt at musical or religious expression, 
although some of it exhibits great origin- 
ality and an agreement with the character 
of the words. The next writer of importance 
was William Byrde (1543-1623.) His An- 
thems, set to Latin words, and first published 
in 1589 under the title of " Cantiones Sacrae," 
were afterwards adapted, probably by himself, 
to English words of like character. One of 
them, still frequently in use, " Bow Thine 
ear," or " Be not wroth, very sore," for there 
are two versions of the same composition, 
was originally sung to the words, " Civitas 
sancti Tui," the second part of the Motett, 
'• Ne irascaris;" and the music beautifully 
expresses the sentiment of the text. It is 
only occasionally that such a happy com- 
bination is found in the works of Anthem 
writers up to the period of the restoration of 
Charles II.; for, although the compositions of 
Tye, Tallis, Farrant, Allison, Morley, Hooper, 
Byrde, Bull, and Gibbons, are models of 
constructive skill, there is little that could be 
fairly called musical expression to be found 
in any one of them. Neither was there any 
distinction of style between sacred and secu- 
lar music at this period. For example, the 
madrigal by Gibbons, "The Silver Swan," 
and his Anthem, " Hosanna," might change 
places, so that the madrigal might be made an 
anthem, and the anthem a madrigal, without 
any violation of character, and yet each would 
be counted a noble specimen of its class. It 
was not until men's manners and modes of 
thought had undergone the change brought 
about by the emancipation necessarily suc- 
ceeding a reformation in religion, that a special 
and marked difference was made between the 
style of music used for the Church and that 
for secular purposes. For nearly twenty 
years, that is, from the death of Lawes in 
1645, to the time when Pelham Humphreys 
was writing. Church music was represented 
by such writers as Child and Rogers, the best 
of whose compositions are but pale reflections 
of old styles. The pause in church matters, 
during the Commonwealth, had its bad effect 
upon Church music, until the new interest 
aroused by the works of foreign writers 
produced fresh vitality. When Humphreys 
began to supply the want in Church music 
caused by the revival of the service ac- 
cording to the Ritual of the Prayer-book, 
some degree of difficulty arose, for it was 
impossible to pursue the practice formerly 
in vogue, of making little, if any, difference 
in the style of sacred and secular music, for 
secular music had now assumed a character 
unfitted for the dignity and solemnity of 
Divine worship. To meet this difficulty a 

sort of compromise was effected ; the secular 
style of a preceding generation was adopted 
as the prevailing standard character for 
Church music, a practice which has con- 
tinued in use to this day. Now, as then, 
recently acquired ideas were used in com- 
bination with old fashioned notions, and at 
the period of the history of the Anthem, now 
being treated of, the novelty introduced was 
the Verse, modified by French and Italian 
influence upon English music. The best 
Verse and Solo Anthems are those by 
Humphreys, Purcell, Wise, Weldon, Blow, 
Croft, and Greene ; and, with the last named 
writer, the verse Anthem proper culminated, 
and then decayed, for the poor productions 
of Nares, Kent, Pring, and others, although 
popular in their day, simply lumber the shelves 
upon which they are placed. Boyce and the 
elder Hayes were more successful in their 
Full, than in their Verse Anthems, some of 
which are models of beauty and effective 
writing. It is a singular fact that for many 
years there was a hiatus in the supply of 
original Anthems, the exigencies of the 
Church service being supplied by a series of 
bad arrangements, for, counting the single 
contributions furnished by men of genius like 
Battishill, who were living between the time of 
Boyce and Wesley, the majority of these con- 
tributions were the weak repetition of themes 
that had been better treated before. Thomas 
Attwood, a pupil of Mozart, and organist at 
St. Paul's Cathedral, was the first who made 
the laudable endeavour to supersede bad 
arrangements by attempting to give some 
adequate and connected expression to the 
words set as Anthems; and, although his 
works are to a great extent valueless as 
Church music, his intention should be men- 
tioned with respect, especially as his writings 
and mode of thought aroused the emulation 
of a worthy series of followers. 

It is interesting in reviewing the history of 
the Anthem to notice to what an extent organ 
accompaniment has developed and expanded. 
The Anthems of the first period are as effective 
without organ support as with it, and in those 
choirs in which an unaccompanied service is 
sometimes performed, they form the repertory 
from which selections are made. The organ- 
part to Anthems of the second period i^ 
almost indispensable, by reason of the fre- 
quency with which ritornelli, and solos and 
duets are introduced. In the Anthems of the 
more modern period the organ is exalted 
almost to the dignity of a solo instrument, 
many Anthems being written less for vocal 
than for instrumental effect. The variety of 
stops, improved mechanism of the organ, and 
the advanced skill of cathedral organists form 
a combination too tempting to the composer, 

( 28 ) 


who is, in most cases, himself an organist. 
The tendency of most of the music written 
for the organ is to treat it as an imitation of 
an orchestra ; this improper use of the instru- 
ment is influencing the character of the 
Anthems of the present day; and, unless 
composers are wise in time, the Church music 
of the latter part of the 19th, will be as feeble 
and as useless to future generations as that 
of the latter part of the i8th century. 

5. The first pubUshed collection of Anthems 
in score was that made in 1724 by Dr. W. 
Croft, of his own compositions, the only piece 
of Church music which had been previously 
issued in this style, being a service by Henry 
Purcell. The old practice of printing each part 
separately not only led to the loss of the 
several parts, but also increased the difficulty 
of a correct understanding of the effect, for 
want of a score. Of Barnard's Church music, 
printed in this manner, no perfect copy is 
known to exist, as even the parts intended 
for the several voices on the Decani and Can- 
toris sides of the choir were published in 
separate and distinct books. 

6. Many suggestions have been made as to 
the derivation of the word Anthem, of which 
the following are the chief : — 

(a). From the word Antiphon, it being 
understood that the Anthem was the suc- 
cessor of the more ancient Antiphon. If it 
was the intention of the framers of the Prayer- 
book to continue the use of the Antiphon it 
would probably have been expressed, and 
a table of the Antiphons proper to the Church 
Seasons would have been compiled and in- 
serted among the directions for order of the 
service, in like manner with the table of 
lessons and the division of the Psalms. If, 
however, this direction was omitted, the 
tradition of their retention would doubtless 
remain, and so it would be found that the 
early Anthem writers would have been saved 
the trouble of making their own selection 
of words, and would have set to music the 
words of the Antiphons, all of which were 
taken from Scripture, and therefore in con- 
formity with the principle of the Reformation ; 
but this was not done, as a reference to the 
Anthems in Barnard's Collections, and to 
the words in Clifford's Anthem-book, suffi- 
ently shows. 

(6). From ayTi<i>(i)voQ, or according to some, 
the mediaeval avBvfxvoQ, on the supposition 
that the Anthems or Antiphons were sung 
from side to side of the church. The choir 
being still divided according to ancient custom, 
the practice of antiphonal singing is apparently 
maintained, if by such a term alternation is 
implied. But Antiphony means classically, 
singing at the octave, and anthem singing is 
Hie reverse of such antiphonal singing. 

Durandus gives another meaning to the word, 
when he says, that the sentences which 
precede the Psalms and Canticles are called 
Antiphons " non quia alternatim a diversis 
choris cantentur; sed quia sicut claves et 
indices, ad quorum modulationem ac sonum, 
sequens canticum psalmusque alternatim 
cantatur. Tonus enim totius psalmi ex tono 
antiphonas sumitur" — "not because they 
are sung by two choirs alternately, but because 
they are as keys and indices to the tone and 
mode, to which the Canticle or Psalm fol- 
lowing ought to be chanted antiphonally. 
For the tone of the whole Psalm is taken 
from that of the Antiphon," When the 
Praecentor of ancient times started the Tone 
for the psalms some sort of antiphonal 
singing was practised between him and 
the Choir, in singing the Antiphons ; and the 
connection of the word Anthem with responds 
and invitatories in the preface to the Prayer 
book, would seem to imply alternate singing. 
The word Anthem is used three times in 
the Prayer-book, to the Venite, to the portions 
of Scripture appointed to be sung in place of 
the Venite on Easter-day, and in the Rubric 
after the third Collect. In two out of these 
three cases the word is used in the same 
sense as the old Antiphon. An antiphonal 
character (in the sense of alternating) is 
implied by the use of the words in the 
Office for the Communion of the Sick in 
the Liturgy of King Edward VI., a.d. 1549, 
but as the office does not comprise singing, 
it may be inferred that the words Anthem 
and Antiphon in this case refer to other than 
a musical meaning. It may be here mentioned 
that the word Anthem was at one time 
applied to texts of Scripture — Bishop Scory's 
text for his sermons preached at St. Paul's 
Cross, being called his Anthem — and also 
to secular compositions as well as sacred. 
In the Prioress's Tale, of Chaucer, the 
words — 

" bad me for to synge 

This antym veraily in my deying," 

refer to the ancient Hymn, " Alma re- 
demptoris." Shakspeare makes Falstaff use 
the word with a very different application ; 
and the " Boar's Head Carol" annually sung 
at Queen's College in Oxford, was until 
recently, called an Anthem in the printed 

(c). A derivation from the word avadtna has 
been suggested, under the impression that an 
Anthem is an invocation; and it is curious to 
note in confirmation of this conjecture, that 
in the original edition published in 1663, of 
Clifford's words of Anthems, the first book of 
its kind ever issued, the majority of the se- 
lected verses set as Anthems — 144 out of 167 
— are of an invocatory character. 

(29 ) 


(d). Lastly, the word has been derived from 
avOtfua (a flower), from whence the word an- 
thology. The ancient and still existing name 
for the book containing the words and notes 
of the anthems or antiphons, is Anthologium 
or Antiphonarium, probably from the idea that 
a collection of such words might reasonably 
be considered as a series of choice flowers 
from Holy writ, as the Anthem was formerly 
held to be the flower of the service, by those 
who attended church for the sake of listening 
to it only, and who left in an unseemly man- 
ner at its close, — a vicious habit which is 
scarcely yet extinct. 

Anthema (Gk.) avQEp.a, short poetic form 
oi avadrjfia, literally anything set up {avaTidr^jjn), 
hence ornaments or apparatus of a feast ; 
hence music and dancing. 

Anthologium {Gk.) A collection of anti- 
phons set to music. A term used in imitation 
of the word arBoXoylai, collections of small 
Greek poems, selected and made up, as it 
were, into a nosegay, from avdog, a flower, Xiyw, 
to pick. [Antiphonarium.] 

Anthropoglossa (Gk.) [Vox Humana.] 

Antibacchius. A foot consisting of two 
long syllables, followed by one short, - - ^. 

Anticipation. The introduction of notes 
before the time in which they are naturally 
expected in the harmony, e.g. : 









Antico (7^.) Ancient. 

Antlfona<f/^;')}Antipho„. [Anthem.] 

Antifonario (7^.) l r a .• i. -i 

Antiphonaire {Fr.)\ [Antiphonary.] 

Antiphon. (i) In ancient Greek music 
antiphony (arTicpuvi), or avrlfiJt'oi) meant 
" sounds in octaves " as being responsive to, 
or over against each other. The relation 
between sounds at the interval of an oc- 
tave was thus implied by avTicpwrij, while 
the actual interval of an octave was called 

(2) From the above meaning of the word 
it came in time to be applied to the alternate 
singing of choirs, as being similar in some 
respects to the livipprffia and avTeiripp-qjia of the 
old Tragedy. The word Antiphony is the 
more appropriate for recitation alternatim if 
it be remembered that in the earHest public 
services of Christianity a choir of women and 
children was often responded to by a choir of 

men : hvo yiroj'rai to Trpwrov X^P°'> ^ f ^*' ^f^p^*'> 
6 2c yvyaiKuJv (Philo de Vita, cont.). The 
custom of antiphonal singing seems to have 
been first introduced at Antioch by Diodorus 
and Flavian : ovroi irpcJToi hix^ SieXopTse roiig 
Tuiy \paXX6rr(i)v -^^opovg SK 7rapaSo-)(fjg ^^eiv rr/y 
Aavi^iKr}v idi^a^ay yueXwS/cfV Kal tovto iv 
^ AvTioy^ii} TrpwTOP ap'L,aiievoy TravroGi diihpafie Kal 
KaTeXajoe rrjg oiKovfxivrjQ ripfiara (Theod. Hist. 
EccL). Afterwards, through the musical 
ability of Ambrose, the same system of psalm- 
singing became general in theWestern church. 
Although Christian authors give accounts of 
antiphonal singing as something new, there 
can be no doubt of its great antiquity. There 
are sufficient allusions to it in the Old Testa- 
ment to show that it was well known to the 
Jews ; and the very structure of many of the 
Psalms implies its existence. In our own 
times, the choirs of cathedrals and churches 
are usually (when seated in the chancel, — not 
in a west gallery) divided into two sides, one 
called Decani, from the fact that it is on the 
Dean's side of the choir (south) ; the other, 
Cantoris, because it is placed on the Pre- 
centor's or Succentor's side (north). The 
Psalms are sung by alternate verses from 
side to side, both sides joining in the Gloria! 
Patri. In some foreign churches, the Anti-I 
phony consists of the chanting of one verse' 
by a single voice, the next being sung by the 
full choir, in response. This is not a correct 
system, ritualistically speaking, although, in I 
the Church of England, in those rare places 
where they do not sing, the minister and! 
congregation go through an exactly similar 
process. The Antiphony, which was once 
common in this country, between the minister 
and parish-clerk, who rivalled each other in 
the uncommon phases of meaning which their 
particular method of "saying" the Psalms 
often rendered prominent, is now happily 
almost obsolete. Miraculous stories of the 
introduction of responsive choir-singing are 
not wanting. Socrates, in his ecclesiastical 
history (Book vi. chap, viii), says : " Ignatius, 
third Bishop of Antioch in Syria from the 
Apostle Peter, who had also conversed fami- 
liarly with the Apostles themselves, saw a 
vision of angels hymning in alternate chants 
the Holy Trinity ; after which he introduced 
the mode of singing he had observed in the 
vision into the Antiochian Churches, whence 
it was transmitted by tradition to all the other 

(3) A short sentence, generally from Holy 
Scripture, sung before and after the Psalms 
for the day, or the Canticles, selected for its 
appropriateness to the Church season in 
which it is sung. As an example, one of the 
Antiphons used on the fourth Sunday in 
Advent is here given : 


( 30 ) 



PS^ m^^-m. 

Ca-ni-te tu - ba in Si 


qui -a pro-pe est 

di-es Do-mi-ni: ec-ce ve - .i et ad Sal-van-dum nos 

Al - le - lu - ia, Al - le - lu 

(Then follows Ps. 

ex. to Tone I.). 

" Dixit Dominus." 

The use of the Antiphon in this manner, 
has no doubt grown out of the frequent re- 
currence of Alleluia, and other devout excla- 
mations as found in the Psalms, which have 
ever been used in the Church as " Respon- 
soria." The Gallican " Liturgy," which may 
with probability be ascribed to the second 
century, commences witii an Antiphon. 
But the word Antiphon is used in many 
other senses, sometimes even given to a 
complete set of Versicles and Responses ; 
thus Augustine and his followers are said 
to have entered Canterbury singing as an 
Anthem (Antiphona) one of the Litanies. 
Certain of the hymns sung at the end of 
Compline are also called Antiphons. 

(4) The greater Antiphons (Antiphonse 
majores) are sung on the eight days pre- 
ceding Christmas-day, before the Magnificat. 
The first of them commences with the words, 
" O Sapientia," which is still found in the 
calendar of the English Prayer-book, on 
December i6th. It will be found interesting 
to compare the text of these greater Anti- 
phons as found in the Sarum use, and in the 
Vesperal now issued from Mechlin. 

(5) In the early Greek Church, in the 
services of which, hymns and canticles of all 
kinds were sung by two alternating choirs, 
the word Antiphon was specially applied to 
the three canticles which preceded the lesser 

(6) Antiphona (Lat.) An Anthem. The 
English word is supposed to have been 
corrupted from the Latin. But several other 
explanations, which have been brought 
forward from time to time, will be found 
sub voce. [Anthem.] 

Antiphonarium (Lat.) ] 

Antiphonaire. Anti- V [Antiphonary.] 
phonier {F^-) j 

Antiphonary. 1 A service book of the 

Antiphoner. J Roman Church, which 
contained originally the antiphons sung in 
the services of the Hours, properly arranged 
a.nd noted, to which, from time to time, other 
portions of music and words were added, 
such as Invitatories, Hymns, Responses, &c. 
The advantage, perhaps necessity, of refer- 
ring to ancient copies of service-books for 
the true restoration of plain-song, which has 
ever had a tendency to vary in its character 

by unauthorized additions, or foliations, was 
felt as much one thousand years ago as it 
is now. For we read that the good lessons 
in plain-chant given to the French clergy, 
when Pope Stephen II. was the guest of 
Pepin, King of France, were soon forgotten; 
and that in the time of his son, Charlemagne, 
the church-song had become exceedingly 
corrupt. Charlemagne, for the purpose of 
remedying this, obtained the services and help 
of Theodore and Benoit, who carried with 
them from Rome a copy of the Antiphoner of 
Gregory, which the Pope himself (Adrian) had 
noted. Other accounts are to be found of these 
reformations of plain-chant, all of which how- 
ever point to the importance of the preser- 
vation of, and reference to, old antiphoners. 
And later on, in the 12th century, we find 
St. Bernard the Abbot making efforts to stem 
the tide of innovations, by publishing his 
tract — " De Cantu seu correctione Antipho- 
narii" — in which he says, " take the anti- 
phonary used at Rheims, and compare it 
with that of Beauvais, or Amiens, or Soissons, 
which are almost at your doors, and see if 
they are the same, or even like each other," 

The number of service-books seems to have 
rapidly increased ; for, by the constitutions 
of Archbishop Winchelsey (a.d. 1305) it was 
required that every church in the province of 
Canterbury should be provided with a Legend, 
an Antiphonary, a Grail, a Psalter, a Troper, 
an Ordinal, a Missal, and a Manual. In 1549, 
when all such books were abolished to make 
way for the "Booke of Common Praier," they 
appear to have been still more numerous : 
being described as " Antiphoners, Missals, 
Grayles, Processionals, Manuals, Legends, 
Pies, Portuasses, Primers in Latin or English, 
Couchers, Journals, and Ordinals." The 
Grayle, or Gradual, contained tracts, se- 
quences, hallelujahs, creeds, offertories, the 
sanctus, and the office of sprinkling with holy 
water. Legends, or Lectionaries, contained 
the Lessons, which were not in the Anti- 
phonary. It is unnecessary here to enter 
into an explanation of all these terms; suffice 
it to say, that the copying of choir-books was 
a matter of great labour, and that the books 
themselves were in consequence very costly. 
It is related by Spelman that two anti- 
phonaries cost the Monastery of Crabhuse, 
in Norfolk, twenty-six marks in the year 
1424 ; and it is also related that a common 
Missal cost five marks — a year's income of a 
cleric at that time. Upon the dissolution of 
monasteries, valuable books of this sort were 
dispersed throughout the country, and, from 
carelessness or wanton waste, destroyed in 
large numbers. 

Antispastus. A foot, consisting of two 
long between two short syllables, >j--v^. 

( 31,) 


Antistrophe. [Strophe.] 
Anwachsend [Ger.) Swelling, crescendo. 
Aperto (It.) Open. The use of the 
damper-pedal in pianoforte music. 

Apfelregal (Ger.) A reed stop in the 
organ now no longer made ; the pipes, which 
were small, had a round hollow nob at the 
top like an apple, whence the name. 

Antode(G^.) avrfh). Responsive singing. 
Aoidoi (Gk.), plural of aoidog. Minstrels, 
bards. (Lat.) Vates. [Bard.] 

A piacere {^^•)\ (i) At pleasure. Not 

A piacimento {It.) j strictly in time, ad 

libitum. (2) The introduction of a cadenza. 

Aplomb {Fr.) Steadiness, self-possession. 

A poco a poco {It.) More and more. 

By degrees. Applied to the increase of time 

or expression. 

A poco piu lento {It.) A little slower. 
A poco piu mosso (it.) Somewhat faster. 
Apollo-lyra. [Psalmmelodicon.] 
Apollonicon. An organ, invented in 1800 
by John Henry Voller, of Hesse Darmstadt, 
and manufactured in London by Messrs. 
Flight and Robson in 1828 ; it consisted of 
about 1900 pipes, with six sets of keys, so 
that half a dozen performers might play 
simultaneously. The action was so ar- 
ranged, that it might be performed upon by 
six players in the ordinary manner, or the 
various effects might be elicited by the revo- 
lution of certain cylinders which set the wind 
in motion, and regulated the stops according 
to the character of the music played. An 
imitation of an orchestra, with the usual 
instruments, including kettle-drums, was the 
object sought to be gained by the invention. 

Apolutikion {Gk.) airoKvTiKiov. A hymn 
sung at the close of Vespers in certain seasons 
of the Greek Church. The word is probably 
derived from the opening sentence of the 
Nunc Dimittis, " vvv anoXveig tov lovXoy crov," 
and signifies a hymn of dismissal. 

Apopemptic Song. An ancient farewell 
or parting hymn usually sung to a stranger 
about to return to his own land. Apopemtic 
strains were sung to the gods on certain days 
on which it was believed that the several 
deities returned to their original countries. 

Apotome {Gk.) 'AiroTOfn). A major semi- 
tone. " Major pars toni : quae semitonium 
majus vulgariter dicitur" (Tinctor.) " Id quod 
vere semitonium nuncupatur, pars toni minor 
est quam dimidia. Reliqua igitur pars, quae 
major est, apotome nuncupatur a Grascis, a 
nobis vero potest vocari decisio." (Boethius 
De Inst. Mus., Lib. ii., cap. 29 et 30.) 

Appassionato (7^.) With feeling, passion, 
or affection. 

Appassionamento (7^.) With passion, 
Appassionatamente (7;.) Passionately. 

Appenato (7/.) With an expression of 
suffering, with bitterness or grief. 

Applause. Praise or approbation ex- 
pressed by clapping the hands, stamping 
the feet or the utterance of certain cries, as 
bravo, encore. In the ancient Greek theatre, 
Donaldson says, that " the conduct of the 
audience was much the same as that of the 
spectators in our own theatres, and they seem 
to have had little scruple in expressing their 
approbation or disapprobation, as well to the 
poet as to the actors. Their mode of doing 
this was sometimes very violent, and even in 
the time of Machon it was customary to pelt 
a bad performer with stones." 

Hissing, as an expression of disapproval or 
contempt, is of very ancient use, and it was 
the custom to augment the power of the hiss, 
by blowing through reeds and whistles, a 
custom not altogether unrepresented in later 
times, when cat-calls, introduced into an 
English theatre, gave Addison a subject for 
an amusing paper (No. 361) in the Spectator. 
The hollow pipe of a key serves the purpose 
of the ancient calamus ox fistula, in modern 
Italy, and the frequency with which indifferent 
operas are received " coUa chiave," proves 
that the spirit of old times still lives and is 
active. [Fiasco.] 

History shows us that applause was not 
confined to secular performances, but was 
allowed and even looked for in churches as 
well as theatres. Hone, in his " Ancient 
Mysteries described," quotes the following 
passage relative to this custom : Jerome de- 
sired Gregory Nazianzen to explain to him 
what was meant by the second Sabbath after 
the first, in St. Luke vi. i. Gregory answered, 
" I will teach you that at Church, where, 
when all the people shall applaud me, you will 
be forced to know, what you do not know; for 
if you only keep silence, you will be looked 
upon as a fool." 

At one time encores were not permitted in 
France, neither were calls allowed for the 
author of a piece which had given pleasure. 
When reforms were takingplace, opportunities 
were found to break through this rule, Jean 
Baptiste Lemoine or Moyne, in 1789, being 
the first composer called upon the stage in 
France after the performance of his opera, 
" Nephte." A few years later in Italy, Paisiello 
was the means of removing the prohibition on 
the audience from applauding at all in San 
Carlo, for he induced the King to set the ex- 
ample of the change, by applauding an aria 
sung by Carlo Raino, in the opera "Papirius," 
produced in the year 1805. 

It has been happily said that " II piu 
grand 'omaggia alia musica sta nel silenzio," 
and, influenced by some such principle, the 
better sort among a mixed audience refrain 



from indiscriminate applause, encores in 
tended as compliments often becoming an 
oppressive tax, levied by the unthinking, or 
those who care little for true art. The gene- 
ral opinion of the reasonable on this subject, 
is expressed in the following epigram :— 

" The ' sovereign people ' rule all things, 
So levellers would say ; 
But all 'encores' in concert-rooms, 
The ' shilling people ' sway." 


Applicatur (Ger.) (i) The art of using 
the fingers freely upon a musical instru- 
ment of any kind, (2) shifting, q.v., and re- 
covering the original position. 

Appoggiando (It.) Drawing out, length- 
ening, leaning upon. 

Appoggiato (7^.) Supported. Appoggiato 
notes are those notes which suspend the 
resolution, or that supply gaps in passages 
of intervals. See also passing note, sus- 
pension, and SYNCOPATION. 

Appoggiatura (7^.) A note leant upon 
in singing or playing, applied to beats and 
grace notes, q.v. 

Appre stare (7^.) To make ready, to pre- 
pare for playing, to set in tune. 

A premiere yue {Fr)) ^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^^ 

A prima vista (7^.) J ^ 

A punta d'arco (7^.) With the end of 
the bow near the point. 

A punto (7^.) In exact time, precise, strict, 

Apycni {Gk.) (airvKvoi). The notes Pros- 
lambanomenos (TrpoaXafxfiavofieyoQ), nete sy- 
nemmenon {vfirt] a-vprjixfxivijjv), and nete hyper- 
boleon {vfjrri vnepjioKaiwv) of the Greek system 
of music. The notes are so named because 
of their remoteness from each other (from 
aiTVKvoQ, not close, not dense). 

A quattro mani (7^.) A quatre mains {Fr.) 
For four hands ; as a duet for two performers 
on the pianoforte or organ. 

A quatre seuls (Fr.) | p^^ ^^^^ ^^1^.^^^ 

A quattro soli (7^,) J 

A quattro parti (It.) In four parts. 

A quattro voci (7^.) A quatre voix {Fr.) 
For four voices in harmony. 

Arbitrio (7^.) Will, pleasure, a suo ar- 
bitrio, at his pleasure. 

Arcato (7^.) With the bow, as opposed 
to pizzicato, plucked with the finger. Coll' 
arco is a direction to the same effect. 

Arched viall. An instrument somewhat 
in fashion like a hurdy-gurdy, invented about 
A.D. 1664, and thus described by Pepys in his 
Diary, under the date October 5th, in that 
year : *' To the Musique meeting at the 
Post Office, where I was once before. And 
thither anon came all the Gresham College, 
and a great deal of noble company ; and the 

( 33 

new instrument was brought, called the 
Arched Viall, where being tuned with Lute- 
strings, and played on with kees like an 
organ, a piece of parchment is always kept 
moving; and the strings, which by the kees 
are pressed down upon it, are grated in imi- 
tation of a bow, by the parchment ; and so it 
is intended to resemble several vyalls played 
on with one bow, but so basely and so harshly, 
that it will never do. But after three hours' 
stay it could not be fixed in tune ; and so they 
were fain to go to some other music of instru- 
ments." Pepys had probably no design in 
writing the word viall in the manner in which 
he has done ; but, in doing so, he has intimated a 
connection with ancient vielle or hurdy-gurdy, 
which the Arched viall somewhat resembled ; 
the parchment was doubtless " always kept 
moving" by means of a wheel. 

Archeggiamento (7^;.) (i) The same as 
arcato, or colV arco. (2) The use of the bow. 

Archet {Fr.) Arco (7^.) The bow with 
which stringed instruments are played. [Bow.] 

Archicembalo (7^.) Archicembalum {Lat.) 
A cembalo with an enharmonic scale, sup- 
posed to have been invented about the year 
1537 in Italy, described by Salinas as having 
each tone divided into parts, of which three 
were given to the greater semi-tone and two 
to the less, the whole octave being divided 
into thirty-one parts. 

Archlute, Arciliuto {It.) Archiluth 
{Ger.) [Theorbo.] 

Arco (7^.) The bow. ColV arco, with the 
bow, as opposed to Pizzicato, pinched by the 

Ardente (7^.) {Fr.) Ardently, with fire. 

Arditezza,con (7^.) With boldness, energy. 

Ardito (7^.) Bold and energetic. 

Aretinian syllables. The names Ut, 
Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, given to the Hexachord by 
Guido d'Arezzo (Guido Aretinus). These 
syllables happen to occur in consecutive notes 
of the scale, in an ancient hymn to S. John 

UT que -ant la - xis RE - so - na - re fi-bris, 



ra ge - sto -rum FA- mu - li tu - or - um, 

SOL - ve pol - lu - ti 

LA - bi - i re - a - turn. 


Sane - te Jo - an -nes. 

From the system of over-lapping Hexa- 
chords, arise the compound names of notes 
such as E-la-mi, A-la-mi-re, &c., which are 
explained under Notation. 

) c 


Arghool. A simply constructed wind in- 
strument, now used in Egypt. It is made of 
common cane, and is played by mouth-pieces 
containing reeds. There are two species of 
arghool ; the first (Fig. i) consists of two 
tubes both pierced with holes, so that the 
performer may play in thirds and sixths ; the 
second (Fig. 2) consists also of two tubes, but 
one only is pierced with holes, the other being 
longer and used as a drone. The pitch of the 
drone can be altered by the addition of extra 
pieces, which are attached to the instrument, 
as are also the mouth-pieces, by waxed 


Fis. I. 

Fig. 2. 

Aria (It.) An air, tune, song, or melody 
in rhythmical proportion, now understood to 
mean a movement for a single voice or instru- 
ment, with an accompaniment. [Air.] 

Aria d'abilita (It.) A song of difficult 
execution, requiring great skill in its proper 
and satisfactory performance. 

Aria buffa (It.) A song with some degree 
of humour in the words, or in the treatment 
of the music. 

Aria cantabile (7^.) An air in a graceful, 
flowing style, capable of much musical ex- 

Aria concertante (It.) An air in the con- 
cert style, that is a melody for a single voice, 
accompanied by instruments having obbligato 
or solo passages assigned to them. 

Aria di bravura (7^.) A melody with 
florid, bold, and energetic passages and phra- 
ses for the voice. An aria di bravura is more 
or less an aria d'abilita. 

Aria fugata (7^.) A song or air, in which 
the accompaniment is written in fugal style, 
or in imitation. The difficulty of expressing 
dramatic emotions in this species of compo- 
sition led to its ultimate disuse, though at 
one time it was greatly in favour. The sub- 
joined specimen, perhaps one of the most 
expressive of its class, is said to be the work 

of Bononcini, usually called the rival of 
Handel, but it may be the production of 
either of the other writers concerned in the 
opera of Thomyris, from whence it was taken. 
This opera, produced under the direction of 
Heidegger, at the " King's Theater, in y* Hay- 
market" in 1709, was a pasticcio of melodies 
and compositions selected from the works of 
Albinoni, Gasparini, Steffano, Scarlatti, and 
Bononcini. The opera was called English, 
though the singers delivered some portions in 
Italian, and others in English. The libretto of 
the opera was by no means of a high poetical 

" Aria fugata" out of the Opera of Thomyris. 


„Jf^fc_..tCCgfie^ ^ 








U K » 1^ - 

Free - dom, thou greatest bles - sing, thou greatest 





^ r f f f w ^ 


\ ^ \ ^ ) * • 


no rest pos- ses -sing, no rest pos - ses- sing. Grief 


^^ ^ J' -^ -T^ry-rr : 


p|* -1 


( 34 ) 


all my hours employs, grief all my hours employs. 




W^ ^^^^E^ ^=^=^ 





'h S J J ib J J j- jl— p-y 




T» --!^ 






loss now to my eyes a flood of tears will cost, Oh , 

— d^ 1- 






f^'^i^gr c c £g^S^'rgr^ 

why do we not prize our trea^ - sure ti ll 'tis lost. 


Aria parlante (It.) (i) Vocal music suit- 
able to, and designed for, a proper declamation 
of the words. 

(2) A style of song-writing invented to- 
wards the close of the i6th century by those 
Florentine dilettanti who, imbued with the 
spirit of Renaissance which had already 
revolutionized other arts, turned their atten- 
tion to the necessity of ridding music of 
cold formalities and restoring it to its proper 
function, which indeed it held among the 
Greeks, of being a just vehicle of the ever- 
varying emotions which poetry calls forth. 
Monteverde, Peri, Corsi, and Caccini, were 
the musicians who made the first attempts at 
aria parlante, several operas being composed 
by them individually or in combination, to 
words by Rinuccini, in which the aria par- 
lante occupied an important position. The 
aria parlante was not a recitative, but was 
sung in strict time. The latter, however, 
very soon grew out of the former, and assumed 
a separate existence in the works of Carissimi. 

In the preface to the first Opera printed 
with the music, " Le Musiche de Jacopo Peri, 
Nobil Fiorentino, sopra L'Euridice de Signor 

Ottavio Rinuccini, Rappresentate nello Spon- 
salizio della Christianissima Maria Medici, 
Regina di Francia e di Navarra. In Venetia, 
MDCviii," the author states that the ground- 
work of the imitation proposed " usassero 
un armonia, che avanzado quella del parlare 

The character of this harmony, which was 
intended to be a medium between common 
speech and singing, will be seen in the fol- 
lowing Aria parlante for Pluto, in answer to 
Orpheus seeking Euridice : 




^ •>. 

±r^z;=i : 

On -de 

CO - tan - to ar- di 

re Chi 





^j ^J ^ 

J— >• J J ^ 

nan - ti al di fa - ta 

le, Scend' a miei 




-*— z: 

bas - si reg 



^ S>- 


ni un hu6 mor - ta - le. 

n « 

[Opera.] [Recitative.] 

Aria Tedesca [It.) An air in the German 
style — that is to say, in which the accompani- 
ment is inseparable from the melody. 

Arie aggiunte [It.) Supplementary songs 
introduced into a work after the first perform- 
ance or representation. 

Arietta [It.) The diminutive of aria; a 
short air or melody. 

Ariette {Fr.) [Arietta.] 

Arioso [It.) In the style of an air. (i) A 
direction that the music to which it refers is 
to be performed tunefully, sweetly. 

(2) An intimation that recitative form has 
more or less been incorporated into, or perhaps 
superseded by, a smooth and melodious treat- 
ment of the words. The Arioso is found in its 
perfection in the works of Mendelssohn, but 
examples of it are not wanting in older writers, 
although they are simply called recitative, e.g., 
"Behold and see" ("Messiah") and in Nos. 
17 and 74 of Bach's Passion (St. Matthew). 

Aristoxenians. The followers of the musi- 
cal system of Aristoxenus. cf. Pythagoreans. 

Armer la clef {Fr.) To indicate the key 
by the number of sharps or flats in the 

Armoneggiare (It.) To harmonise, to 
sound in chords. 

Armonia {It.) [Harmony.] 

Armonista {It.) A harmonist. 

( 35 ) 


Armonica {It.) Harmonica, Armonicon, 
Harmonicon. (i) The musical glasses, a. 
series of glass cups of various sizes and thick- 
nesses, capable of producing the different 
notes of the diatonic scale by friction upon 
the edges. The name armonica was given 
to this instrument by Benjamin Franklin, to 
whom also the credit of the invention is 
sometimes given, but the idea was suggested 
by a Mr. Pickeridge, an Irish gentleman, and 
first carried out by M. Delaval, and was in 
use long before the name armonica was given 
to it by Franklin. 

(2) An instrument now used by children, 
consisting of a flat oblong box, containing 
free reeds so arranged that when applied 
to the mouth, inspiration and respiration 
through the orifices in the side, produce 
different sounds of the scale, in a series. 
[Cheng.] [Harmonium.] 

Arpa (It.) [Harp.] 

Arpa doppia (/^.) A double harp. [Harp.] 

Arpanetta or arpanella {It.) A small 

Arpege {Fr.) [Arpeggio.] 

Arpeggiando {It.) Playing arpeggio, q.v. 
'To strike the notes of a 

Arpeggiare {It.) 
Arpeggiato (It.) 

chord in succession in 
the manner of harp 

Arpeggiatura {It.) [Arpeggio.] 
. Arpeggio {It.) In the style of a harp. A 
term applied to the notes of a chord when they 
are struck consecutively, instead of simul- 

Una corda. 

e( S 






^=^=d0=^ ^ 


In pianoforte music a waved line is written 
beside a chord intended to be played arpeggio : 





Arrangement. A selection or adaptation 
of the parts of a composition, to fit them for 
performance by other voices or instruments 
than those originally designed. 

There are very few examples existing of 
acknowledged arrangements in the earliest 
musical publications; for few ever thought of 
tampering with an author's compositions so 
far as to divert them from their original in- 
tentions. The adaptation of new words. 

although it occasionally involved a slight 
alteration in the time-value of some of the 
notes, was a matter of small importance ; 
and the musician who undertook such a 
matter rarely gave himself the credit of 
having done so clever a thing as modern 
arrangers would have us believe such an 
alteration to be. Thus Nicolas Yonge, in his 
collection of Madrigals, " Musica Transal- 
pina," London 1588, leaves it to the judg- 
ment of the reader to infer the part he took 
in giving his book to the world, calling his 
work " Madrigales translated of four, fiue, 
and sixe parts, chosen out of diuers excellent 
Authors, with the first and second part of 
La Verginella, made by Maister Byrd, out of 
two Stanz's of Ariosto, and brought to Speak 
English with the rest. Published by N. Yonge 
in favour of such as take pleasure in Musick 
of voices." For a somewhat lengthened period 
arrangements were described as " brought to 
light," "framed," "figured," "fitted," "made 
proper," and " newly set forth," for example : 
" Lessons for Consort, made by sundry excellent 
authors, and set to sixe severall instruments. 
Namely, the Treble Lute, Treble Violl, Base 
Violl, Bandora, Citterne, and the Flute. Now 
newly set forth by Philip Rossetor, i6og." 

Richard Alison, in his book " An Howres 
Recreation in Musicke, apt for Instruments 
and Voyces" (1606), describes his arrangement 
as "Framed for the delight of gentlemen and 
others which are well aftected to that qualitie." 
A Dutch edition of Gastoldi's ballets for "5 en 
6 stemmen, te singen of speelen," 1648, is 
"gestelt" — that is, arranged or accommo- 
dated — "of 3 en 4 stimmen," and this is 
perhaps one of the earliest instances of an 
alteration of an original design. Arrangements 
such as these could only be called into exist- 
ence by the desire to possess condensations 
of larger works. 

The " Modulorum Hortus ab excellentis- 
simae Musicas auctoribus " is described as 
being merely collected by R. Floridus, Rome, 
1647, — "in lucem curavit edendam." A few 
years later arrangements are described as 
"transpositions." Thus, in the Mercurius 
Musicus for 1699, the " New teaching songs, 
compos'd .... With a Thorow Bass 
for the Harpsichord or Spinett," we have the 
further intimation of "The songs being Traws- 
pos'd for the Flute at the end of the Book." 
In the " Orpheus Britannicus, a collection of 
all the choicest songs for One, Two, and Three 
Voices, composed by Mr. Henry Purcell ; 
together with such Symphonies for Violins or 
Flutes as were by him designed for any ot 
them, and aThorow-bass to each song, figur'd 
for the Organ, Harpsichord, or Theorbo Lute 
(1698-1702); also, in "Suits of the mostCele- 
brated Lessons for Viols, collected and fitted 



to the Harpsichord or Spinett, by William 
Babell (1702) ;" and in "A choice Collection 
of Lessons, being excellently Sett to the 
Harpsichord, viz. Old Simon the King, Mote- 
ley's Maggot, Mortlack's Grounds, and several 
others (by Blow and Purcell) 1705." In " A 
Collection of the Newest Minuets, Rigadoons, 
and French dances perform'd att Court and 
Publick entertainments," 1716. The tunes 
are made " proper for the Violin, Hoboy, or 
Flute," and in " Six Setts of Choice Opera 
Songs or Arietts, with their Symphonys j^^^^^ 
for two Flutes. The Second Parts being com- 
pleat and airy as the first, not thin and heavy 
as Second Trebles usually are ;" in both parts 
their proper Variations for the Humour of the 
Flute (1712.) 

A little later in date, we find, " Song in the 
Opera of Flora, with the Humorous Scenes 
of Hob, designed by y^ celebrated Mr. Grave- 
lot, and engrav'd by G. Bickham, Junr. The 
Musick proper for y* Violin, German and Com- 
mon Flute, Harpsichord, or Spinet, with a New 
Base, and thoro' Base to each Song" (1737). 
The business of arrangement, that is to say, 
of altering music intended for one purpose, 
so that it might serve another — more or less 
hinted at in the preceding collections — arose 
with the popularity of Handel's works ; thus, 
copies of "favourite Choruses" out of Mr. 
Handel's celebrated oratorios " adapted for 
the Harpsichord or organ and a single voice," 
began to appear soon after his death. Such 
"arrangements" being part and parcel of the 
system of piracy which was most ingeniously 
and unblushingly carried on during the last 
century. A chorus arranged for a single voice 
ceasing of course to be a chorus ; but, as a 
double security, many of these pieces were 
made cleverly incorrect. Thus Pitt, organist 
of Worcester, evaded all copyright that might 
have existed by arranging his " Church 
music" from the sacred works of Handel, 
by a system of dove-tailing and occasional 
alteration of key. 

" The beauties of Handel, consisting of his 
most favourite Songs, Duets, and Trios ; ar- 
ranged with a separate accompaniment for 
the pianoforte, and figured from the MS. scores 
of the author, by Jos. Corfe" (c. 1782) is perhaps 
one of the earliest collections of confessedly 
"arranged" music. In 1795, J. W. Holder, 
Mus. Doc, Oxon, one of the most talented 
pianoforte players of his time, published an 
arrangement of the choruses of Handel for 
four hands, which were the standard pieces 
of their kind for many years, being frequently 
played by two performers on one organ also. 
Giambattista Cimador (1750-1810) was pro- 
bably the first who was employed by the 
publishers of London on purpose to make 
arrangements of large works for the piano- 

forte, or small bands, his arrangement of 
Twelve Symphonies by Mozart, as sestetts 
with a seventh part, ad libitum, being con- 
sidered at the time they were made as of 
more than ordinary excellence. These were 
undertaken by Cimador out of pure love for 
Mozart's works, and a desire to communicate 
that love to the musicians of his time who 
thought " Mozart's symphonies too arduous 
and difficult." 

About the same time J. S. C. Possin (1755- 
1822), a musician of such singular modesty 
that he never would have his name printed 
with his works, arranged for Salomon the 
twelve symphonies of Haydn, known as the 
" Salomon set," for the pianoforte, in " an 
admirable manner;" indeed, says his bio- 
grapher, " they were the first adaptations of 
orchestra music worthy of notice." From 
that time to the present " adaptations, 
arrangements, and transcriptions," have been 
issued in unlimited quantities, of more or 
less value. 

Arranger (Fr.) To arrange a piece of 
music. [Arrangement.] 

Arrangiren (Ger.) To arrange a piece of 
music. [Arrangement.] 

Arsis (Gk.) apmc (from a'tpw), a raising, 
an elevation, as opposed to thesis [diaiQ, from 
Tidrifii), a depression or lowering. 

There are two kinds of Arsis, (i) of 
accent ; (2) of metre. 

The former of these does not perhaps call 
for special attention from musicians, unless 
it be looked upon as a subject into which 
their educated ear qualifies them to enter; or 
unless it be considered (as it undoubtedly was 
by the Greeks) as an essential part of the 
education of those who attempt to set words 
to music. The latter has been explained 
from two opposite points of view, both of 
which, however, are closely connected with 
the former, — a slight sketch of the whole sub- 
ject is therefore subjoined : 

(i) Though not accepted without dispute, 
the following facts seem generally to be 
admitted; first, that in speaking, the voice is 
constantly varying slightly in pitch, that is, 
is not absolutely on monot07ie ; next, that the 
component syllables of polysyllabic words 
are not exactly of the same duration ; lastly, 
that there is an emphasis on particular 
syllables, which is independent alike of the 
raising or depression of voice, and ot the 
length of time during which any syllable is 

The elevation, or pitch of the voice is 
classically termed Accent (from ad and cantus, 
just as Trpoauhia is from Trpoe and w2//) ; the 
duration of syllables is called Quantity ; and 
the metrical emphasis is called Ictus. 

Accent is of two kinds, vocabular and 

(37 ) 


oratorical. The former is that method of 
pronunciation which a word receives if it 
stands alone in a vocabulary or dictionary ; 
the latter that which it receives in con- 
sideration of its position in a sentence, words 
being of course influenced by the meaning to 
be expressed in a sentence of prose, or by 
their metrical position in verse. 

There can be no doubt that a nice ear and 
appreciation of pitch is required before accent 
and quantity can be distinguished from each 
other in modern languages. With regard to 
ancient languages the same difficulty does 
not exist, because, putting aside the question 
of the correctness of our pronunciation of 
them, quantity is governed by either known 
laws of syllabic structure and position, or by 
the actual shape of the letters. Hence, many 
have thought that quantity does not exist in 
modern languages, and all that we possess is 
accent (elevation of the voice) and emphasis, 
and that these two always coincide, and are 
commonly included in the one term accent. 
But as a matter of fact, the pitch of voice is 
in modern languages quite independent of 
quantity, e.g., precarious, request, &c., in 
which the voice is high for the short syllable, 
drops in pitch for the long, yet no one can 
doubt that there are long syllables in these 
words, just as much as in such others, 
as probable, symmetry, pendant, &c. The 
pronunciation of English in the common 
conversation will give but a very slight clue 
to the intricacies of our language in this 
respect. For, in addition to the acute accent 
already spoken of, we certainly have a JJat 
accent corresponding to the Greek ^, e.g., 
cumbersome, where the voice drops a little 
below what might be termed its key-note. 
We have also the up-and-down slide indi- 
cated by the Greek circumflex, e.g., fearful, 
loathsome. But with us these are always 
oratorical, never vocabular. 

Having said thus much as to elevation and 
depression of the voice, it is now time to show 
how arsis is used as a musical term. Ac- 
cording to Scaliger, when the voice is raised 
on a syllable it is called a7'sis, when it returns 
to its original position it is called thesis. 
Priscian (see Foster on Accent, p. 8i, note) 
not only says the same thing, but gives as 
an example the word natura, pointing out 
that there is an arsis at the syllable tu, and 
thesis on ra. In this sense arsis is evidently 
the accent, or elevation of the voice, which 
has been already spoken of. 

(2) But arsis and thesis are not only applied 
to the elevation and depression of voice, but 
also to the strong and weak parts of metrical 
scansion. But unfortunately, scholars have 
used these terms in two ways. For instance, 
Tate says (see Donaldson, Theatre of the 

Greeks, p, 371), "those syllables which have 
the metrical ictus are said to be in arsi ; those 

which have it not, m thesi the latter 

is sometimes called the debilis positio." In 
this he follows Bentley, who makes ictus (or 
percussio), elevatio, and arsis synonymous. 

To this other scholars object, and say truly 
that a syllable often is in arsi as regards 
metre, when it is in thesi as regards accent 
(elevation of voice). Also, Victorinus says 
distinctly that " arsis and thesis, as used by 
the Greeks, refer to the movement of the foot 
(significant pedis motum), and that the former 
is 'the elevation of the foot' without sound, 
the latter the 'lowering of the foot' to the 
ground, with a sound, the sounds marking the 
metrical ictus. To this Foster (on Accent, 
p. 166) agrees. With these authors, there- 
fore, ictus and thesis are synonymous. 

Hence, musicians who agree with the 
former of these opinions and make arsis and 
ictics synonymous are justified in saying that 
there is an arsis on the down-beat of every 
bar, and its up-beats are in thesi, for if thesis 
is debilis positio, it would be absurd to say 
that this occurs on the down-beat, except in 
some rare cases of syncopation. 

Those musicians, on the other hand, who 
believe that ictjcs and thesis coincide, because 
the thesis of the foot marked the ictus of the 
metre, have a perfect right to say that the 
down-beat of a bar is in thesi, and an up-beat 
in arsi. 

Inasmuch as the confusion among mu- 
sicians in using these terms has resulted 
from the disagreement of scholars as to their 
proper application, it is much to be hoped 
that they will be allowed to sink into disuse. 
The expressions, strong position and weak 
position of the bar, imply all that is under- 
stood by arsis and thesis, without the risk, by 
their use, of calling forth absolutely con- 
tradictory opinions as to their meaning. 

Art {Ger.) Species, kind, sort, as auf 
polnischeArt, a sort oi polonaise, &c. 

Articulation, (i) In singing, the art of 
distinct pronunciation. (2) In instrumental 
music, the art of producing proper tone by a 
right adjustment of the fingers, or the lips. 
The latter application of the term is less 
commonly met with than the former, 

Artist, One who possesses in 
degree that appreciation of the beautiful and 
that refined temperament, which, when duly 
trained and educated, become active faculties, 
and render their owner an able and influential 
exponent of Art. 

As {Ger.) The note A >. 

Asamentata, Assamenta, or Axamenta 
(Lat.) The songs or hymns sung by the Sahi, 

As dur (Ger.) The key of A flat major. 

a high 

( 38) 


Ashantee Trumpet. An instrument 
formed of the tusk of an elephant carefully 
hollowed. Its peculiarity consists in the 
fact that the embouchure is not at the end, 
but in the side, a short distance from it. 

As moll {Ger.) The key of A flat minor. 

Asor. [Azor.] 

Asosra [Heb.) [Chatzozerah.] 

Ascaules (Gk.) aaKavXrte, a player on the 

Ascaulos (Gk.) aaKavXoc, a bagpipe, from 
ciffKoe, a leathern bag, and duXoe, a. pipe. 

Aspiration {Fr.) (i) The sign ' for short- 
ening the duration of a note. [Spiccato.] 



At one's pleasure 

At one's leisure. 
{It.) At one's 

(2) A former name for an appoggiatura. 

Aspirare [It.) To take breath audibly, 
bad management of the breath in singing. 

Asprezza {It.) Harshness, severity. 

Assai {It.) Very. Allegro assai, very fast. 

Assemblage {Fr.) (i) A series of rapid 
passages executed on wind instruments. (2) 
Double tongueing on the flute or cornet. 

Assez {Fr.) Enough, very; as, assez lent, 
rather slow. 

Assonance. Agreement of tone, con- 

A string. [A §7.] 

A suo arbitrio {It.) 
or judgment. 

A suo comodo {It.) 

A suo bene placito 

A suo luogo {It.) At one's position or 

Atabal. A Moorish tambour. 

A table sec {Fr.) The performance of 
vocal exercises without the accompaniment 
of an instrument. Sec. lit. dry, cf. Lat. assa 
vox, an unaccompanied voice, and asscB tihice, 
flutes used without a voice accompaniment. 

A tempo {It.) In time. [A battuta.] 

A tempo comodo {It.) In a convenient, 
easy, moderate time. 

A tempo di Gavotta {It.) In the time of 
the Gavotte, q.v. 

A tempo di Minuetto (7^) In the time 
of the Minuet, q.v. 

A tempo giusto {It.) At a just pace, 
(i) In general, an indication that the move- 
ment should be taken at a moderate tempo. 
(2) A direction (in older writers) to return to 
strict time after irregular declamation. 

A tempo ordinario (7^) At an ordinary 

A tempo primo (7^.) In the time first 


A tempo rubato {It.) Robbed time; time 
made slightly irregular for the sake of ex- 

A tre {It.) For three voices, instruments, 
or parts. 

A tre mani (7^.) For three hands upon 
an organ or pianoforte. 

A tre parti (7^.) For three parts. 

A tre soli (7^.) For three principals, 
either vocal or instrumental performers. 

A tre stromente {It.) For three instru- 

A tre voci (7^.) For three voices, or parts. 

Attacca (7^.) Commence at once, without 
a pause. 

Attacca subito {It.) [Attacca.] 

Attaccato subito {It.) To be begun at 
once. Go on. 

Attack, (i) A vigorous entry of voices or 
instruments at a leading point. (2) A coura- 
geous rendering. 

Attacco (7^.) (Lit. sticking, cleaving to,^ 
A term given to a short and well-define 
theme, or passage, in fugal imitation. 

Attendant Keys. Relative keys, keys of 
affinity. Attendant keys in a scale are the 
relative minor or major, the dominant and 
subdominant, and their relative minors or 
majors. [Relative Key.] 

Atto [It.] An act in an opera. [Act.] 

Attore or Attrice (7^). An actor or 
actress, the chief singers in an opera. 

Aubade {Fr.) (i) An open air morning con- 
cert, the antithesis of a serenade. (2) The word 
is derived from a?i6^, day-break, and was similar 
in character to the English "Hunts up" {q.v.) 
Sometimes unmusical noises were made for 
an aubade, and so the word came to be em- 
ployed as a term for an insult. The Aubades 
de CaVene occupied in France the position of 
the Waits {q.v.) in England, as they were 
performed in the evening for a month or so 
before Christmas. Although doubtless of 
religious origin, the performers gradually 
introduced secular melodies. The players, 
like the Waits, were officially licensed. The 
word Calhie is a French provincial form of 
the word Calendes, Christmas Day being for- 
merly called " le jour des Calendes." 

( 39) 


Audace, con {It). With vigour, boldness. 

Auditory nerve. [Ear.] 

Auferions {Old Eng.) Wire strings. 

Aufgeweckt(Ger.) Brisk, lively, sprightly, 

Aufgewecktheit [Ger.) Sprightliness, 

Aufhalten {Ger.) To stop, to keep back, 

Aufhaltung(Ger.) Suspension. [Harmony.] 

Aufldsung {Ger.) Resolution of a discord. 

Aufschlag {Ger.) Unaccented beat. 

Aufstrich {Ger). An up bow in violin 

Auftakt {Ger.) The unaccented part of 
a bar. 

Augmentatio {Med. Lat.) The lengthen- 
ing of a note by the addition of half its length, 
thus corresponding to the use of the modern 

Augmentation. The introduction of the 
subject of a fugue or canon, in the course 
of its progress, in notes of longer duration 
than those in which it was first proposed. 

L^ U^j-^j^iy A ^ 




Augmented interval. [Interval.] 
Augmented subject. [Augmentation.] 
Auletes {Gk.) AhXrjTrjg. A player on the 
Aulos or Flute. [Aulos.] 

Auletrides {Gk.) Plural of ahXqrpig. Fe- 
male players on the Aulos or Flute, q.v. 

Aulaeum {Lat.), ahXaia {Gk.) The curtain 
of a theatre. 

Aulos {Gk.) avXoc, derived from a»;/it, to 
blow, as fljite is from the Lat. Jio. The 
most important wind instrument of the 
Greeks. The aulos was sometimes double, 
the two tubes being called dextra and sinistra, 
and sometimes male and female. Though 
generally rendered _;?2(^^, there is much reason 
for supposing that it was a reed-instrument, 
or, at the least, that the term, used generally, 
included instruments of the oboe family. The 
fact that the two tubes were often of different 
lengths {i}npares)has been explained by saying 
that they were tuned in different modes. But 
it is far more probable that they were con- 
structed like the arghool, and that the longer 
tube gave out a drone. The double flute 
was not unknown to the ancient Egyptians 
and Assyrians, as shown in figs, i and 2, 
but they were divergent, or perhaps actually 
separate from each other. Fig. 3 represents 

( 40 

two ancient Greek flutes, preserved in the 
British Museum. 

Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig- 3- 

A una corda (7^) With, or on, one string. 
A direction (i) in pianoforte music, to use the 
soft pedal. (2) In music for stringed instru- 
ments to play the passage so marked on one 
string only, by the shift. [Shift.] 

Ausarbeitung {Ger.) The working out of 
a theme, the climax of a composition. 

Ausdruck {Ger.) Expression, q.v. 

Ausfiihrung {Ger.) (i) Performance or 
execution. (2) The working out of a subject 
in composition. 

Aushaltung {Ger.) The time a note oc- 
cupies in sounding, the duration of sound, 
sustaining a sound. 

Aushaltungs-zeichen {Ger.) A pause /T^ 

Aussere Stimmen {Ger.) [Extreme parts.] 



Ausweichung (Ger.) Change, modulation. 

Authentic cadence. A final close, in 
which the common chord of the Tonic is im- 
mediately preceded by the common chord of 
the dominant. [Cadence.] 

Authentic mode. The name given to 
those modes on which were afterwards con- 
structed other modes called Plagal, by an 
alteration of the pitch to a fourth below. 
[Plain Song.] 

Authentic part of the Scale, in Counter- 
point and Fugue, is that which lies between a 
note and its Dominant, whilst that which lies 
between the Dominant and its superior Tonic 
is termed Plagal. The terms are used chiefly 
in connection with Subject and Answer. 

Autos Sacramentales (Sp.) One of the 
early forms of Spanish drama, similar in some 
respects to the mysteries and moralities in 
England, but in which music and dancing 
formed an important part. The Autos had 
reference to the adminstration of the Sacra- 
ments according to the ideas received by the 

Auxiliary Notes. Notes not essential 
to the harmony, introduced for the sake of 
breaking monotony, or of giving freedom of 
motion to one or more of the parts. They 
may occur on either the accented or the unac- 
cented part of the bar, and if introduced 
below the melody should be only a semitone 
from the proper note of that melody, but if 
above they may be either a tone or a semitone 
as the position in the scale would warrant, or 
taste suggest. 

Beethoven. No. 4 Symphony. 



■ ^^='^~9SSSSSwt^ 


2nd V. 

^^^^ r I * r^ § 


Examples of extended auxiliary notes, and 
ol auxiliary notes, on the accented part of 
the bar. 

Verdi. Core " Vedi le fosche" (Trovatore). 



g I r .4 


%— ; ^j f e g-^ ^r "^ ^ 





^%—^ i~r^=:; 1 u ^ j-g-g-g-g 



Rossini. " Guillaume Tell " Overturs. 

AuBER. Coro ' 

En bons militaires buvons" 
(Fra Diavolo). 


B^^ fa^^^ ^"^^ ! 



Auxiliary Scales. The scales of relative 
or attendant keys, q.v. 

Ave Maria {Lai.) (Hail ! Mary.) The 
angel's salutation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
used in the Roman Catholic Church as an 

Avena (Lat.), lit. oats. An oaten pipe, 
hence (i) any simple reed used as a shep- 
herd's pipe — "est modulatus avena Carmen," 
Tibull, 2, I, 53. (2) The syrinx or pan-pipes, 
reedsjoined together with wax — "pastor junctis 
pice cantat avenis," Ovid, Tristia 5, 10, 25. 
[Pan's pipes.] 

A vista (It.) At sight ; at first sight. 

Away. A direction in Mace's Musicks 
Monument, published in 1676, signifying a 
return to the original time. 

Azione Sacra (It.) Sacred dramas. 
[Autos Sacramentales. Oratorio. Passion 

Azor [Heh.) This word which occurs in 
the Book of Psalms and elsewhere, is vari- 
ously rendered according to the view which 
is taken of its association with nehel. In 
Psalm xxxiii., 2, "Sing unto him with a nehel 
and azor " some drop the " and " and under- 
stand azor as qualifying nebel,ma'king the com- 
pound word to signify a " ten-stringed nebel" 
(psalterium decern chordarum). Whether the 
azor was a distinct instrument, or not, it is 
impossible to say, although Engel, Fetis, and 
some other authors have so considered it, and 
have ventured to assign to it a definite number 
of strings. 

( 41 ) 



B. (i) The name of the note above Pros- 
lambanos, in the greater perfect system of the 
Greeks. The first note of the lowest Tetra- 
chord (Hypaton). [Greek Music] 

(2) The third note of the grave hexachord 
of the Guidonian system, in which it is B mi. 

(3) The seventh note of the normal scale C, 
the note Si [Si], in Tonic Sol-fa system Te. 

(4) The major scale having five sharps in 
its signature. 

(5) The note Bj? in Germany, where Bj^ is 
known as H, whence the possibility of making 
the letters B, A, C, H, into a fugue subject, 



as has been done by Bach, Schumann, Liszt, 
and others. 

(6) In old solmizations this note was called 
a Mi. [Solfeggio.] 

There is no authentic church-mode com- 
mencing on this note, owing to the imper- 
fection of its fifth when unraised by the 

B. Abbreviation of Bass voice, Bassoon, 
and Double-bass. 

Baar-pyp. The name of a stop in some 
of the Dutch organs ; (lit.) the Bear-pipe, 
written also Bar-pfeife and Baren-pfeife, so 
called from the instrument played as an ac- 
companiment to dancing bears. 

Baas or Base Dance. A dance or slow 
movement, similar to the Measure, q.v., or the 
Minuet, so called probably in contradistinction 
to the vaulting dances in which greater agility 
was displayed. 

"And then came downe the 1 prince and the lady 
Cecill, and daunced two baas daunces, and departed up 
againe ; the 1. prince to the King, and the lady Cecill 
to the Queene." — Wi'ighfs Provincial Dictionary. 

Baccalaureus Musicae (Lat.) Bachelor 
in Music. 

Bacchanalian Song, (i) Songs sung in 
procession during the worship of Bacchus. 
(2) Any song in praise or defence of wine 
drinking, ofwhich there are numbers belonging 
to the 1 8th century. 

Bacchia. Kamschatdale dance, in | time. 

Bacchius. A metrical foot consisting of 
one short and two long syllables. [Metre.] 

Bacciocolo (It.) Tuscan musical instru- 
ment of the guitar kind. 

Bachelor of, or in, Music. The first of 

the degrees in music at the Universities of 
Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin. At Cam- 
bridge the degree is conferred next in seniority 
to that of Master of Arts. In Oxford and 
Dublin it is the lowest step in the Scale of 
Graduates. The hood worn by the Oxford 
and Dublin Bachelors is of blue silk, trimmed 
with white fur ; at Cambridge the hood is the 
same as that worn by Masters of Arts. The 
degree is not conferred by any foreign Uni- 

Backfall. A Turn in Lute or Harpsichord 

music, written thus 


H 1- 

Back fall. [Organ, § 10.] 

Badinage (Fr.) Playfulness. 

Bagana. The ten - stringed lyre of the 
Abyssinians. It has only five different notes, 
but each note has its octave-string. 

Bagatelles (Fr.) Sketches, short pieces, 

Bagpipe. The ascaulus (ao-cauXoc) of the 
Greeks (from clcikoq, a leathern bag, and avXoq, 
a pipe) ; the tibice utricularice or utricularium 
of the Romans ; sampogna or zampogna of 
Italy; the cornemuse of France ; the chifonie 
or symphony of the middle ages ; the soiigga- 
rah or zouggarah of the Arabians. An ancient 
wind instrument of almost universal adoption, 
formerly in common use in every part of 
Europe, but now only found in parts of Italy, 
Sicily, Calabria, Brittany, Poland, and Scot- 
land, in form more or less varied ; 
the bagpipes under the name of 
pipes, are yet to be met with, 
musical instrument among the English it has 
completely disappeared, in consequence of the 
advance in musical taste. A form of bagpipe 
is probably meant by the word symphonia 
(Dan. iii. 15) translated in the Italian version of 
the Bible zampogna. In its general construc- 
tion the bagpipe consists of a leathern bag fre- 
quently formed of the whole skin of a kid or 
other small animal, which contains the wind 
conveyed from the mouth of the player 
through a tube, a small valve preventing its 
rapid escape. The sound comes from four 

in Ireland 
the Union 


( 42 j 


pipes, three of which united are called the 
drone, and are capable of producing only one 
note each, subject to tuning^ These notes 
are heard throughout the performance. The 
fourth pipe, the chapiter, furnished with a 
reed, is bored with six or eight holes which 
are stopped by the ends of the fingers of the 
performer. The scale of some of the Scotch 
bagpipes, with eight ventages, is in the minor 
mode with the seventh fiat: 



in others with six holes, the fourth and 
seventh are omitted : 



that of the Calabrian bagpipe is the diatonic 
scale : 


-^s> ^-^ 

The bagpipe was known to the Anglo-Saxons, 
and that it was at one time in England a 
popular instrument, may be inferred from the 
frequent mention made of it in mediaeval 
times. Strutt quotes a MS. recording many 
payments made to bagpipers in the reign of 
Edward III., about 1335, both for their per- 
sonal performance and as an allowance to 
enable them to visit the foreign minstrel 
schools. The same authority also records a 
payment to another bagpiper in 1494. The 
manner in which the instrument is mentioned 
by Chaucer, and other poets, shows it to have 
been exceedingly popular and of frequent use 
in England in their days ; and a large number 
of tunes quoted or alluded to in William Chap- 
pell's " Popular Music " bear evidence of having 
been of bagpipe character. There is no proof 
that the bagpipe is a national Scottish instru- 
ment, for its introduction into Scotland only 
dates from the time it began to be disused in 

There is a tradition that bagpipes were used 
at the Battle of Bannockburn, and there is a 
tune, " Hey taitti, taittie," said to be the 
identical march played by them. Ritson, in 
his preface to a collection of Scottish songs, 
doubts whether the Scots had any martial 
music, and quotes Froissart's account of each 
soldier in the army wearing a little horn, on 
which, at the onset they would make such a 
horrible noise " as if all the devils in hell had 
been let loose." He further notes that as these 
horns are the only instruments mentioned by 
Barbour the Scottish chronicler, it must re- 
main a moot point whether Bruce's army was 
ever cheered by the sound of a bagpipe. 

The earliest mention of the bagpipe as 
forming part of the military music of the 

Scotch was at the Battle of Balrinnes (1594), 
though the oldest known pibroch is called 
the " Battle of Harlaw," but it could not be 
contemporary with the event (141 1). There 
is mention of trumpets and drums in the old 
ballad relating to the battle, but none of the 
bagpipe : 

" The armies met, the trumpet sounds, 
The dandring drums alloud did touk." 

The Irish or Union pipes are furnished with 
a pair of bellows (worked with the elbow) 
with which to inflate the bag. There are 
three drones, two tuned in unison, and one 
an octave below ; most pipes have a valve 
by means of which the drone can be silenced, 
and there is also a contrivance for sounding 
at will the common chord of the key note 
in which the pipes are set. The quality of 
the chanter is more like that of the clarinet 
than the oboe, and the general tone of the 
Irish pipes is softer and less piercing than 
the Scottish bagpipe. The native Irish pipers 
call the instrument " ullan piobe," the pipes 
of the elbow. Shakespeare's mention of 
" woollen pipes " in the " Merchant of Venice," 
Act. iv. sc. I : 

"Why he, a harmless necessary cat 
Why he, a woollen bagpipe," 

refers probably to the "ullan pipes ;" and the 
word " union," as applied at the present day, 
may be only a m.odem substitute for the right 
word, for it is difficult to see the force of the 
application of the term " union " to bagpipes, 
unless the word be a corruption of a proper 

It is supposed that the bagpipe came 
originally from the East ; it is still to be met 
with in use among many Eastern nations. 
In India, China, Persia, and Egypt, it is 
the subject of frequent mention by many 

Baguettes {Fr.) Drumsticks. 

Baisser {Fr) To lower. 

Balafo. A musical instrument popular 
among the negroes of Senegambia. It is 
made of a series of graduated pieces of wood, 
placed over gourds, which act as resonance- 
boxes, is struck with hammers, and has a 
scale of two octaves, sometimes tuned in ac- 
cordance with the white notes of a pianoforte. 




Balalaika (Russ.) A Russian instrument, 
in form like a guitar, but narrower and of less 
depth ; it has two strings. With it the Rus- 
sian Aloujiks accompany their popular songs- 

Balancement [Fr.) Tremolo. 

Balcken or Balkan {Ger.) The bar under 
the belly of a violin. 

( 4.3 ) 



Balg {Ger.) Bellows, wind-chesl. 

Balgentreter [Ger.) The bellows-treader. 
In old organs the blower worked the bellows 
by standing on them in turns. 

Ballad. A song designed to suit a popu- 
lar audience. A varied derivation has been 
claimed for the term, which doubtless meant 
originally a dance song. Hence its connec- 
tion with the Mediaeval Latin word ballare, 
(fidXXuj, /GaXAt'^w). As a poem, the ballad has 
undergone so many transmutations that it is 
difBcult to describe it properly, many pieces to 
which the term is applied having little or 
nothing in common with the primitive form, 
and poems of exactly similar character being 
described at one time as romances, at another 
ballads, at another lyric-epics. The Italians — 
among other writers, Dante — gave the title bal- 
lata to short lyrical pieces of inartistic con- 
struction allied to the sonnet or madrigal. It 
was against the French equivalent for these 
hallate that Moliere wrote. The Spanish ro- 
mances, erroneously called ballads, belong to 
epic poetry. The ballad, as we now understand 
its meaning and application, is confined to 
the people of Northern Europe, the Germans, 
following Burger, the creator of the modern 
ballad, have given it an artificial character by 
the introduction of reflections arising out of 
the incidents. A ballad, properly speaking, 
is a simple narrative of one or more events, 
told without gloss, commentary, or deduction, 
set to a tune sufficiently rhythmical to act 
as one of the original purposes of a ballad, 
namely, a dance tune. The old ballad tunes still 
existing are nearly all of this character. In 
fact, the majority of the melodies have been 
recovered from having been preserved in col- 
lections of them made by dancing masters 
at various periods. The title of Ballet or 
Ballad — says Warton — was often applied to 
poems of considerable length, of various 
subjects, sometimes to prose compositions, 
sometimes to plays or interludes, sometimes 
to religious verses or discourses. 

Ballad (Old English). The English have 
ever been a ballad-loving people, and although 
the taste was more widely diffused among all 
classes in former days than now, yet there is no 
present sign that it will soon die away. Ballads 
were embodied into our earliest histories, be- 
cause the bards or minstrels — called Scopes 
in the language of the country* — were the 
earliest of our historians. The Scope was 
both poet and musician. He recorded deeds of 
ancient valour, and enlarged upon them in 
order to stimulate the warlike spirit of his 
hearers. He adopted ancient stories of adven- 
tures, and re-applied them to some more 
recent hero, in order to give greater interest 

* Anglo-Saxon " Scop ' or " Sceop." 

in them to those who were assembled around 
him. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle we 
have about a dozen fragments of historical 
ballads, but these commence only from Athel- 
stan's victory over the Danes. When William 
of Malmesbury was writing the history of 
King Edward, son of Alfred the Great, he 
said: "Thus far I have written from trust- 
worthy testimony — that which follows I have 
learnt more from old ballads, popular through 
succeeding times, than from books written 
expressly for the information of posterity. I 
have subjoined them, not to defend their 
veracity, but to put the reader in possession 
of all I know."t 

Again, after recounting the pride of King 
Edgar in having compelled subject kings to 
be his oarsmen, while he sat at the prow, 
William says : " For this he is justly blamed 
by history, but the other imputations which 
I shall mention hereafter, have rather been 
cast upon him by ballads." % 

It may be asked, "what kind of music 
had these ballads?" The answer will be 
that, although we have no existing specimen 
of ballad music of such early dates, yet we 
have hymns to Latin words, some of which 
have more tune in them than would be ex- 
pected, and that they are our only existing 
means of forming a judgment. It was not 
mere natural song with indefinable sounds, 
but with regulated notes upon the diatonic 
scale. In the year 951 the double organ at 
Winchester Cathedral had 400 pipes and re- 
quired two organists. It was intended to be 
heard all over Winchester, in honour of Saint 
Peter, to whom the Cathedral was dedicated. 
Wolstan, or rather Wulfstan, of Winchester, 
who describes it fully in his Life of Saint 
Swithun, was himself the author of a treatise 
on Harmony [De tonoruni Harmonia), which 
was a standard book, and remained in use 200 
years after it had been issued. William of 
Malmesbury, writing after iioo, describes this 
book as " very useful " (valde utile). It is 
quoted (or else some second treatise on music 
by the same author) as the Breviloquium 
Wolstani, at the end of the 13th century. 
We have Winchester hymns with music 
on four lines and spaces in the time of 
Ethelred II. (978 to 1016), and even the 
words of these hymns are not to be found in 
any foreign collection. They are, however, 
by no means solitary specimens of English 
hymnology of the same kind, and as they 

f Sequentia magis cantilenis per successiones tem- 
porum detritis, quam libris ad instructiones posteriorum 
elucubratis, didicerim." [De Gestis Regum Angloruni, 
Lib. 2, cap. 6.) 

+ " Inde merito, jureque, culpant eum literas; nam 
ceteras infamias, quas post dicam, magis resperserunt 
cantilenae." (De Gestis RcgumAnglor., Lib. 2, cap. 8.) 

( 44) 


are before the time of Guido d'Arezzo, 
they must be considered as proofs that the 
English used Hnes and spaqes before other 
nations. The only difference between this most 
ancient English notation on lines and spaces, 
and that which came into use after Guido's 
system had been relinquished (for he em- 
ployed only red and yellow lines for F and C, 
which was incompatible with the use of four 
lines and spaces because C was under F), was 
that the English placed any letter of the scale 
at the signature, and in the later use of lines 
and spaces only F, C, or G, were so placed. 
We have also an extant Kyrie composed by St. 
Dunstan, which, when rendered into modern 
notation, will be found a favourable specimen 
of early music. As to secular music, we iind 
in the Gesta Herwardi, or the Life of Here- 
ward, who was son of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, 
and the Lady iEdiva (the Lady Godiva of popu- 
lar fable), that he seized the harp and sang 
" with correct musical intervals " (for that is 
the meaning of "per discrimina vocum"*), 
sometimes alone, and at other times in three 
parts with his companions after the manner 
of the Gyrwians.f These Gyrwians were the 
inhabitants of the fenny districts between 
East Anglia and Mercia, including Peter- 
borough (then called Medeshamstede) in the 
north, and the Isle of Ely in the south. This 
was not a district likely to be in advance of 
the rest of England, and yet, even here, we 
read of singing in three parts as customary. 

When Archbishop Alfric wished to trans- 
late the Latin word "Concentor" for his 
vocabulary of Latin and English words, he 
rendered it by " mid-singend," which seems 
sufficiently to express singing in three parts, 
for there would be no middle in two or four. 
It might perhaps have been taken to mean 
" singing all together," or in " chorus," if 
Alfric had not also given two different trans- 
lations of " Chorus, "t besides others for 
"Song," "Duet," "Tune for an instrument 
alone," " Harmony," " Discord, "§ &c., all 
which, taken together, are sufficient to prove 
the very early cultivation of music in England. 

These notices of early music may not 
appear, at first sight, to be immediately 

" it is a quotation from Virgil's " septem discrimina 
vocum," and one frequently employed to express the 
seven intervals of the diatonic scale, viz., A, B, C, D, 
E, F, G. 

t " Multipliciter cum ea [cythara] canendo, et per 
discrimina vocum, nunc solitarie, et nunc tripliciter 
cum suis sociis, more Girwiorum, cantavit." (From a 
photographic copy of the Peterborough Manuscript.) 

X " Singende heap " and " Hluddra sang." 

§ " Sang," " twegra sang," " answege sang," " gee) 
— waere sang," and " ungeswege sang." ( Vocabularies 
edited by T. Wright, F.S.A., p. 28, privately printed by 
Joseph Mayer, Esq., of Liverpool, F.S.A., &c ) 

connected with our text of " Old English 
Ballads," but the arts of music and poetry 
were then united, all poetry being intended to 
be sung ; and there is so much new matter to 
be adduced in the history of music, especially 
in that of our own country, of which Dr. 
Burney's account is most inaccurate, that 
it is difficult to avoid the temptation of refer- 
ring to the subject. If we desire to prove 
that music was cultivated by the working 
classes as well as by those above them, we 
may quote the fact of the Watermen of 
London having made a round for three voices, 
in honour of Sir John Norman, Lord Mayor 
of London, who, in 1453, commenced the 
custom, which became afterwards established, 
of going to Westminster in his barge to be 
sworn into his office of Lord Mayor, instead 
of riding both to and fro with a procession on 
horseback as before. The music of the Round || 
is like the chiming of bells from one church 
steeple to another, and might be sung by 
hundreds of men together to the words, 

" Heave and ho, rumbelow, 
Row the boat, Norman, row, 
Row to thy Leman." 

The idea of representing the taking charge of 
the City of London, as a " leman " or " loved 
one," was quite watermanic. 

The people were then fond of singing, and 
altogether more cheerful than after the advent 
of that severe puritanism which told them, in 
the words of Prynne, to "go about chattering 
like cranes, and cooing like doves for their 
own and others' sins."^ Solomon thought 
that there was a time for everything — " a time 
to dance, a time to sing, and a time to play ; " 
but these wise-acres did not. They put down 
the Maypoles and the dances on the village 
green, and thus reduced the people to drinking 
and to earnest politics as the only excitements 
left to them. 

The character of " Merry England "will com- 
pare favourably with that of " Old England" — 
for England had not the title of " Old " until 
a " New England " had been planted in 
America, and puritanism had become both 
rampant and dominant at home. 

"The merry, free, and frank disposition of 
the Old English," says Camden, "was thus 
described by Alfred of Beverley " (who died 
A.D. 1136): " England, /?<// of sports, a free 
people, delighting in jokes."** In the same 

II The easy music of this little Round is printed in 
Popular Music 0/ the Olden Time, Yo\. II. p 783. 

^ Prynne was parodying Hezekiah's words when 
he thought himself dying : " Like a crane or a swallow, 
so did I chatter : I did mourn as a dove : " but Hezekiah 
was mourning for his sickness, and not for the sins of 

** " Anglia, plena jocis, gens libera, et apta jocari." — 
Camden's Remaines. 

(45 ) 


strain runs William of Malmesbury, referring 
to the Norfolk and Suffolk men, or East 
Anglians: <' they are a merry, pleasant, jovial 
race, but apt to carry their jokes to an irrita- 
ting excess."* For a third testimony we may 
take an extreme part of England: "Merry 
Michael, the Cornish poet, piped this upon 
his oaten pipe, for Merry England," says 
Camden : 

" For money, dinners, varied drinks, no land will e'er 
be found 

Like England, famous England, where the fertile soil 
is crown 'd 

With countless flocks and herds, and where all social 
joys abound. " f 

We know from another source that there was 
no lack of tunes when the Normans came, 
for Thomas, the first Norman Archbishop of 
York (1070), set about collecting those which 
he heard from the minstrels, and wrote hymns 
to them4 Richard de Ledrede, a Londoner, 
who was Bishop of Ossory, from 13 18 to 1360, 
did the same thing ; but carried the tunes to 
Ireland with him. We know the names of 
the ballads, because they are written in the 
Red Book of Ossory over his Latin hymns. 
Among them are "Sweetest of all, sing!" 
"How should I with that old man?" "Do, 
do, nightingale, sing full merry," and " Good 
day! my leman dear." Thus he anticipated 
the Rev. Rowland Hill, or whoever else 
may have said, that " the Devil should not 
have all the pretty tunes." And yet there 
was some danger from this appropriation of 
secular words, lest they might become so 
fixed in the memory as to crop up unexpectedly 
and unwittingly. Giraldus Cambrensis relates 
a case that should have been a warning. It 
is of a priest in Worcestershire, who had 
been listening to choral singing and dancing 
near the church during the night, and who, in 
pure forgetfulness, sang one of these popular 
burdens in the morning, instead of greeting 
the people with " Dominus vobiscum." 

As to London, the first good description of 
the city and of its customs was written in 
1 174 by Fitz-Stephen (Stephanides), the 
friend and biographer of Thomas Becket. 
He says that "in summer evenings the young 
people danced till dark, to the sound of the 
harp (or cittern), and that some of the 

* " Gens laeta et lepida, facetaque festivitate jocorum 
ad petulantiam pronior." (Gesia Reg. Aiiglor., Book 2, 
cap. 13.) 

t " Nobilis Anglia pocula, prandia donat, et ara. 
Terra juvabilis et sociabilis, agmine plena: 
Omnibus utilis, Anglia fertilis est et amcena." — 

Camden's Remames. 

X " Si quis in auditu ejus arte jocularia, aliquid vocale, 
snnaret, statim illnd in divinas laudes effigiabat." — W. 

maidens acted as the musicians. "§ Also 
that, on festival days, the boys of the London 
schools attached to the three principal 
churches " contended with each other in 
verse," and wound up their contests " by 
recitations of epigrams, ballads, and rhymes, 
in which the foibles and frailties of their 
fellows were sarcastically exposed, without 
naming the individuals." At this "the audi- 
tors, who were prepared to enter into the jest, 
shook the assembly with peals of laughter." 

These are gayer pictures and of more content, 
than are common now. Examples might be 
continued to the extent of a volume, but one 
more, from Oxford in the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, will suffice. It was written by the learned 
Dr. John Case, whose Speculum moralium 
QucBstionum in universam Ethicen Aristotelis, 
was the first book printed at the new press at 
Oxford in 1585. The extract is from The 
Praise of Musicke, printed at Oxford by John 
Barnes, in the following year : " Every 
troublesome and laborious occupation hath 
musick for a solace and recreation, and hence 
it is that the wayfaring men solace themselves 
with songs, and ease the wearisomness of 
their journey; considering that musicke, as 
a pleasant companion, is unto them instead 
of a waggon on the way. And hence it is 
that manual labourers and mechanical arti- 
ficers of all sorts keep such a chanting and 
singing in their shoppes — the tailor on his 
bulk, the shoemaker at his last, the mason at 
his wall, the shipboy at his oar, the tinker at 
his pan, and the tiler on the house-tops." 
Even the proverbially merry cobler has now 
almost ceased to sing, and tailors seek only to 
mend the State. A tuneless tailor, in former 
days, was such a rara avis as to become at 
once an object of suspicion. " Never trust a 
tailor that does not sing at his work," says 
Fletcher, " for his mind is of nothing but 
filching." The treatment of the poor was 
perhaps less considerate than now ; but 
the people having their amusements were 
certainly more content. The number of 
ballads left for entry at Stationers' Hall at 
the end of year 1560 was 796, and only 44 

We have still a large number of extant 
ballads, such as were printed on one side of a 
sheet of coarse paper, to be sung about the 
streets and villages in the i6th and 17th 
centuries. Their tunes are also to be found, 
being included in early collections of country 
dances. Ball and ballad are woi'ds derived 
from the same root, and when the people 
danced country - dances Ihey accompanied 
them with song. Nearly every old ballad 

§ " Puellarum cithara choros ducit usque imminente 
luna, et pede libero pulsatur ttllus." {Descrip. Loud., 
ed. T. Pegge.) 



has the name of the tune printed upon it 
for which it was intended, and it has been 
owing to this combination of circumstances 
that so many of our national airs have been 
recoverable, and that words and tune could 
be re-fitted together in authentic forms. Mere 
tradition is the frailest of guides in music, 
for hardly do any two untaught singers sing 
an air alike, and they often vary the tune 
between one stanza and another. 

Captain Cox, the Coventry mason, is the 
first recorded collector of old printed ballads. 
He is mentioned by Laneham in his letter 
from Kenilworth in 1575. The next in order 
of date is the learned Selden. He lent his 
collection to Samuel Pepys, the amusing 
diarist, who did not return it. We are, in all 
probability, indebted to that circumstance for 
its preservation ; for Pepys left his library, in- 
cluding his collection of ballads and those 
borrowed from Selden, to Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, where they remain under the 
strictest custody, owing to the terms of the be- 
quest. Old Pepys took the greatest care to 
prevent others from indulging in his own 
little habit of filching. 

The united collections of Selden and Pepys 
(or of Pepys including those ballads that he 
borrowed from Selden) are bound in five folio 
volumes containing 1785 ballads, mostly with 
second parts. Sometimes two ballads were 
printed upon one page, and these would enlarge 
the above named number. In addition to the 
broadsides there are three volumes, lettered 
*' Penny Merriments," which were also col- 
lected by Pepys, and which include a large 
number of " Garlands," that are in themselves 
collections of ballads, but printed in octavo 
or other small size, instead of "in broadside," 
i.e., on one side of a folio page. 

A second great collection of broadside ballads 
is that which is now called the Roxburghe 
Collection. John, Duke of Roxburghe, was 
only one of several proprietors through whose 
hands the collection successively passed ; but 
his name became especially connected with 
it, owing to the notoriety of the comparatively 
large price it produced at the sale of his 
library. The collection had been purchased 
for the Duke at the auction of Mayor Thomas 
Pearson's library in 1788 for £-^6 14s. 66.., 
and was resold in 1813, with the duke's addi- 
tions, for ;^477 15s. It was originally formed 
by Robert Harley, who was raised to the 
peerage as Earl of Oxford and Mortimer in 
171 1, the same whose magnificent collection 
of manuscripts, known as the Harleian Col- 
lection, is one of the wonders of the British 

This collection consists of four volumes, 
containing 2133 pages of ballads. Sometimes 
one ballad takes two pages including its 

second part, and sometimes two ballads 
are printed on the same page. It was pur- 
chased for the British Museum at the sale of 
the library of the late Benjamin Heywood 
Bright, M.P., in 1845. 

Another important collection of ballads in 
the British Museum is that formed by Bag- 
ford, who was agent in purchasing for Harley, 
Earl of Oxford. It is bound in three volumes. 
There are also many minor collections in the 
same library, and a large number of political 



The King's 

ballads and 

For early date there are no extant collec- 
tions to compare with those of Mr. Henry 
Huth, Mr. S. Christie-Miller, and of the 
Society of Antiquaries of London. These are 
unrivalled for rarity, but they are not of so 
large an extent as some others. 

The Bodleian Library at Oxford is particu- 
larly rich in ballads, and the Public Library 
at Cambridge particularly poor, if, indeed, it 
possess any collection at all. Oxford can 
boast of the Douce collection, which is, per- 
haps, next in extent to the Roxburghe and 
Pepys, but rather later, as to average date, than 
either. It contains 877 ballads bound in 4 vols., 
the fourth volume being later than the rest. 
The Bodleian also possesses Anthony Wood's 
famous collections, both in print and in manu- 
script, as well as a smaller number of printed 
ballads collected by Rawlinson. Wood's 
printed collection is of 279, and the Rawlinson 
of 218 black-letter ballads, and (as a rough 
guide to the number of duplicates to be found 
in the great public libraries) it may be stated 
that although the Roxburghe Collection con- 
tains about ten times the number of the 
Rawlinson, yet the latter includes 130 ballads, 
of which no edition whatever is to be found 
in the Roxburghe. Yet they are generally of 
coeval dates. 

The Cheetham Library, Manchester, pos- 
sesses an extensive collection of ballads pre- 
sented by James Orchard Halliwell, F.R.S. 
Of other collections in private hands, it may be 
sufficient to name first, that of the late W. 
Ewing, F.S.A., Scot., which, according to the 
printed catalogue, contains 408 ballads ; a 
collection at Osterley Park ; and a rare col- 
lection formed by Mr. J. Payne Collier, and 
now in the possession of Frederic Ouvry, Esq., 
Treasurer to the Society of Antiquaries. 

There are, no doubt, many more collections 
in private hands, as well as many ballads 
scattered in collections of pamphlets, both in 
public and private libraries ; but even in those 
already named, the number of extant English 
ballads dating from the reign of Henry VIII. 
to the year 1700 cannot be computed at less 
than ten thousand. It would be much larger, 
if ballads printed with music were taken into 




account, or even if manuscripts, like the Percy 
folio, and Wood's collection, were included in 
the calculation. The tunes for some thou- 
sands of them have been traced, and many 
are printed in the " History of Popular Music 
of the Olden Time." " In a word," says an old 
writer, " scarce a cat can look out of a gutter, 
but up starts a halfpenny chronicler, and 
presently a proper new ballad of a strange 
sight is indited." 

Ballade [Ger.) A dance, also a ballad. 

Ballata (It.) The melody of any song which 
may furnish a tune for dancing. [Ballet.] 

Ballatetta (It.) Diminutive of Ballata. 

Ballematia. ) o -a ^ i 

Ballistia. } ^°"^' ^" dance-style. 

Ballet. A Madrigalian part-song with a 
fa la chorus. The " Ballets " or " fa las " of 
Giovanni Gastoldi [1532-1598] the reputed 
originator of this form of vocal music, are in 
most cases in simple counterpoint — note 
against note — but the rhythm, strongly marked 
and well defined, is admirably suited to the 
purposes of the dance which these vocal har- 
monies were intended to accompany. There 
are many examples of Ballets to be found in 
the writings of the Elizabethan madrigal com- 

Ballet (Fr.) A representation in dancing 
and gesticulation, of some story, without words. 

The rise of the Ballet is almost coeval with 
dancing itself, for it is difficult to believe that 
any number of dancers could have so dis- 
ported themselves as to give delight to the 
spectators, if there had not been some definite 
and organised arrangement. The dances 
described as having been led by Miriam, 
David and Jephtha's daughter, the Emmelceia, 
the Pyrrhic dances, the Motions of the Mimes, 
Minstrels, and Joculators, and the homely 
dances popular among the peasantry, besides 
the more stately measures favoured by people 
of high degree, were all ballets — in which 
certain motions were made to the sound of 
music, and whose gestures and actions had 
meanings and intentions that were commonly 
understood. When these dances were trans- 
ferred from home circles to the stage, the 
gestures and actions made were such that 
could be readily interpreted by the lookers-on, 
and even when great skill was acquired by 
the performers in following ages, the old con- 
ventional signs, attitudes, and motions were 
retained, that all who chose might understand. 
The first ballets on the stage were those that 
were introduced into the oratorios, masques, 
and comedies, each being a development of 
portions of certain entertainments, from which 
they arose in common. 

The oratorio and the drama arose from the 
ancient sacred and classical plays and the 
mediaeval mysteries and moralities, and cir- 

cumstances gave importance to particular 
parts of those productions, so that from 
forming a continued or dependent whole, they 
became detached and separate, and made what 
seemed in later years distinct things of those 
that had a common origin. The splendour 
of the Court Masques, the glory of the unity 
of the genius of the poet, architect, painter, 
and musician, are matters of history. Give 
prominence to the music, let the poetr}' fade 
away from inanity, retain the skill and genius 
of the machinist and scene painter, and you 
have opera. Let your poet write prose, have 
as little music as possible, respect the scenic 
effects and mechanical means, and drama is 
the result. Dispense with poetry or words o( 
any kind, make music subservient, but do all 
that can be done with scenery and machinery, 
and make the dramatis personas bound, caper, 
and gesticulate, and ballet is the product. 

The Ballet had its origin in the Masques, 
which were written for and often performed 
byprinces and other distinguished personages. 
Jn England, Italy, and France, it arose almost 
simultaneously out of the remains of the 
Masque. Count Aglio, at Turin, invented 
pieces that were at the same time pastoral, 
mythological, allegorical, and fantastic, in 
which the princes of the Court took part. 
In France Louis XIII. danced in a ballet, and 
his successor, Louis XIV., did the same in 
his turn, these ballets being portions of spec- 
tacles that were operatic, dramatic, and terpsi- 
chorean by turns or in combinations. Antoine 
de la Motte improved the ballet, and made it 
distinct, and independent of other means 
for explanation and elucidation ; he also en- 
couraged the introduction of female dancers, 
till then almost unknown in Europe, and from 
that time the ballet gradually sank from im- 
portance and consideration, and became a 
mere exhibition of artificial agility and natural 
comeliness. It is not many years since it 
was a very considerable item in the evening's 
entertainment at the opera in England, rival- 
ling in spectacular splendour the famous 
ballets of Milan, the absence of vigour and 
intellectual power in the operas produced 
being counterbalanced by the so-called glory 
of the ballet. But as people began to be 
alive to the fact that contortions, dislocations, 
and indecent postures were the reverse of ele- 
vating or instructive, and not really amusing, 
the patronage of the ballet as a distinct enter- 
tainment fell away and finally ceased alto- 
gether, and an attempt to revive it apart from 
and out of the course of the situations of an 
opera, during the season of 1871, met with so 
little encouragement that it was silently aban- 
doned. The ballet was once a poem and a 
power : kings did not scorn to exhibit trained 
and practised personal skill for the edification 




of their loyal subjects, and the exaltation of 
the exercise in which they indulged ; but the 
"improvements" of De la Motte introduced 
an element which was at once the cause of 
its glory and of its shame, its culmination 
and contempt. [Dance.] 

Balletto {It.) A ballet, a dance. 

Ballet-master. One to whom is entrusted 
the direction of the motions of the ballet, and 
the order of the performers. 

Balli Inglesi {It) English dances. 

Balli della Stiria {It.) Styrian dances. 

Balli Ungaresi (7^.) Hungarian dances. 
Dances in the Hungarian style. 

Ballo {It.) A dance, a ball. 

Ballonchio {It.) [Passamezzo.] 

Ballonzare {It.) To dance wildly, reck- 
lessly, without rule. 

Band {Ger.) A part, a volume, any thing 
sewn together. 

Band. Instrumentalists collected together 
for the performance of music. 

(i) Brass Band. A collection of players 
on brass wind-instruments. 

(2) String Band, (a) That portion of an 
orchestra which consists of players on 
stringed-instruments of the violin family. 
{b) A band consisting only of instruments 
played with a bow. 

(3) Wind Band. Stromenti di fiato {It.) 
That portion of an orchestra which consists 
of players on flutes, oboes, clarinets, bas- 
soons, and horns; but not on trumpets, trom- 
bones, and other loud brass instruments, these 
being included only under the sign " tutti." 

(4) Wood Band. The players on the wood 
wind-instruments, flutes, oboes, clarinets, 
bassoons ; but not on the serpent, which is 
usually classified with brass instruments. 

(5) Military Band. A number of musicians 
belonging to a regiment in the service of the 
King or Queen of a country. In England, 
those who perform upon instruments pro- 
vided by the officers of the corps to which 
they belong, the military regulations only 
recognising side drums, fifes, bugles, and 
trumpets, as necessary ; these are supple- 
mented by clarinets, flutes, cornets, bassoons, 
horns, trombones, ophicleides, bombardons, 
triangles, cymbals, big drums, &c., and the 
combination is known as a military band. 
The band is conducted by some one skilled 
in directing and arranging, who is usually 
a civilian, but the bandsmen over whom he 
presides are in every other respect the same 
as private soldiers. Military bands are some- 
times used upon the opera stage, for the 
purpose of gaining an increased effect. 

Banda (/^.) A military band. [Band §5.] 
Bandora {Fr.) [Bandore.] 
Bandore. An English form of the ancient 
Greek Pandoura, having twelve strings of 

steel-wire. The Bandore is said to have been 
invented by John Rose, of London, in 1561. 

Bandurria {Sp.) A form of guitar, strung 
with wire instead of cat-gut. 

Banja or Banjo. A stringed instrument 
of supposed African origin, popular with the 
negroes of America, and one of the most im- 
portant musical instruments employed by 
troupes of fictitious negroes. The instrument 
consists of a handle, which, running the whole 
length, serves at once as finger-board, as sup- 
port for the hoop, over which a skin, acting 
as sounding board, is stretched, and also as a 
hold for the pegs which tighten and keep the 
strings in tune. The banjo is strung with 
five strings, so arranged that they may be 
stopped in the ordinary way to vary the melody 
or harmony, together with an octave string 
which is never stopped. The tuning, which 
may be in any key, is generally according to 
the following plan : 




Octave string. 

The character of banjo music is sprightly and 
well adapted for dancing, for which it is as 
often used as it is for accompanying the voice. 
Bar. A line drawn from the top to the 
bottom of the stave to denote the division ol 
the time in a piece of music, and the place of 
the strong accent. Each portion comprised 
within two of these lines is also called a bar. 
In mediaeval music the bar, also called the 
lesser bar, to distinguish it from the greater 
or double bar, was often used solely for the 
purpose of showing the end of a line or sen- 
tence of the words, hence it was said " to give 
time for the whole choir together to draw 
breath " (Nievers, sur le Chant Gregorien) ; 
whereas the two great bars or the double bar 
is " the most efficacious contrivance that can 
be thought on to remedy all the cacophonies 
and contrarieties in the voices of the singers, 
who without them could not guess when to 
rest." {Ibid.) Mr. Chappell (" Popular Music 
of the Olden Time ") remarks that the Tunes in 
the " Dancing Master," printed in 1651 in 
only a single part, have no bars, but that the 
score of the moral play, " The four elements " 
(to which Dr. Dibdin has ascribed the date 
15 10), is barred. He further adds, that so far 
as he has observed, all music in the ordinary 
notation, even for one voice or one instrument, 
was barred after 1660. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the regular barring of music had its 
origin in the system of Tablature, in which 
its efficacy as a means of pointing out the 
position of accent must have been generally 
observed. But for a considerable period after 
the introduction of the bar, its use in eccle- 
siastical music was veiy irregular, two, four, 



six, or even eight minims being included in a 
bar which, by the signature, should contain 
only four. In modern music-printing and 
engraving, care is taken that the bars in the 
separate lines forming a score shall stand 
exactly over one another. The neglect of this 
in early publications in score adds greatly to 
the difficulty of reading them. 

Barbet. [Barbiton.] 

Barbiton. An ancient Greek instrument 
said to have been invented by Anacreon; it 
was in the form of a lyre, and had seven 
strings. The name was applied to instru- 
ments of the violin class in the i6th and 17th 

Barcarolle (Fr.) A simple melody, com- 
posed in imitation of the songs of the Venetian 
gondoliers, many of which are of striking 
beauty. Apolloni Salvadore, a Venetian barber 
and fiddler in 1720, is named as the com- 
poser of several popular tunes of this class. 

Bard. A name given to hereditary poets 
and minstrels by all the Celtic nations. In 
their songs and poems the bards recorded the 
deeds and prowess of the warriors, kings, and 
people, at festive and social gatherings ; and 
at religious assemblies they celebrated the 
acts and fame of the gods and heroes, accom- 
panying their songs with the harp and crowd 
or crwth. The power, reputation, and in- 
fluence of the bards were very great, and the 
favour of kings, princes, and nobles was 
accorded to them. They, like the Aoidoi of 
ancient Greece, were the historians, poets, and 
chroniclers of their time; they incited their 
armies to courage in the hour of battle, and 
by their heroic strains roused the fury and 
valour of the warriors. In time of peace they 
were ambassadors, heralds, and the deposi- 
taries of all historical tradition, and of much 
of the learning that was at that time possessed 
by the community. As an institution they 
kept longest influence in England, Scotland, 
and Wales. In the last-named country their 
privileges were fixed by King Howel Dha, 
A.D. 940, and a century and a half later 
Griffith ap Conan revised and reformed the 
whole system. The Eisteddvodau, as the 
congregations of Welsh bards are called, 
were held from time to time until the con- 
quest of Wales by Edward I., in 1284, when 
the bards were persecuted, and as some 
authors declare, were put to death. Although 
the power of the bards was broken, still their 
Eisteddvodau were encouraged by the rulers 
of succeeding generations, until the time of 
Queen Elizabeth, who was the last monarch 
who made any concessions to the bards of 
Wales. The preservation of such of their 
literature that has survived them is owing to 
several learned societies who have made this 
object their peculiar study. An Eisteddfod as 

now understood is a curious compound of 
heterogeneous matter, for although it is held 
for the purpose of encouraging national art 
in music and poetry, its judges appear to be 
satisfied with the least worthy effusions com- 
mon to London concert-rooms, provided they 
are given through the medium of the Cambrian 
tongue. Little is known of the bards in 
Scotland beyond the fact that they were 
similar in constitution to the bards in Ireland, 
who, like those of Wales, were a hereditary 
community. The Irish bards were divided 
into three classes, the Filhedha, the Braithea- 
main, and the Senachaidhe. The first sang 
the sacred and heroic songs, and were 
employed as heralds and counsellors, the 
second recited and expounded the laws, and 
the third were the chroniclers and recorders. 
They were endowed with many privileges 
and had great influence, and their power over 
the minds of the people was so strong that 
severe measures had frequently to be resorted 
to, to check their sway. In England bardism 
took a more refined and less exciting form 
than that which was acceptable to those 
nations of more strictly Celtic origin. [Min- 
strel.] [Ballad.] 

Bardone. [Viola di Bardone.] 
Barem {Ger.) An organ-stop, consisting 
of closed flute-pipes of 8 ft. or 16 ft. pitch, of a 
soft character of tone. 

Barginet, Berginet, Bargaret, or Ber- 
geret. Shepherd's songs, to accompany 
dances. Songs relating to pastoral matters. 

" A bargaret in praising the daisie. 
For, as methought, among her notes swete, 
She said, ' Si douce est le Margarite.' " 

Chaucer. — Floure and Leafe. 

Baribasso. A deep bass voice. 

Bariolage {Fr.) A medley. A cadenza, 
or series of cadenzas, whose appearance forms 
a design upon the music paper, " a waistcoat 
pattern" as it is called by performers. 

Baritenor. A deep tenor. 

Baritone. A brass instrument of deep 
tone. [Metal Wind-instruments.] 

Bariton, or Baryton. [Viola di Bardone.] 

Bariton Clarinet. An instrument used 
in military bands, the tone of which is between 
the clarinet and bassoon. 

Baritone Clef. The F clef placed upon 
the third line of the stave. 


It is not now used, but was frequently em- 
ployed in vocal music of the i6th and 17th 
centuries. Purcell's Song, " Let the dreadful 
engines," was originally written in this clef, 
and it was also used occasionally for horn 
parts by Handel, Cooke, and other writers in 
the 1 8th century. 

( 50) 


Bariton (Fr.)\ rr., , u. 
Baritono (It.) 1 ^^^ barytone voice. 

Baritone voice. [Barytone!] 

Barocco (It.) "^ Unusual, singular, eccen- 

Barock (Ger.) v trie, whimsical, irregular. 

Baroque (i^r.)j Applied to a composition 
with over-chromatic harmonies, or unrhyth- 
mical melodic phrasing. 

Barpfeife {Ger.) [Baarpyp.] 

Barquarde (Fr.) An obsolete term for 
Barcarolle, q.v. 

Barre (Fr.) In guitar or lute playing, the 
pressing of the fore-finger of the left hand 
across all the strings, so as to alter temporarily 
the pitch of the instrument, the remaining 
fingers being at the same time engaged in 
forming a chord. The first finger, therefore, 
performs the duties of a capotasto, q.v. 

Barre de luth (Fr.) The bridge of the lute. 

Barre de mesure (Fr.) [Bar.] 

Barre de repetition (Fr.) A double bar 
with points, marking a repeat. 

Barrel. A revolving cylinder of wood or 

(i) Barrel-organ. An organ in which a 
wooden cylinder furnished with pegs or staples, 
when turned round, opens a series of valves 
to admit a current of air to a set of pipes, pro- 
ducing a tune either in melody or harmony. 
The barrels are sometimes made moveable, 
in order to obtain a variety in the tunes, as 
the capability of a single barrel is necessarily 
limited. Barrel organs furnished with hymn 
and psalm tunes, or even voluntaries, were 
sometimes used in places of worship, but the 
increased knowledge of music, even in remote 
places, has led to the introduction of the har- 
monium, which has superseded the use of 
barrel organs to a great extent. The tone of 
barrel organs is incapable of expression or 
variety, and has consequently been found 
seriously monotonous. The only advantage 
belonging to the instrument is its portability, 
and this renders it available for street musicians, 
who generally hire one at a small charge, 
the cost of the instrument (from ;^20 to £"70) 
being beyond their means. Many of the poor 
hirers are cruelly used by the Padrone from 
whom they obtain their instruments. The 
barrel-organ, as a street entertainment in 
London, dates from about the year 1790. 
The stops in a barrel-organ generally consist 
of a stopped diapason and flute or principal, 
to which is sometimes added a reed stop of 
coarse quality. The compass rarely exceeds 
two octaves and a half. 

(2) Barrel of a musical box is constructed 
in a manner somewhat similar to that of an 
organ, but is of metal, and instead of opening 

a series of valves, the pegs and staples set in 
vibration the teeth of a steel comb, which 
produce the sounds. [Musical box.] 

Barypycni (med.Lat., from Gk.fiapvg deep, 
and irvKt'uc close), (i) Lowest strings of tetra- 
chords in the chromatic or enharmonic scale. 
(2) In ecclesiastical music, those modes which 
have the pycnon or semitone at the bottom of 
the tetrachord, e.g. : 




gj ' - / 



-G>- <= 

see mesopycni, oxypycni. 

Barytone voice. A voice of fuller quality 
than a tenor and lighter than a bass, having a 
compass partly included in both, namely. 





This is the extreme compass, and both limits 
are rarely reached. 

This voice has only been distinguished by 
name, as being of a separate character, within 
the present century. Early writers indicate 
its existence by the use of its special clef. The 
term Barytone is unmeaning, unless it be 
looked upon as a corruption of Barytenor, but 
it is quite possible it was borrowed from the 
instrument Barytone or Bardone, which occu- 
pied a place between the tenor and bass viols. 
Rousseau calls this voice Basse-cliantante , or 
Basse-taille ; and Shield, in his " Introduction 
to Harmony," having used the word Barytone, 
thinks it necessary to explain in a foot-note 
that it is " a voice between a tenor and a bass." 

Bas-dessus (Fr.) Mezzo soprano, or 
second treble. 

Base. Old form of the word Bass. 

Bass. Low, as bass trombone, bass viol, 
bass voice, &c. 

Bassa ottava (7^.) At the lower octave. 

Basse (Fr.) Bass. 

Basse chantante (Fr.) A barytone voice. 

Basse chiffr^e^ (Fr.) \t ^^iTlt'^^e 
Basse continuee (Fr.) C ^ '. 

^ ^ ) accompanymg 

harmonies of which are expressed by numbers. 

Basse contrainte (Fr). [Ground bass.] 

Basse contre (Fr.) A deep bass voice, 
capable of singing below the ordinary bass 

Basse de cremone (Fr.) The bassoon. 

Basse de hautbois (Fr.) Corno inglese. 

Basse d'harmonie (Fr.) The ophicleide. 

Basse de viole (Fr.) The violoncello. 

Basse de violon (Fr.) Double-bass. 

Basse double (Fr.) Large double-bass. 

Basse fiiguree (Fr.) Figured bass. 

Basse fondamentale (Fr.) Root-bass or 
generator. [Harmony.] 

(51 ) 


Basse recitante (Fr.) [Basse chantante.] 
Basse taille {Fr.) The Barytone voice. 
Basset-horn, Corno di Bassetto {It.) 
A transposing instrument of the clarinet 
order, of a beautiful, soft, and rich quality, 
invented in Passau about the year 1770, and 
improved by Lotz of Presburg twelve years 
later. In form like a long clarinet, with a 
curved and bell-shaped metal end. The 
compass extends from F below Gamut to 
C in Alt, 


with all the intermediate semitones, except 
the F sharp and A flat in the lower range. 



— Jf=^ 

The music is written for it in the bass and 
treble clefs a fifth higher than the real sound. 
Mozart has written with brilliant effect for 
the basset-horn in his " Nozze di Figaro," in 
"Clemenza di Tito," and in the "Requiem." 

Bassetto {It.) (i) The diminutive of 
Basso. A name sometimes given to the tenor 
violin. (2) A reed stop in the organ of 8 ft. 
or 16 ft. in length. 

Bass Flute. The lowest in pitch of in- 
struments of the flute family, now obsolete. 

Its compass was ^E 

It was a Jiute 

a bee, not a fiauto traverse ; that is, it was 
blown at the end (like a flageolet), not at a 
hole in its side. In order to enable the player 
to reach the remote holes with his fingers, 
a bent tube turning upwards conveyed the 
air from his lips to the mouthpiece of the 

Bassgeige {Ger.) Bass Viol. 

Bass Horn, (i) Deep Bt? Horn. (2) An 
instrument which was a precursor of the 

Basslaute {Ger.) [Bass Lute.] 

Bass Lute. [Theorbo.] 

Basso {It.) A bass singer, also the double- 
bass, and the bass part. 

Basso buffo {It.) A comic singer, with a 
bass voice. 

Basso cantante {It.) [Basse chantante.] 

Basso concertante {It.) The principal 
bass, that which accompanies solos and 

Basso continuo {It.) A bass part figured 
for the organ or pianoforte. 

Basso figurato {It.) (i) Basso continuo. 
(2) A bass part, with running passages. 

Basso fondamentale {It.) The funda- 
mental ground bass, or root. 

Basson {Fr.) [Bassoon.] 

Basson quinte {Fr.) A bassoon, the 

pitch of which is five notes higher than that 
of the common bassoon. The part given to 
it must therefore be written five notes lower 
than the actual sounds required. Its written 

compass is 





including all the intervening 

semitones. Its tone is more powerful, but less 
sympathetic, than that of the corno inglese. 

Basso numerato {It.) A bass, the accom- 
panying harmonies to which, are indicated 
by numbers. 

Bassoon. Basson (Fr.) Fagotto (/f.) A 
reed wind-instrument of deep pitch, with a com- 
pass of more than three octaves from low B flat. 





This compass includes all the intermediate 
semitones, with the exception of 


which are as yet to be obtained only from 
instruments of improved construction. Some 
performers can produce three notes higher 
than the B flat, but for all common orchestral 
purposes they are unnecessary. The bassoon 
ordinarily forms the bass or deepest tone 
among wood wind-instruments, and is capable 
of excellent independent effects, among which 
the grotesque ought not to be forgotten, as in 
Beethoven's " Pastoral Symphony," and the 
" Clown's March," in the music to the " Mid- 
summer Night's Dream," by Mendelssohn. 

It is customary to write for the Bassoon 
in the Bass clef, and as the instrument is 
usually employed in pairs, one stave serves 
for the two parts. The tenor clef is often 
employed for the higher notes of the register 
of the Bassoon, sometimes in a separate stave. 

Some writers assert that the Bassoon is the 
invention of Afranio of Ferrara in 1540, and 
that he gave it the name Fagotto from its 
resemblance to a bundle or fagot of sticks (his 
instrument being made of several pieces laid 
together), but it was known long before under 
the name of Buisine, Buzaine, Courtal, Bom- 
bard, or Wait. 

There is reason to believe that the Bassoon 
is of Eastern origin, introduced into western 
Europe in the twelfth century, and that it is 
an improvement of the drone-pipe of the Bag- 
pipe. The Egyptian word for a pipe of deep 
tone, and for the drone of the Bagpipe is, ac- 
cording to E.W.Lane ("Modern Egyptians"), 
Zummarah-hi-soan, and the manner in which 
the word Buzaine, Buisine, is used in mediae- 
val MSS., shows a possible connection with 

( 52 ) 


this origin. The instrument was introduced 
into the orchestra about the commencement 
of the i8th century; for a long time it was 
employed to strengthen the voice parts only. 
Handel generally makes it double the bass 
voice part, or treats it as a bass to the oboe; 
he has, however, made excellent use of it 
as a solo instrument in the scene of Saul 
and the Witch of Endor, in his oratorio of 
" Saul." 

Bass-Bar. A piece of wood fixed inside 
the belly of violins, &c., to support the pres- 
sure of the left foot of the bridge. 

Basso ostinato (It.) Ground bass. 

Basso ripieno (It.) The bass of the full 
or chorus parts. 

Basspommer (Ger.) A deep-toned in- 
strument of the oboe family, precursor of the 

Bass-Posaune (Ger.) Bass trombone. 

Bass-Schlussel (Ger.) The bass clef. 

Bassthema (Ger.) [Ground bass.] 

Bass Trumpet. An old instrument, now 
superseded by the trombone. 

Bass Tuba. A brass instrument, a 
species of bombardon, not capable of such 
rapid execution as a bass ophicleide, but 
producing a much finer quality of tone. The 
name now given to the lowest of the sax- 
horns; there are two kinds, one is in El7, 
another in Bt?; the former shaped like a large 
euphonium, the latter circular and passing 
round the neck of the performer. The 
lowest note of the El? instrument is the 
El7 in the i6 ft. octave; that of the Bl7, a 
fourth lower. 

Bass Viol, (i) A familiar name for the 
violoncello. (2) The largest and deepest in 
tone among a chest of viols, which had five 
and sometimes six strings, and a fretted 
finger-board. The manner of tuning the 
open strings varied according to the music to 
be played. 

Playford (Introduction to the Skill of Music) 
mentions three sorts of Bass viols " as there 
are three manners of ways in playing." 
"First, a Bass viol for consort must be one 
of the largest size, and the strings propor- 
tionable. Secondly, a Bass viol for divisions 
must be of a less size, and the strings accord- 
ing. Thirdly, a Bass viol to play Lyra-way, 
that is by Tablature, must be somewhat less 
than the two former, and strung proportion- 

The common accordatura of the six-string 
instrument was as follows : 

I J f 

^ h— 


Bass Voice. The lowest register of the 

human voice, having a compass ranging 
between two octaves from lower D : 

The whole of the bass voice should be pro- 
duced from the chest, and the most useful notes, 
and those generally written are between G 
and tenor C : 


A bass voice rarely reaches full perfection of 
quality or sonorousness before the possessor 
is thirty years of age, and a true bass voice 
has seldom much flexibility. 

Batillus. An instrument formerly em- 
ployed by the Armenians in their Church 
service to supply the place of bells, which 
they were forbidden to use. A board struck 
with a hammer. 

Baton [Fr) (i) A stick used in beating 
time. (2) The method of a conductor is 
called his baton. (3) A pause of two or more 

- F'=^ a baton 

bars is also so named, e.g. 

of five measures or bars. 

Battement {Fr.) An ornament in singing, 
opposed to the Cadence {Fr.) e.g. : 

is called a cadence, whereas the following 




is a battement. [Beat.] 

Battere, il {It.) The down-stroke in 
beating time. 

Batterie {Fr.) A roll upon the side drum. 

Battery. An effect in harpsichord music. 

written =(^= and played 

Battimento {It.) [Battement.] 

Battuta {It.) (i) In correct time. (2) A bar. 

Bau {Ger.) The structure of musical 

Bauernleyer {Ger.) [Hurdy-gurdy.] 

Bauerpfeife {Ger.) An organ stop of 8 ft. 
length of a small scale. 

Baxoncillo {Sp.) An organ stop like an 
open diapason. 

Bayaderes. Dancing girls attached to a 
Hindu temple. 

Bayles {Sp.) Comic dancing songs, in 
the Spanish gipsy dialect. [Ballad.] 

B cancellatum {Lat.) The cancelled B. 
The note B? as altered by means of a t^ or Jf 
in old music. Up to the middle of the iSth 
century the S frequently had the force of the 
t) as now used. 

( 53 ) 



B dur (Ger.) The key of B'-^ major. 

B durum {Lat.) B natural. [B quad- 

Bearings. Those few notes which a tuner 
accurately tunes or lays down before pro- 
ceeding to adjust the whole compass of the 

Beat. (i) A short shake, or transient 
grace note, played or sung before the note 
it is desired to embellish. The beat is 
always a semitone lower than the ornamented 

Written. Played. 

(2) The portion of a bar of music occupied 
by the movement or supposed movement of 
the hand in counting time. Thus, a beat in 
I time is equal to three quavers ; a beat in 
•| time is equal to a minim. 

(3) The peculiar "throbbing" heard when 
sounds not quite identical in pitch are sounded 
together. [Acoustics, § 17.] 

Bebung {Ger.) The tremolo stop in an 
organ. A repeated note in pianoforte music. 

Bebisation. A series of syllables recom- 
mended by Daniel Hitzler, a Fleming, in 
1630, as a means of teaching the notes.. He 
proposed to substitute the syllables la, be, ce, 
de, mi, fe, gi, for ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, 
already in use. 

Becarre {Fr.) The sign ^. 

Bee {Fr.) ") A mouth-piece, lit., a beak. 

Becco (7^.) I [Flute a bee] 

Becco polacco {It.) A large bag-pipe. 

Becken {Ger.) A cymbal. 

Bedon {Fr.) An obsolete term for a drum, 
or tambour, 

Begeisterung {Ger.) Spirit, excitement, 

Begleiten {Ger.) To accompany. 

Begleitende Stimmen {Ger.) Accom- 
panying voices or parts. 

Begleitete Fuge {Ger.) A Fugue with 
free parts. [Free parts.] 

Begleitung {Ger.) Accompaniment. 

Beitone {Ger.) Aliquot tones. [Harmonics.] 


Bell. The lower termination of any tubu- 
lar musical instrument which by the outward 
turning of the rim assumes the form of a bell. 
Fr. Pavilion, Ger. Schallstuck. 

Bell diapason. An organ stop consisting 
of open metal pipes with bell mouths. Its 
tone is more reedy and powerful than that 
of an ordinary open diapason. Generally of 
8ft. length. 

Bellezza (7^.) Beauty of expression and 
tone in playing and singing. 

Bell Gamba. An organ-stop, the pipes 
of which are conical and surmounted by a 

bell. It was introduced by Mr. Hill, organ- 
builder, of London. Its tone is remarkably 
sweet, not unlike that of a stringed instru- 
ment, though somewhat more reedy. The 
pipes speak rapidly. 

Bellicosamente (7^.) ) ,,^ ... . , 

Bellicoso (7^.) } Warlike, martial. 

Bell metronome. A metronome in which 
the recurrence of a set number of beats is 
marked by the sound of a bell. [Metronome.] 

Bell Open Diapason. [Bell Diapason.] 

Bellows. In the harmonium, organ, con- 
certina, &c., that contrivance by means of 
which wind is supplied to the pipes, tongues, 
or reeds. [Organ.] 

Bell Piano. [Glockenspiel.] 

Bells. I. Musical instruments of per- 
cussion, consisting of a series of metal basins 
or cups, the outline of which has from time 
to time been modified. The materials of which 
bells are usually made are copper and tin, the 
proportions varying in several countries and 
even among the manufacturers. 


The various parts of the bells are a, the 
Canons; B, the Shoulder; c, the Waist; the 
thick part between D and E, the Sound Bow ; 
E, the Rim or lip ; F, the Clapper. 

The following analyses of English and 
some foreign bells, will give a correct idea of 
the composition of the ancient bells. 

English Bells. 

Copper 8o'o 

Tin lo'i 

Zinc 5-6 

Lead 43 

"Rouen Bells. 

Copper 72*0 

Tin zyo 

Zinc 1-8 

Lead 1.2 

Paris Bells. 

Copper 729 

Tin 25-56 

Iron 1*54 

Swiss Hour Bells. 

Copper 75*o 

Tin 25*0 

Mr. Denison recommends 
on theoretical grounds 
the following proportion 

Copper 765 

Tin 23'5 

2. The use of bells to call worshippers to- 
gether is supposed to be of Christian origin, 
but it is said that the feast of Osiris in 
Egypt was announced by the ringing of 
bells. Aaron and the Jewish high priests 
had bells attached to their vestments, and 



Plutarch says that small bells were used in 
the mysteries of Bacchus, and the priests of 
Cybele at Athens employed bells in their 
rites. The Greeks sounded bells in their 
camps, and the Romans indicated the hours 
of bathing and business by the tintinnabulum. 
It is also said, that in some places large 
gongs were suspended in the air, and as 
the wind brought them together, so was the 
character of the sounds made, interpreted 
as an unfavourable or favourable augury. 
Trumpets were employed among the Jews to 
call the faithful to worship (Exodus xx., 13 ; 
Numbers x., 2; Joel ii., 15). Plates of iron 
are still used in the Levant, and a plank of 
wood is occasionally employed for the same 
purpose that we use bells in some of the old 
Wallachian monasteries. In the East the 
call to prayer is made by the Mueddin of each 
mosque, who, having ascended the gallery of 
the mad'neh or minaret, chants the "hadan" 
or call to prayer, apparently in opposition to 
the Christian use of bells. [Hadan.] 

The introduction of bells into churches is 
attributed to Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, in 
Campania, about the year 400, but there is 
an epistle of that bishop still extant in which 
he describes his church, but makes no men- 
tion of either tower or bells ; indeed, it is 
believed that towers were not constructed 
until two centuries later. Yet it is not a little 
remarkable that the general name for bells 
was Nolas or Campanae, and hence the words 
knoll as meaning the sound of a single bell, 
and campanile a bell tower. Sabianus, who 
was Pope in 604, ordered the bells to ring the 
horcB canonicce at the proper times during the 
day, and Benedict, Abbot of Wearmouth, 
brought his bells from Italy about the year 680. 
Bells were hung in towers in the East in the 
gth, and in Germany in the nth century. 
Those that were in use before are supposed 
to be hand bells ; several examples, as old as 
the 6th century, are still preserved in some 
parts of Europe and the United Kingdom. 
St. Patrick's bell, St. Ninian's bell, St. Gall's 
bell, and others are plates of iron rivetted 
together. St. Gall's bell (about 646) is still 
shown in the monastery of the city called by 
his name in Switzerland. In the 13th century 
larger bells were cast, but it was not until the 
end of the 15th century that they began to 
assume great proportions. St. Dunstan, in 
the loth century, seems to have the credit of 
havingestablishedthe first foundry in England, 
Glastonbury, Malmesbury, and other places 
having been furnished with bells by him. 
Bells were rung not only to indicate the com- 
mencement of certain services, but also were 
tolled to mark certain stages in those services. 
Thus we find mention made of the Saints or 
Sanctus bell, the Compline bell, the Judas 

bell, the Pardon or Ave bell, the Passing bell, 
the last tolled to warn all " Christen soules " 
to pray for the parting soul of the dying. 
Bells, being thus intimately connected with 
the services oi'the Church, have been supposed 
to possess a certain sacred character. They 
were founded with religious ceremonies, con- 
secrated, baptised, and were anointed with 
holy oil (see Schiller's " Lay "). St. Colomba, 
in the 6th century, made use of a bell whose 
name was " Dia Dioghaltus," or " God's ven- 
geance," to test the truth of assertions made, 
as it was believed that the wrath of God would 
speedily overtake any who swore falsely by it. 
Pious inscriptions are frequent on bells of the 
middle ages, and inscriptions, not always 
pious, are found on those of later date. Bells 
were often rung to allay storms, there being 
a special endowment belonging to Old St. 
Paul's, " for ringinge the hallowed belle in 
great tempestes and lightninges." The curfew 
bell, still sounded in many parts of England 
and Scotland, is of more ancient practice than 
the period usually assigned as its commence- 
ment, the reign of William the Norman ; and 
there are many social practices announced by 
the ringing or tolling of the church bells. 

3. Change ringing, or campanology, is fre- 
quently practised when there are more than 
three bells, such changes being known by the 
names of bob-majors, bob triples, Norwich 
court bobs, grandsire bob-triples, and caters. 
The number of changes a set of bells is cap- 
able of, may be known by in-multiplying the 
numbers of the set. Thus, three bells may ring 
six changes, 123, i 3 2, 21 3, 23 i, 32 i, 3 12; 
four bells will give 24 changes ; 5 bells, 
120 changes; 6 bells, 720 changes; 7 bells, 
5,040 changes ; 8 bells, 40,320 changes ; 
9 bells, 362,880 changes ; 10 bells, 3,628,800 
changes; 11 bells, 39,916,800 changes; 12 
bells, 479,001,600 changes. To ring the 
changes that 12 bells are capable of, would 
take 91 years at two strokes per second, while 
a peal of 24 bells can make so many changes 
that it would occupy 117,000 billions of years 
to ring them all. 

The technical terms for the various peals, 
on sets of bells of different numbers, are the 
following : 

Rounds On three bells. 

Changes or singles ,, four „ 

Doubles or grandsires „ five „ 

(Bobs) Minor „ six ,, 

Triples , seven „ 

(Bobs) Major „ eight „ 

Caters nine ,, 

(Bobs) Royal , ten „ 

Cinques... ,, eleven „ 

(Bobs) Maximus , twelve „ 

4. A bell is said to be "set" when she is 
mouth upwards, at "hand stroke" when the 
" sallie " or tuft on the rope has to be pulled, 

{S5 ) 


at "back stroke" when the ringer has to pull 
the end of the rope. A bell is said to be " going 
up " when she moves her position in the change 
from "treble" towards that of "tenor," and 
"down" when she is changing her position 
from that of "tenor" towards that of "treble." 
A bell is said to be "behind" when she is the 
last of the changing bells, and at "lead" 
when she is the first. Thus the progress 
from " lead " to behind is said to be " going 
up," and from behind to lead is called "going 
down." " Dodging " is moving a place back- 
wards out of the ordinary hunting course. A 
bell is said to be " hunting up" when she is 
pulled after the one which previously pulled 
after her. A bell is said to " make a place " 
when she strikes two blows in succession at 
any one place. To " lie a whole pull " is 
synonymous with " making a place." Two 
blows at " lead " and " behind " are a part 
of " hunting," in making these therefore a bell 
is not said to be " making a place." " Bob " 
and " singles " are words used to produce a 
certain series of changes by disturbing the 
ordinary system of "hunting." The full 
knowledge of the meaning of these and many 
other technical terms used in ringing can 
only be learnt in the belfry. The method of 
Doubles named after Stedman (1640) is, in 
principle, as follows : while three of the bells 
are ringing changes, the other two are dodging 
behind, but at the completion of each set of 
six changes one bell comes down from behind 
to take part in the changes, one, of course, 
at the same time going up behind to take 
part in the dodging. 

5. Bells are occasionally employed as or- 
chestral instruments — small bells, tuned to a 
certain scale, being most favoured — as in 
Victor Masse's " Les noces de Jeannette," a 
whole peal of small bells being used with 
great effect. These, as in Mozart's " Magic 
Flute," are so arranged as to be played with 
keys, like a pianoforte. [Glockenspiel.] 

Auber employs a single bell in the finale to 

" Fra Diavolo " ^ 


Rossini has introduced a bell 



in the opening of the second act of " William 
Tell." Donizetti also, in the finale to " Lucia 
di Lammermoor," has written for a bell tuned 
to the same note. Meyerbeer, in his " Hu- 
guenots," employs a bell in 


with clarinets and bassoons. In " Dinorah," 
in what is popularly known as the " Goat 
Trio," a bell with the note 


is used. Ambroise Thomas has a series of 

clever harmonies for the orchestra in his opera 
" Hamlet," while a deep-toned bell strikes the 
midnight hour. Flotow, in " Martha," uses 
a bell, as does Gounod in "Jeanne d'Arc," 
tuned to the following note : 


and there are numerous other instances where 
bells of all grades of tone have been used with 
skill and effect. 

Bell founding. The shape and propor- 
tions of the intended bell having been decided 
upon according to a certain scale, the first 
part of the process of casting is commenced, 
by constructing an inner mould called the core, 
by which the form of the inside of the bell is 
determined. This core has a foundation of 
rough brickwork or iron, hollow in the centre, 
afterwards plastered over with loam or soft 
clay. A guage of wood, called a crook, made 
to revolve or sweep round on a central pivot 
by the hand of a workman, gives the clay the 
exact form required. This process will be at 
once understood on reference to the following 
diagram. A is the core, B the crook, which is 
fastened to c, the pivot on which it revolves : 

The core is hardened by a fire made in its 
hollow, and when it is sufficiently " set," it is 
covered with grease and tan, over which is 
placed a coating of haybands and loam, of 
the thickness of the intended bell, and upon 
this the cope or outer mould is shaped. When 
this is dried it is removed, the thickening of 
haybands and loam which represented the 
shape of the bell to be cast, is destroyed, and 
the two moulds, the core and the cope, are 
examined and finished. 

The core is sometimes made on an iron 
foundation, instead of brickwork, in which case 
it can be dried in a furnace, instead of by the 
fire in its hollow. The cope having been care- 
fully adjusted over the core, the head and the 
staple to hold the clapper are then fitted on, 



and the whole mould is firmly imbedded in 
the earth, leaving only the holes at the top 

The above diagram shows the position of 
mould ready for the metal. A is the core, B 
the cope, f the channel for the metal to run 
in, E the hole for the air and gases to escape 
during the casting, and the thick black line 
the section of the bell. When the metal is 
quite ready, the furnace-door is opened, and 
the molten mass rushes down a channel, pre- 
viously prepared, into the moulds sunk in the 
pits, and excepting mishaps, from insecure 
" bedding," the splitting of the cope, or other 
accidents, the bell is cast, and, when cold, is 
dug from the pit, the clay mould destroyed, 
and the bell is ready for the next process, that 
of tuning. The tuning is effected by means 
of a lathe and some simple machinery. If 
the bell requires sharpening, the diameter is 
lessened in proportion to its substance, if it is 
too sharp, the sound-bow is thinned by the 
same means ; but, as a rule, bells are now so 
accurately cast, that little if any tuning is 
necessary after the bell leaves the mould. It 
is stated in " Knight's Encyclopaedia, 1854," 
that the German bell-founders made the vari- 
ous dimensions of the bell to bear certain 
ratios to each other. The thickest part where 
the hammer strikes is called the " Sound Bow." 
If this thickest be called one, then the diameter 
of the mouth equals 15, the diameter of the 
top or shoulder 7-^, the height equals 12, and 
the weight of the clapper ^ of the weight of 
the bell. 

Denison recommends that the sound bow 
of the three or four larger bells of a peal should 
be of the thickness of a thirteenth of the dia- 
meter, and that the smaller bells may gradually 
increase in thickness up to the twelfth in a 
peal of six, the eleventh in a peal of eight, 
and to the tenth in a peal of ten or twelve, 
greater thickness impeding the freedom of the 

The bells of the Cathedral at Exeter, one of 

the largest peal of bells in England, the greater 
number of which were cast in 1676, have the 
following weights, diameters, and tones ; — 




Cwt. qr. lb. 



67 I 20 




46 3 14 




38 I 16 




30 I 12 



E flat 









12 2 




10 I 2 



B flat 

9 3 20 



8 3 20 




The relative diameters of a peal of eight 
tuneable bells should be according to the 
following proportion: 60, 53^, 48, 45, 40, 36, 
32, 30. The relative weights being generally 
in the proportion, 100, 70*23, 5i"2, 42*2, 29*63, 
21-6, I5"i8, 12-5. 

Belly. The upper plate of the resonance- 
box. In instruments of the Violin and 
Guitar family the strings are stretched over 
the belly, and the bridge across which they 
pass is so placed as to set the belly, and by 
its means, the air contained in the resonance- 
box, into vibration. In instrum.ents of the 
Pianoforte class, the belly is that thin plate 
of fir-wood which, placed behind the strings, 
acts as a sound-board. Instead of an upper 
plate of wood, the guitars of many of the less 
civilized nations have a stretched parch- 
ment. The belly thus formed answers all the 
purposes of resonance for which it is in- 
tended; the Kissar of Nubia, the Banjo of 
the American negroes, the Nanga or Negro 
Harp which shares the combined designs of a 
guitar and harp, may be quoted as examples. 

Bemes or Beemes. Saxon Trumpets or 

" Of brass they broughten beemes and box, 
Of horn and bone, in which they blew and pouped, 
And therewithal they shriked and they houped ; 
It seemed as that the heven shulde falle." 

Chaucer. " Nonne preestes tale." See also the 
" Romaunt of the Rose." 

Bemol (Fr.), Bemolle (It.) The note B7. 

Ben (It.) Well. Ben marcato, well and 
clearly marked. 

Bene {It.) Well. Used as an expression 
of approval during a performance. 

Benedictus {Lat) [Mass.] 

Bene placito [It.) At pleasure, ad libitum, 
e.g., " Bassani's Ballate corrente, Gighe, e 
Sarabande, a violino, e violone, overo spinetta, 
con il secondo violino a bene placito'' (1684). 

B quadro {It.) The square B or ^, that 
is, B durum or natural, as opposed to the 17, 
soft B, B molle, or rounded b which, in its 
slightly altered outline, is now known as a 
flat. That the note B was the first note 
altered by an accidental, accounts foi the fact 

(57 ) 


that signs of b and t^ are of general appli- 

Bequadro (It.) ] n^u ■ u 

Bequarre (Fr.) \ ^^^ ''^n t^. 

Berceuse (Fr.) A cradle song. 

Bergomask. Burgomask. Berga- 
masca. A lively dance in triple time, for 
two clumsy performers, in imitation of the 
dances of the country people of Bergamo, 
who were considered the least graceful of the 

" Will it please you to see our epilogue, or to hear a 
Bergomask dance, between two of our company ? " 


Bes (Ger.) The note B double flat. 

Besaiten (Ger.) To string an instrument. 
Bestimmt (Ger.) With decision. 
Bewegung (Ger.) Motion. 
Bhat. A Hindu Bard. 

Bianca (It.) A minim, c). The white 

note, as opposed to the J, or black note (nero). 

Bichord. Havmg two strings to each 

Bicinium (Lat.) A duet, from bis and 
cano. " Cum duo canunt, bicinium appellatur ; 
cum multi, chorus." 

_ Bifara (Lat.) An organ-stop, with two 
pipes to each note, producing a tremulant 
effect. [Vox Angelica.] 

Bilancojel. An Indian flute with seven 
holes, played by a mouthpiece. 

Bimmolle (It.) The note Bb. fSee 
Quadro.] "- 

Bina, or Vina. An Indian guitar, with a 
long finger board, and a gourd attached to 
each end. Seven strings or wires wound 
round pegs in the usual way are attached to 
the finger board, four on the surface, and 
three at the sides. There are about twenty 
frets, some standing up as high as an inch 
from the finger board; these are fastened 
with wax, and the performer regulates the 
positions of them at his pleasure. In the 
performance one gourd is rested on the left 
shoulder, and the other on the right hip. Its 
scale consists of a series of small intervals 
lying between a note and its octave, in the 

Binary Form. The form of a movement 
which is founded on two principal themes or 
subjects. [vSonata Form.] 

Binary Measure. Common time. [Tonic- 

Bind. (i) A curved line, '- — ^, a sign 
which, when placed over two notes of the 
same name or same pitch (enharmonically 
changed), directs that the two are to be sus- 
tained as one. It is of frequent occurrence 
at points of Syncopation and Suspension. 


^— ±- 








f^ r-^ ^- 





Enharmonic change, or Modulation. 








^r i _yi^_A 





V ..r^j . 1-^ ^ 




When a curved line is placed over two notes, 
not of the same name or pitch, it is called a 
Slur, and directs that they are to be played 
smoothly, e.g. : 



It is to be regretted that the horizontal 
line introduced by Sir W. S. Bennett as a 
Bind, so that no confusion can exist between 
the Bind and Slur, has not been generally 
adopted, e.g. : 

(2) A Brace (Fr., Accolade) which binds 
together the separate parts of a score. 

Binde (Ger.) [Bind.] 

Bindebogen(Ger.) Thebind-bow. [Bind.] 

Bindung (Ger.) Syncopation, suspension, 
so called because the notes forming it are 
bound, or at least might be so written. 

Bindungszeichen (Ger.) A slur or bind. 

Birn (Ger.) That portion of a clarionet or 
similar instrument in which the mouth-piece 
is inserted, so called from its pear-like shape. 

Bis (Lat.) Twice, (i) A direction that 
the passage over which it is placed shall be 
twice played or sung. Its use is generally 
limited to short passages, marks of repeat 



being written for a long repetition, 
placed under or over a slur, e.g. : 

It is 


(2) Again. Encore. 

Bischero (It.) The peg, or pin, with which 
the strings of an instrument are secured. 
Biscroma (It.) 1 a • b 

Biscrome (Fr!) } ^ semiquaver, J^. 

Bisdiapason. The interval of a double 
octave, or fifteenth. 

Bissex. A kind of guitar with twelve 
strings (Ger. Zwolfsaiter), invented by Van- 
hecke in 1770. Of the twelve strings six 
were over the finger-board, six below, hence 
the name twice-six. Its compass was three 
and a half octaves. 

Bis unca (Lat.) A semiquaver »^, or 
note with two hooks. 

Bit. A small piece of tube, generally fur- 
nished with two raised ears. It is used for 
supplementing the crook of a trumpet, cornet- 
a-piston, &c., so as to adapt the instrument 
to a slight difference of pitch. 

i Fantastically, won- 
Singularity, affecta- 
Odd, droll. 

Blanche (Fr.) A minim J [Bianca.] 

Blanche pointde (Fr.) A dotted minim. 

Blasebalg (Ger.) The bellows of an organ. 
Saxon bles-belg, a wind-bag. 

Blase-instrument {Ger.) Wind instru- 
ment. Flute, oboe, bassoon, cornet, trumpet, 
trombone, &c. 

Blase-musik ( Ger. ) Music for wind 

Blatt (Ger.) A vibrating tongue or blade. 

Blech-instnimente {Ger.) [Metal wind 

B moll {Ger.) The key Bb minor. 

B molle (Lat.) The note B 1?, cf. B quad- 

Bobibation or Bocedisation. Solfeggi 
taught by Huberto Walraent at the end of 
the 1 6th century for scale practice, which 
were bo, ce, di, ga, la, mi, ni. [See Bebisation.] 
Bobibation or Bocedisation, in which the 
syllables bo, ce, di, ga, lo, ma, ni were sub- 
stituted for those attributed to Guido, was 
introduced and taught in many schools in 
Flanders, and so this peculiar use came to 
be called Belgian solmisation. Walraent's 
method was adopted in Italy in 1599 by 
Henri de la Putte, who wrote an elaborate 
Latin treatise in defence of it ; and a few 
years later Calwitz, ignoring its invention and 

taking the credit to himself, introduced it into 
Germany. In Spain and France the method 
was proposed by Pietro de Ureno and John 
Lemaire, but without success. To the last- 
named musician the addition of the syllable 
Si for the leading note is attributed. Bobiba- 
tion was accepted by some musicians and 
rejected by others, and the result was a petty 
war, which lasted until the commencement of 
the 1 8th century. Hitzler, a few years later, 
suggested the use of the syllables la, be, ce, 
de, mi, fe, gi — this system he called bebisa- 
tion or labecedation ; and Graun recommended 
da, me, ni, po, tu, la, be, from which his plan 
was called damenisation. 

Bob major. Bob maximus, Bobs. [Bells.] 
Bocal {Fr.) The mouth-piece of the horn, 
serpent, trombone, &c. 

Bocca (It.) The mouth. Con bocca chiusa, 
with closed mouth, humming. 

Bocca ridente (It.) Sjniling vtoiith, the 
position of the mouth needful for the pro- 
duction of pleasing tone. 

Bocchino {It.) A mouth-piece of wind 

Bockpfeife {Ger.) Bagpipe. 
Bockstriller (Ger.) A goat-like tremolo 
upon one note, a bad shake. [Vibrato.] 
Boden {Ger.) [Body.] 
Body. The resonance box of a string 
instrument. That part of a wind instrument 
which remains after the removal of mouth- 
piece, crooks, and bell. 
Bogen (Ger.) Bow. 
Bogenclavier {Ger.) [Tetrachordon.] 
Bogenfiihrung {Ger.) The art of play- 
ing with a bow upon stringed instruments. 

Bogenstrich (Ger.) The stroke of a 

Bolero (Sp.) A Spanish dance in triple 
measure with strongly-marked accent, also 
called Cachuca. It is accompanied with 
singing and castanets, and the performer 
assumes in the course of the dance all the 
various feelings supposed to be excited by 
love, from the greatest shyness to the highest 
ecstasy. [Chica.] 

Bombard. Bombarde {Fr.) A reed stop 
on the organ, usually among the pedal regis- 
ters, of large scale, rich tone, and often on a 
heavy pressure of wind. 

Bombardino {It.) A small bombardo, q.v. 
Bombardo {It.) A mediaeval wind instru- 
ment, the precursor of the oboe, of which it 
was no doubt a large and coarse species. 
The word Pommer, applied to these instru- 
ments, was a corruption of the Italian name. 
The chalameau or shawm {Ger. Schalmey) was 
the smallest of this class, the bombardone the 
largest. Clarinets, oboes, and bassoons, now 
so clearly defined, grew out of one common 
parentage. The clarinet has but one vibrating 



reed ; the oboe and bassoon double vibrating 

Bombardon. A brass instrument, in tone 
not unlike an ophicleide. It is not capable of 
rapid execution. The compass is 


Music for it is written without transposition, 
although it is in F. 

Bombaulius, /3o/i/3au\ioe(G^.) A facetious 
name for a bag-piper. A pun on the words 
avXrjnJQ, a flute-player, and fjonfivXwg, a buz- 
zing insect, whence our word, bumble-bee ; 
c.f., Latin, Bombiis. 

Bombyx {Gk.) (56fiftv^. A Greek flute, 
perhaps so named from its supposed resem- 
blance to the silk-worm. It was probably 
a reed-instrument of powerful tone. The 
following illustration is given by Burney from 
a sarcophagus in the Capitoline Museum, at 

Bones. Four pieces of the ribs of horses 
or oxen, held in the hands and struck together 
for the purpose of marking time, in accompa- 
niment to the voice or an instrument. The 
bones are of ancient use in England, and are 
alluded to by Shakespeare in the fourth act of 
"A Midsummer Night's Dream,"as forming one 
meansof rustic music. And in figuresdesigned 
by Inigo Jones for the Court Masques one is re- 
presented playingupon knicky-knackers ofbone 
or wood. The word knicky-knackers, by which 
the bones are known to the country people, 
may have its origin from the word "nakeres." 
In Strutt's " Sports and Pastimes," a payment 
is recorded as being made tojanino leNakerer, 
among the minstrels of King Edward II. The 
nakerer was probably the drummer ; but, as 
the minstrels frequently indulged in burlesque 
music, Janino may have been the performer 
on that primitive or rustic instrument, the bones. 

Bon temps de la mesure (Fr.) The 
accented portion of the bar. 

Bordone {It.) [Bourdon.] [Viola di Bar- 

Boulou. A harp used by the negroes of 
Senegambia and Guinea, in shape like the 
Oriental harp. Its strings are of fibre. 

Bourdon (Fr.) (i) A drone bass, a 
burden such as that produced by a bagpipe, 
or a hurdy-gurdy. [Burden.] (2) An organ 
stop, consisting of stopped wooden pipes, 
generally of 16 ft. tone. Sometimes, but 
rarely, the upper part is of metal. It is 
found on manuals as a "double" stop, and 
also on the pedal organ as a soft foundation- 

stop. It was formerly made of a large scale 
in England, but from a better knowledge 
of scientific principles organ builders are now 
able to produce a strong and pure body of 
tone from a pipe of moderate scale. As a 
rule, it is important that it should be free 
from a preponderance of harmonics or over- 
tones, but sometimes they are purposely 
produced with the fundamental note, in which 
case the stop is called quintato7t, because the 
first harmonic or over-tone of a stopped pipe 
is its twelfth, or octave fifth. Hence a 
Bourdon was sometimes said to hefifthy. 

Bourr6e {Fr.) A dance tune in common 
time,said by Hawkins to come from Auvergne. 
Other writers give Biscay as its birthplace. 
The earliest mention of it is probably about 
1580. It is still popular with the peasants 
of Lower Brittany. It often forms one of 
the movements of the earlier Sonata. 

Boutade {Fr.) A dance which was sup- 
posed to be impromptu. 

Bow. An instrument of wood and horse- 
hair, employed to set the strings of the violin, 
&c., in vibration. The bow, originally curved, 
as its name implies, has been subject to many 
changes of shape from time to time, from a 
large curve to an almost flat form. 

Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3- 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5- 

The bow shown in fig. i is that still used 
with the rehab of Algeria. Fig. 2 is given by 
Gerber from a MS. of the 8th or gth century. 
The bow now used for the violin is about 
29 inches in length (almost straight, but 
with a, slight curve inwards, not outwards, as 
in the older bows), the violoncello bow being a 
little shorter, fig. 5. Christopher Simpson(i676) 

( 60 ) 


says that twenty-seven inches was the length 
of the bow in his time, the " sonata bow," fig. 3, 
according to tradition, being only twenty-four 
inches, the common " fiddle-stick " being 
still shorter. The form of the bow, which was 
anciently employed for all stringed instru- 
ments of the violin kind, known now as the 
" Corelli bow," fig. 4, is to a certain extent 
preserved in the double-bass bow as at present 
employed in England. 

Most of our stringed-instruments can be 
traced to an Eastern source, but as the earliest 
figure of the bow is found in MSS. relating to 
this country, it has been supposed that it is of 
British origin. There are many representa- 
tions of it in MSS. as early as the Anglo- 
Saxon period (see Sandy's " History of the 
Violin," pp. 52, 53, &c.), and later through 
successive generations, besides existing speci- 
mens of actual ancient bows, all of which par- 
take of the bowed character, as seen in fig. i. 
The curved bow was still in fashion until the 
death of Handel, if any trust is to be placed 
in contemporary pictures and drawings. 

The little that is known of the early bows 
gives the notion that they were incapable of 
producing anything like delicacy of tone ; and 
it was not until the early part of the 17th 
century, when violin-playing began to be cul- 
tivated, that we find that any attempt was 
made to improve either the form of the bow 
or the means of stretching the horse-hair, 
so that an even pressure might be obtained. 
The alteration from the bowed form is said to 
have been made after a suggestion by Tartini 
[1692-1770]. There is every reason to believe 
that the improvement in violin-playing due to 
him* could only be effected by means of a better 
bow than the clumsy one of his time. The 
earliest improvement was made when a metal 
band, with teeth-like edges, was introduced, 
with the design of regulating the position and 
tension of the hair at or near the handle. This 
helped to prevent the hair assuming the cord- 
like form which players found to be awkward 
and clumsy. But it was reserved for Frangois 
Tourte [1747-1833] to devise the plan of keep- 
ing " the hair flat by means of a clasp." 
Tourte also introduced the screw and button 
for slackening or tightening the hair at plea- 
sure, and was the first to choose Brazil-wood 
as a material in bow-making. It was the 
father of Tourte who attempted the first im- 
provements in bow-making, but it was the 
son above-mentioned who introduced the most 
valuable inventions. The bows of the younger 
Tourte are almost as much sought as those of 
the elder Dodd [1705-1810], who lived to the 
great age of 105 years, but the works of the 
last-named are most highly valued. Panormo, 
Tubbs, and Chanot are counted among the 
chief of modern bow-makers. 

Bow-hand. The term is employed by 
violinists to describe the power and skill with 
which a player produces the tone of his 

Bowing. The art of managing the bow, 
so as not only to bring out the best tone the 
instrument is capable of, but also so to phrase 
the passages played that the best possible 
character may be imparted to the music. 
The importance both to a violinist, and a 
composer of music for the violin, of a thorough 
knowledge of the art of bowing, cannot be 
overrated. By varying the system of bowing, 
a simple musical sentence may be changed in 
its character, almost indefinitely. Formerly, 
very little attention was paid to this subject, 
the system of bowing being left very much to 
the discretion of the players, who only occa- 
sionally had such general directions as legato 
or staccato. There always, however, existed 
certain traditional rules, e.g. that the down- 
bow should be used at the first beat of a bar, 
or where any great emphasis was required (as 
in some cases of syncopation) ; also, that 
where no directions are given, the passage 
should be bowed, that is, the notes should be 
alternately played by an tip and down bow. 
But it is evident that in simple music, of triple 
measure, these rules will clash, for, alternate 
bowing will lead to the recurrence of an up- 
bow on every alternate down-beat. Hence, 
even if an excellent band is playing music up 
to the date of, and including that by Handel, it 
must have often been observed that the bowing 
is far from being uniform. In modern music, 
every direction is given to the performers 
which is requisite for the production of abso- 
lute uniformity, and more than this, the various 
effects which are capable of production by the 
different systems of bowing are used as part 
of a composer's material. The prominent 
features in modern bowing are the more fre- 
quent antithesis between legato and staccato, 
and the use of at least three kinds of the latter. 
When notes have the ordinary dot placed 
above them they are bowed staccato ; when 
the dots are under a slur, they are played with 
one bow (that is by the movement of the bow 
in one direction) the short length of the sounds 
being brought about by keeping the bow always 
lying on the string, so that any movement of 
the bow which has produced a sound shall be 
followed by absolute silence. The third kind 
of staccato is produced by holding the bow as 
lightly as possible and allowing it almost to 
dance upon the string. In this manner rapid 
passages may be played either by one bow up 
or down, or by an alternate bowing, during 
which the movement of the bow at right angles 
to the string is so slight that it seems to rise 
and fall almost perpendicularly. A favourite 
division of four rapid notes is to make two 

( 61 ) 



legato and the following two staccato. The 
well-known Var. II. of Beethoven's Sonata for 
Violin, known as the " Kreutzer," is a good 
illustration of this: 

^^^^^:^^3r: ^-f-rr^-rt^ ^^ 

The effect which results from moving the 
bow on an unaccented part of the bar is most 
striking and beautiful, e.g. (from the same 
Sonata) : 



gV^£-fl-£-t^ ^£^^|-Mlrf =^ 


and in the following (Beethoven Symphony, 
No. 9) : 


Groups of three notes are often divided into 
two legato and one staccato, e.g. : 







less often into one staccato and two legato. 

p cr ' 




»! pf 


Two notes out of eight are often made legato, 











T^ &C. 


The above few examples may serve to give 
some idea of the inexhaustible resources of 
the art of bowing. It will of course be under- 
stood that what is here said of the violin 
applies equally to the viola and violoncello. 
But, in consequence of the thickness of the 
strings, the double-bass is not so capable of 
rapid contrasts of bowing as the rest of its 
family. In studies and exercises it is usual 
now to direct a down-bow by the sign r~i ; and 
an up-bow by a. The French terms corres- 
ponding to these signs SiTetirS (draw) ; pousse 
(push), sometimes abbreviated by p and t. 

The quality of tone produced depends net only 
on the nature and quantity of pressure exer- 
cised by the bow upon the strings, but also 
upon the position of the point of impact. 
Thus, if played very close to the bridge {suV 
ponticello), the tone is of peculiar brightness 
and shrillness ; as the bow is used further 
from the bridge, the tone passes through a 
stage of great purity and strength, until, at 
close proximity to the finger-board, it becomes 
soft and somewhat dull. The practised per- 
former chooses that part of the string capable 
of producing the tone best suited to the pass- 
age he is playing, and he draws it forth with 
that part of bow most suitable for the purpose. 
As a general rule, from the heel to about the 
middle of the bow, is the part naturally used 
{ox forte or sforzando passages ; and from the 
middle to the point for those of a more delicate 
character. But actual experience is the only 
method of learning the intricacies and beauties 
of the art of bowing. 

Boyau {Fr.) Cat-gut strings. 

B natural. The 
name of B quadra- 
turn or B square 
was given by reason 
of its shape, which 
was originally that 
of a gothic B. [B 

Belgian patriotic 


B quadratum 
B quadrum 
B quarre 


Brabangonne. The 

song first sung at the time of the revolution 
of 1830. The words were written by an actor 
named Jenneval, at that time engaged at the 
theatre at Brussels, the music being set by 
a singer named Campenhout. Upon the 
death of Jenneval at Berghem his mother was 
allowed a pension of 2400 fr. Campenhout 
was appointed director of the Royal Chapel 

Brace, (i) A 
more staves together 

mark connecting two or 



(2) The leather slides upon the cords of a 
drum, used for raising or lowering the tone 
by tightening or loosening the head. 

Bransle (Fr.) [Brawl.] 

Brawl. An old round dance in which the 
performers joined hands in a circle. A country 

" Then first of all he doth demonstrate plain 
The motions seven that are in nature found, 
Upward and downward, forth, and back again, 
To this side, and to that, and turning round ; 
Whereof a thousand brawls he doth compound. 
Which he doth teach unto the multitude, 
And ever with a turn they must conclude." 

Sir John Davies. Orchestra, 1607. 



The brawl and the bransle were the same 
dance. Douce gives an account of " le 
branle du bouquet,' from " Deux dialogues 
du nouveau langage Fran9ois, Italianize," 
Anvers, 1579, in which, kissing the whole of 
the ladies, by each of the gentlemen in turn, 
seems to have been one of the chief features 
in the dance. 

The following Braule from Delaborde's 
specimens (of the 15th or i6th century) shows 
the rhythm of this dance : 


.(y> ^'^1 













A A 







^.^!UV v ±- J^ J I j J J-J^: ^ 



-f^— f^ 

-J— ^ 



Bratsche {Ger) The Tenor Violin, Alto, 
or Viola. So called from the Viola da braccia, 
or viola held on the arm, as distinguished 
from the viola da gaiuba, or viola held be- 
tween the legs, the precursor of the violoncello. 

Brava, fern. (It.) "^ 

Bravi, pi. (It.) vWell, or bravely, done. 

Bravo, mas. [It.) ) 

Bravura (7^.) Dash, brilliancy. Con bra- 
vura, with, dash or brilliancy. Ariadi bravura, 
an air, distinguished from a simple melody 
by the introduction of florid passages. [Aria.] 

Break, (i) The point of junction in the 
quality of tenor, soprano, and alto voices. A 
genuine bass voice has no break. The lower 
range is called voce di petto, or chest voice; 
the upper, voce di testa, or head voice ; and 
the place of junction is called the break. A 
properly-cultivated voice should have the 
break so under control, that the union of 
the two qualities should be imperceptible. 

(2) In the clarinet the break in the tone 
of the instrument occurs between B flat and 
B natural, 



Hence, rapid passages containing frequent 
transitions from one register to the other are 
impossible on that instrument. In trumpets 

and horns, when from imperfect lipping, the 
note produced is other than the tone intended, 
such note is called a break. A similar result 
often occurs in imperfectly formed or unset 

(3) Break, in an organ stop, is the sudden 
alteration of the proper scale-series of the pipes 
by returning to those of an octave lower in 
pitch. A break becomes necessary in the 
smaller compound stops, for, when proceeding 
far upwards in pitch, it is found that the pipes 
would be so small as to be inaudible. As 
mixtures, sesquialteras, and other stops of the 
same class, are generally formed of several 
ranks of high harmonics, breaks in them are 
frequent. The break generally takes place 
between C and Q% or F and F}f; but organ- 
builders do not act with uniformity, either as 
to the position of the break, or the exact series 
of sounds to be produced on the return. 

Breast. {Old Eng.) The voice. 

"Trulye two degrees of men, which have the highest 
offices under the Kinge in all this realme, shall greatly 
lacke the use of singinge, preachers, and lawyers, be- 
cause they shall not, withoute this, be able to rule their 
breastes for everye purpose." — Ascham's Toxophilite. 

" By my troth, the fool has an excellent breast." — 
Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, ii., 3. 

" The better brest, the lesser rest. 
To serve the queer, now there, now beer, 
For time so spent, I may repent 
And sorrowe make." 

TussER [Five hundred points of good husbandry, 1540). 

Breit (Ger.) Broadly, larganiente. 

Breve. In Mediaeval music, the note equal 
to half the value of a long, and one quarter of 
the double long or maxima. Its shape was ■. 
" Quandocunque punctus quadratus invenitur, 
qui caret omni tractu brevis dicitur" (Franco, 
of Paris.) Breves like other notes in the early 
attempts at mensurable music, affected the 
length of other notes, and were in turn affected 
by other notes according to their relative 
position. A long " in modo perfecto " was 
reduced by one third or made imperfect by 
having a breve next to it on either side. A 
breve " in tempore perfecto " was made im- 
perfect, that is, was reduced from three to two 
beats, by juxtaposition with a semibreve. A 
breve was also subject to " alteratio " that is, 
being made longer when between two longs. 
When so altered it was called alterata or 
shortly altera. All these laws and many 
others of a like character were drawn up by 
writers in the fifteenth century, in the dawn 
of " mensurable " music. Having discovered 
the utility of showing the relative length of 
notes by their shape, authors seem to have 
revelled in constructing new complications. 
These were gradually dropped by succeeding 
writers, until the breve became the unit of 
duration, a position which it held for nearly 

(^3 ) 



two centuries. The Semibreve is now our 
recognized unit, the Breve being a double note 
and of rare occurrence. But these changes 
have been a slow growth, not sudden altera- 
tions of existing opinions or practices. 

Brett-geige. Bret-Geige {Ger.) A pocket 
fiddle ; hence, Fr. pochette, Ger.Taschengeige. 
It. sordino, from the small quantity of tone 
it is capable of producing. Eng. kit. 

Bridge. A piece of wood which, on in- 
struments having a resonance-box, performs 
the double duty of raising the strings above 
the belly, and of terminating at one end their 
vibrating portion. In instruments played 
with the bow, the bridge is arched, in order to 
allow the bow to impinge upon any one string 
without touching others. In instruments, 
such as the guitar and pianoforte, its upper 
edge runs parallel to the belly. In violins, 
the material and adjustment of the bridge are 
of great importance. Some instruments re- 
quire a bridge made of coarse-grained wood, 
others of close-grained. It stands on two 
legs ; that on the right hand should rest on 
the belly at a short distance behind the sound 
post. The legs should lie flat on the surface 
of the belly, in order that the vibrations of 
the strings should be duly transferred to the 
resonance-box. The tone of an instrument is 
largely influenced by the position of the bridge, 
and only great experience and nice handling 
can discover where it is best set up. 

Brillante {It. and Fr.) Brilliant, in a 
showy sparkling style. 

Brillenbasse (Ger.) " Spectacle basses," 
music for the drum, so called from its resem- 
blance to a pair of spectacles. ^ ■ J~^" p^ 

Brindisi (It.) A drinking song. Often of 
a florid character, so arranged as to exhibit 
the change from the chest to the head voice 
in rapid succession, something similar to the 
German jodl, q.v. The air " Libiamo" in 
Verdi's " La Traviata," is called a brindisi. 

Brio, con (It.) With spirit, vigour, and 

Brioso (It.) Joyfully, vigorously, forcibly. 

Brise (Fr.) [Broken chords, arpeggios.] 

Brisk. Lively. A term frequently used 
by writers of the last century before the 
general adoption of the term vivace. 

Broderies (Fr.) Ornaments with which 
it was the fashion in a past age to cover any 
simple melody ; these w^ere generally left to 
the caprice of the performer, until Rossini set 
the fashion of writing those ornaments which 
he wished his music to bear. 

Broken cadence. An interrupted cadence. 

Broken chords. [Arpeggio.] 

Broken music. Probably music played 
on harps, guitars, or lutes, because the sounds 
of these instruments cannot be sustained at 

will. Shakespeare, " Troilus and Cressid?.," 
Act iii. sc. I : 

" Fair prince, here is good broken music." 

Also •' Henry V," Act. ii. sc. i ; "As you 
like it," Act i. sc. 2. 

Brontium {Lat.) (ipovrelov 
for imitating thunder, used 
theatre. Sheets of 
the hyposcenium 

A contrivance 
in the Greek 
copper were laid out in 
over which were rolled 
bladders filled with pebbles. 

B rotundum {Lat.) B flat. #= -fr^. — See 
B cancellatum. 

Brummeisen or Maultrommel {Ger.) 
Jew's-harp. From Maul, the mouth. [Jew's- 

Bruscamente {It.) Coarsely, roughly, 
strongly accented. 

Buccina. Bucina {Lat.) A crooked horn 
or trumpet, tuba being the straight trumpet. 
It was used as a signal for changing the 
night-watches, hence the expressions ad pri- 
mam bucinam, secundam, &c., at the first and 
second watches. Public assemblies were 
also summoned by it in early Roman times. 
Poets and sculptors have represented Triton 
as blowing through a bucina, from bucinum, 
a shell called the sea-trumpet. 

Buccinator. A muscle situated in the 
fleshy part of the cheeks. It is so called 
because, when the cheeks are filled with air, 
the contraction of the buccinator muscles 
forces it out. It derives its name from 
buccinare, Lat., to blow a trumpet. 

Buccolica {It.) 1 Rustic, a la bucolique, 

Bucolique {Fr.) J in a rustic manner. 

Biichse {Ger.) The boot or foot of an 
organ pipe. 

Buffa (7^.) fern. ") Comic. Aria buffa^ 

Buffo {It.) mas. j a humorous melody 
opera buffa, a comic opera. 

Buffare {It.) To trifle, joke, to play the 

Buffet {Fr.) An organ case. Key-board 

Buffone {It.) A comic singer in the 

Buffonescamente {It.) In a burlesque 
or humorous style. 

Bugle, (i) A hunting-horn of a straight 
or curved form. (2) A copper instrument of 
the horn quality of tone, but of less compass, 
furnished with keys. The tone is sweet, 
powerful, and distinct ; it has rarely been em- 
ployed in the orchestra. There are bugle 
horns in C, B flat, and E flat, each capable 
of producing its generator and 7 harmonics. 
The ventil-horn is an improvement upon the 
bugle. The word Bugle, from the Anglo- 
Saxon buge, to beyid or curve, was anciently 
applied to many things of a curved shape, 
thus, the head of a bishop's crozierwas called 

( G4) 


the bugle, and the crozier itself the bugle-rod. 
The handle of a kettle, basket handles, and a 
peculiar sort of elongated glass-bead are each 
called by the name bugle. Some writers de- 
rive the word from bowgle or bougie, a bull, 
on the ground that the earliest horns were 
bull's horns, and that the earliest representa- 
tions of hunting horns are in shape like bull's 
horn. [Metal wind instruments.] 

Buonaccordo (It.) A small triangular 
spinet for the use and amusement of chil- 
dren, the notes of which were made small to 
suit the length of their span. 

Buonamente (It.) Justly, truly. 

Buona nota (It.) Accented note. 

Buon gusto (7^.) In good taste. 

Burden, (i) The chorus or refrain of a 
song. [Ballad.] (2) The drone of the bag- 
pipe. (3) The tune sung as an accompaniment 
to a dance when there were no instruments. 

•' Foot it featly here and there. 
And let the rest the burden bear." 
" Belike it hath some burden then." 
"And clap us into Light 0' love, that goes without a 

Do you sing it, and I'll dance it." — Shakespeare. 

" This sompnour bear to him a stiff bordoune 
Was never trompe of half so gret a soun." 


Burla (7^.) A jest. 
Burlando. Burlescamente. 


Burlesca (7^) A jest, a movement in a 
jocular style, c.f. scherzo. 

Burletta (7^.) A comic operetta, a farce 
interspersed with songs. 

Busaun. Busain. Buzain. A reed- 
stop on the organ. Generally of 16 ft. length, 
and on the pedal organ. Its quality of tone 
is soft. It is not improbable that this word is 
connected with bassoon. 

Bussone (7^) An obsolete wind-instru- 
ment, of. bassoon. 

Button, (i) A small round piece of leather 
which, when screwed on the tapped wire of a 
tracker, prevents it from jumping out of place. 
[Organ.] (2) The keys of the first-made 
accordions. [Accordion.] 

Buxus. Buxea tibia {Lat.) A flute made 
of boxwood. 

" Tympana vos buxusque vocant Berecyntia matris 
Idasae."— Virg. JE. ix. 619. 

Byssynge songes (early Etig.) LuUa- 
byes, cradle songs. 




C. (i) The note Ut in the Guidonian 
system and in modern French and Italian 

— (2) The letter whose original form was 
afterwards modified into the C clef. 

— (3) The first note of the Hypo-Eolian 
mode. The first note of the Ionian mode. 

— (4) The first, or key note of the modern 
normal scale, so called because if it be desired 
to write down the scale now used, C is the 
only note from which the series can start 
unless sharps or flats be added. 

— (5) A capital letter C signifies the note 
in the second space ofthe bass stave(TenorC). 
A small c signifies the note one octave above 
this, middle C. [Pitch.] 

Cabaletta (Sp.) {Lit. a little horse.) A 
melody in rondo form, at first sung simply, 
afterwards with variations, probably so called 
because accompaniments to cabalettas were 
m triplet form like the noise made by a horse 

Cabinet d'orgue (Fr.) Organ case. 

Cabinet Pianoforte, An old-fashioned 
upright pianoforte, about six feet in height. 

Cabiscola (Lat.) A corruption of the 
words caput scholae. The precentor in a 
choir (Precentor). In Narbonne and many 
parts of Italy, the office of capischol was held 
by the Dean. 

Caccia [It.) Hunting, (i) Music accom- 
panied by horns, or in praise of field sports, is 
said to be alia caccia, in the hunting style. 

(2) Instruments used in hunting are called 
da caccia, as oboe da caccia, hunting oboe, a 
large kind of oboe ; corno da caccia, hunting 

Cachucha {Sp.)A Spanish dance. [Bolero.] 

Harsh sounding music 
. — not necessarily incor- 
rect, but often treated 
because of its unusual 


Cacophony (Gk.) 

Cacophonie (Fr.) 

Cacofonia (It.) 
as though it were, 

appeal to imperfect judgment. The word 
however, generally used in a bad sense. 

Cadence. (i) A vocal or instrumental 
shake or trill, run or division, introduced as 
an ending, or as a means of return to the 
first subject. 

(2) The end of a phrase, formerly called a 
fall, either in melody or harmony. 

" That strain again 
II had a dying fall." — Shakespeare. 

(3) There are four principal forms of cadence 
in harmony, the whole, or authentic, the 
half, the interrupted, and the plagal cadence. 
When the last chord — the major or minor 
chord ofthe keynote — is preceded by the major 
chord of the dominant, such cadence is called 
whole or perfect. If the last chord is the 
dominant and is preceded by the chord of the 
tonic, the cadence is called half or imperfect. 
When the last chord of the phrase is other 
than the tonic chord and is preceded by that 
of the dominant, the cadence is said to be 
interrupted, false, or deceptive. The cadence, 
called plagal, is that in which the chord of 
the tonic is preceded by the major or minor 
chord of the subdominant. The whole ca- 
dence is used to conclude most modern 
music ; the half and the interrupted cadence 
in the progress of a harmonised melody. 
The plagal cadence was frequently employed 
as a close by the old contrapuntal writers. 

Whole or Perfect Cadences. Half or Imperfect Cadences. 

Interrupted, False or Deceptive Cadences. 


Plagal Cadences. 






By some authors, cadences are divided into 
two kinds, perfect and imperfect ; the authentic 
and plagal being considered perfect ; all other 
cadences, imperfect. From another point of 
view cadences have been divided into simple 

( ^6 ) 


and compound; a cadence being simple when 
both the penultimate and final chords which 
form it are plain common chords ; and com- 
pound when suspensions or other devices are 
introduced, e.g. : 

Simple Cadence. Compound Cadence. 


5i_i-g H ^ l =g 

^ m =^ 













A series of cadences can be constructed by 
making any one of the relative chords (or its in- 
versions) precede the final tonic chord, a 
relative chord being a common chord which 
can be made up out of the notes of any given 
scale. The relative chords of C are therefore 
D minor, E minor, F major, G major, A 
minor, but not B major or minor, as there is 
no Fj in the key of C. We shall, therefore, 
get this series : 











D to C. E to C. 


G toC. 

A to C. 

And from the relative chords of the minor 
scale : 



-<3>- -< 








ir ^ 

Eb to C. 

F to C. 

Gto C. 

Ab to C. 

It will be observed that there is no relative 
chord on the second or seventh degree of the 
minor mode owing to the imperfection of the 
interval of the fifth. For further information 
see Stainer's "Treatise on Harmony." 

Cadence imparfaite {Fr^ An imperfect 

Cadence parfaite (-Fr.) A perfect cadence. 

Cadence perlee (Fr.) A brilliant cadence. 

Cadence rompue (Fr.) A broken or in- 
terrupted cadence. 

Cadenz {Ger^ [Cadence.] 

Cadenza {It.) (i) A passage introduced 
towards the close of the first or last move- 
ment of a concerto, either actually extempore 
or of an impromptu character. (2) A running 
passage at the conclusion of a vocal piece. 
Solo performers in times past were accus- 
tomed to display their skill and invention in 
a final flourish, apparently extempore, but 
often the result of careful study and prepa- 
ration. In some cases, however, the attain- 
ment of the performer was the object of the 

display, and hence the added cadenza was 
often so inappropriate and incongruous, espe- 
cially in vocal music, that composers felt 
bound to write down all the ornaments or 
embellishments they considered their music 
capable of bearing. Purcell is said to have 
so acted with regard to many of his songs ; 
and it has been supposed that the runs or 
divisions so common in music of the i8th 
century were introduced as concessions to the 
custom of the time of ornamenting a plain 
melody. Every performer considered him- 
self at liberty to alter an air to suit his own 
peculiarities, and singers were estimated ac- 
cording to their vocal agility. An extract 
from a diary kept at Rome in 1697, by a 
young Scotch gentleman, speaking of Corelli 
and his playing, says : " This is his manner 
in adagios, to which he adds innumerable 
graces ; not crowded in confusion as some 
do, but gentle, easy and sliding, and suited 
withal to the composition of the other parts, 
which no man but he who has taste and 
knowledge of the composition, can perform." 
When a great master in art sets the example, 
followers are always found, and what is pleas- 
ing in a man of genius becomes the reverse 
when imitated. Although cadenzas were 
fashionable in the time of Handel, instances 
of fully written examples by him are rare. 
The conclusion of the duet, " O lovely peace," 
in "Judas Maccabseus," is one of the few 
specimens he has left. Many of the songs in 
his oratorios were constantly so changed by 
the singers by means of graces, notes, and 
turns, that their form was completely dis- 
guised. But while the custom existed there 
were not wanting some musicians who con- 
stantly protested against what they considered 
the ill-usage of an author's ideas, forgetting 
that the composer, probably knowing the bad 
habit of his singers, had constructed his melo- 
dies so that they might not suffer by the 
overlading o^ fioriture. Rubinelli the singer, 
on his first appearance in England, was cen- 
sured for embellishing and changing his airs. 
On his second appearance in this country, 
he determined to sing without introducing a 
single ornament not written, and so fickle was 
the taste of the time (c. 1780), that when he 
sang " Return, O God of Hosts," from " Sam- 
son," in Westminster Abbey, his hearers 
thought the song and his style of singing 
alike insipid. 

The omission of ornaments in a musical 
performance was a matter for surprise a cen- 
tury earlier than that just named. Richard 
Lygon, in his " History of Barbadoes, 1687," 
describes his satisfaction at hearing a min- 
strel sing a song, " savouring much of an- 
tiquity — no graces, double relishes, trillos, 
grupos, or piano -fortes, but plain as a pack- 

( 67 ) 


staff; his lute, too, was but of ten strings, 
so that the rarity of this antique piece pleased 
me beyond measure," 

Cathedral chants, services, and anthems 
— even psalm and hymn tunes — were writ- 
ten with every possible florid turn, as shown 
by existing examples of the Church compo- 
sitions of the latter part of the last century. 

The stor}^ told of the elder Dubourg and 
Handel's comment upon his cadenza is well 
known ; and there is another anecdote illus- 
trating the absurdity of a misplaced cadenza, 
told concerning the trombone player at the 
first performance of Mendelssohn's " Lobge- 
sang," The composer met the player and 
asked him if he had looked at his part, as he 
had given him plenty of important work to 
do. "O yes, Herr Director, I have studied it 
carefully." The astonishment of Mendels- 
sohn may be imagined when at the rehearsal 
he heard the result of the careful study of the 
trombonist in the announcement of the initial 
phrase of the symphony as follows : 

Maestoso con moto. 




Mendelssohn, in his sweet manner, told the 
performer that he would rather have the phrase 
played as he had written it. Other musicians 
of less agreeable dispositions have sarcas- 
tically thanked performers for taking " so 
much trouble to sing or play notes that were 
not written ;" and it is on record that Beet- 
hoven repeatedly quarrelled with vocalists for 
not adhering to his text, and it is also well 
known that Rossini wrote every cadenza out 
in full, " for he thought it better so to do than 
to trust to the gaucheries of conceited voca- 

In instrumental compositions the habit of 
leaving a space for the ad libitum fancies of 
the performer opened a door for the admis- 
sion of eccentricities and absurdities, which 
the better sort of musicians have sought from 
time to time to remedy, by the composition 
of suitable cadenzas as much as possible in 
accordance with the original composer's de- 
sign. Clementi wrote cadenzas for the whole 
of Mozart's concertos, and Dr. Hiller and 
others have done like things for other works 
in which spaces have been left. 

The cadenza has been made the vehicle for 
the expression of musical humour, as by 
Mendelssohn in the Music to " A Midsummer 
Night's Dream," and of quaintness in instru- 
mentation, as in Beethoven's No. 5 Concerto, 
and in other works needless to particularise. 
" It is usual," says Jousse in his "Dictionary 
of Music," " to commence a cadenza with a 
plain note or chord sung or held out, so that 

the accompanying performers may know when 
it has been begun ; and it is also customary 
to make a long shake at the end of the ca- 
denza, as a signal that the accompaniment is 
to be resumed." 

Cadenza d'inganno (7^) A deceptive 

Cadenza fioritura (7^.) An ornamental 


Caisse (Fr.) A drum. 

Caisses claires (Fr.) Snare-drums ; grosse 

caisse (Fr.), big drum. 

Caisse roulante {Fr.) Tenor- drum, 
larger than a snare-drum. 

Calamus. (Gk. caXa^joc) A reed-flute. 
Probably a simple rustic instrument like our 
oaten-pipe. But some suppose it to have been 
similar in construction to the syrinx, or pan's- 
pipes, and to have been synonymous with 
arundo. From calamus is derived the post-clas- 
sical calamaulos, a flute made of reed, whence 
calamaulis [KaKajxavXrjc and KaXajuavXijrrjc:) a 
player on reed-pipes ; hence too, chalameau, 
schalmey, shawm, the precursor of the modern 
clarinet, one of the registers of which is still 
said to be of chalameau tone. 

Calando (7/.) {Calare. To descend, de- 
crease.) A passage marked calando is to be 
sung or played with decreasing volume of 
tone and slackening pace. 

Calandrone (7^.) (Calandra, a woodlark.) 
A small reed instrument of the shawm or 
clarinet character, with two holes, much used 
by the Italian peasantry. 

Calascione. [Colascione.] 

Calata (7^) An Italian dance in f time, 
of a sprightly character. 

Calcando (7^.) Hurrying, pressing the 

Calcant (from Lat. Calcare.) Treading. 
The bellows-treader (Balgentreter) of the old 
German organs. 

Calcanten-glocke {Ger.) Bells sounded 
by means of pedals. 

Call. A military term for the variations of 
certain musical notes played on a trumpet 
or bugle, or a special sort of beat upon the 
drum, each call being the signal foi a definite 

Call. A toy instrument made by winding 
a narrow tape round two small oblong pieces 
of tin, so that one fold of the tape may be set 
in vibration when blown through. The call 
is used by men who work the drama of 
" Punch and Judy." 

Ca ira (Fr.) 'That will do.' The refrain 
of 'a song popular during the revolution in 
France in 1793. The melody to which it was 
sung was a favourite with the unhappy Queen 

( 68 ) 


Marie Antoinette. The song was called the 
" Carillon national." 

Le refrain. 

Ah ! 9a ira, 9a ira, ga ira, 

Le peuple en ce jour sans cesse repete. 

Ah ! 9a ira, 9a ira, 9a ira, 

Malgre les mutins, tout reussira. 

Calma, con (7^.) With calmness. 

Calmato {It.) Calmed, quieted, appeased. 

Calore, con (7^.) With heat, warmth. 

Caloroso (7^.) Warmly, full of passionate 

Cambiare (7^.) To turn, change, alter. 

Cambiata (7^.) [Nota.] 

Camera, musica di (7^.) [Chamber Music] 

Camminando (7^.) Walking, flowing, 

Campana (7^.) A bell. [Bells.] 

Campanella,-o, (7^.) A small bell. 

Campanellino (7^.). A very small bell. 

Campanista (7^.) A bell-ringer. 

Campanology. The knowledge of the 
construction and use of bells. [Bells.] 

Campanetta (It.) A set of bells tuned to 
a scale, and played with hammers or keys. 

Canaries. A dance probably of English 
invention. The melody was a lively air of 
two phrases. Purcell introduced a Canaries 
tune in his opera of " Dioclesian." 

The following example (from Delaborde) 
shows the rhythm of this dance : 





^r= 9 


i ^Hr^ r Til 

Cancrizans. [Canon Cancrizans.] 
Canon {Gr. Kavdv). A rule, — a term ap- 
plied to the measurement of the ratios of 
intervals by means of the monochord, hence 
the system of Pythagoras was called the 
canon of Pythagoras ; that of Euclid, the canon 
of Euclid. Hence, too, the science of calcu- 
lating musical intervals is called canonik. 
Sectio canonis (Lat.), a division of a string, or 
monochord, formed by a moveable bridge or 

Canon. Owing to the various forms which 
canons assume it is almost impossible to give 
a general definition which will be intelligible. 
The essence of a canon is this, that the music 
sung by one part shall, after a short rest, 
be sung by another part note for note. The 
simplest form is when there are only two 
parts, e.g.: 

Ex. I. 








ffr r 




The above is called a canon 2 in i at the 
octave, because two parts are singing one 
thing at that interval. The part which com- 
mences is called the stibject or antecedent 
(guida) ; that which follows, the answer or 
consequent (consequenza). The above is also 
an infinite canon, because, anyone having 
such a remarkable desire as to play it for ever, 
could do so. The pause shows where it may 
be concluded. 

Ex. 2. 




j="aj l l i^^ 






The above (Ex. 2) is also 2 in i, but at the 

Ex. 3. » 


ii i JJ \ -t-^H^ i^ 



rr r ^r > r r'r rr 'Wr 

Ex. 3 is a canon 2 in i at the upper sixth, 
the upper part being the consequent. 

Ex. 4. Schubert. " Song of Miriam.'" 

Soprani and Alti. 



Dreadful sea . 
Bassi and Tenori. 


so deep . . and 



^^^?-rv y 

Dreadful sea . so deep . . and boundless, 



h h 








boundless, Roll - - ing on 

all calm and 

g^^^fe^ ^ 

Roll - ing on . . . all calm 

and soundless. 








- r r 


4= — P-- 



The above example (4) shows a canon 2 in 
I at the octave, with a. free accompaniment. 
Any part of a canon which is not an ante- 
cedent or consequent is said to be a. free part 
{ad placitum). It is also _^Mt7e because there 
is no repeat, the canon being dropped at the 
close of the theme. The same decsription 
will apply to the next example (5). 





Beethoven. Symphony, No. 4. 






Ex. 6. (Transposed.) 

Non no - bis Do - mi - ne, non no 

■3 ^Pine. 

-!=> "sr 



no -bis 

r ' r f 

r r 

Do - mi - ne, non 



no-mi - ni, 

Eo - bis 


Fft 1 

— = — 1— 

1 s> 

no - 

■ bis 

= @ — 



r r f- ^ 

no -mi - ni 

'^^ g 1 1 — 

Do - mi - ne, Non no - 

o da glo - - ri - am. 











glo - ri - am. 


Sed no -mi - ni Tu 

no -mi - ni Tu - - o 


o da 
glo - ri - 

Pi^^ 1^ 


H J 


sed no -mi - ni 
<*-i — s* 




glo - - ri - am, Sed no-mJ-ni 

am, non no - bis Do - mi -, 




glo - ri 




no • bis 






The above well-known canon by Byrde is 
3 in I, because there is only one theme which 
all the three parts sing. 

Ex. 7. 

J. S. Bach. Mass in B minor. 




"F — r 




Do - na no 



bis pa - cem 


_ &c. 






The above example (7) is a finite canon 
4 in I. 

Ex. 8. Attwood. Service in F. 


'J'" -^T rr rr 



ry be 


to the Fa 


ther, and 

to the Son, ' , ' , \ >. 


^rr^fff^f^i r r i r * 

The above example (8) shows a canon 4 
in 2 because it is in four parts and there are 
two themes. Enough has been given to show 
the exact meaning of the numerical descrip- 
tions of canons ; the first number giving the 
number of the parts in which it is composed; 
the second number, the number of themes 
sung by them, thus 16 in 4 signifies that 16 
parts have 4 subjects ; 8 in i that 8 parts sing 
in turn the same theme, &c. A canon by aug- 
mentation is when the consequent is double 
the length of the antecedent, e.g. : 

Ex. 9. 

From Cherubini. 

^^^ ^{ -^-^ 


r- CfflU 






A canon by diminution is when the conse- 
quent is half the value of the antecedent, 

Ex. 10. From Cherubini. 


•'Jr i ffrAJ^r 









Fragments of canon by augmentation and 
diminution are not uncommon in fugal writing, 
e.g. : 

Ex. II. 


J 4 


r^rirc-f rr ' T^ ^^s^ 

J- jj 




A canon by triple or quadruple augmen- 
tation is when the three or four parts of which 
it is composed are each twice the time-value 
of its predecessor. A canon is said to be 
strict when the consequent follows the ante- 
cedent at an exact interval (say a major fifth 
or fourth, &c.) regardless of key tonality. The 
canon in Ex. 3 is not therefore strict. If it 
were so, the consequent must be in the key of 
the sixth above, which would be impossible. 
A canon by inversion is when the consequent 
follows the inverted intervals of the antece- 
dent, e.g. : 





^——m -m z^ 

T^Y - ^ 

The above (Ex. 12) is a canon 4 in i, because 
there is only one antecedent. The part ap- 
pearing like a second antecedent being only 
the inversion of the first. A canon by retro- 
gression is when the parts forming it (generally, 
only one is antecedent and one consequent) 
sing each other's notes backwards. An ex- 
ample will be fouftd under "canon cancrizans." 

Originally canons were a kind of musical 
riddle, the antecedent, and the number of 
parts, only being given ; and the student 
being required to solve the problem. Thus, 
Ex. I would be put forth : 



And Ex. 2: 


a 2. 






" Non nobis Domine " would be given 
thus : 

a, 3 Voci, 

From this method of enunciating canons, 
the name is probably derived, as the reader 
had to discover the rule ox canon on which the 
composition was constructed. A canon written 
out in full was called canone aperto, and one 
written in riddle -form canone chiusa. A 
canon at the unison becomes a round, if the 
antecedent has a cadence before the entry of 
the consequent. Thus every round is a canon 
at the unison, although a canon at the unison 
is not necessarily a round. [Round.] Some 
of the early writers have left canons of the 
greatest ingenuity. Some very good speci- 
mens are to be found in Hawkins. It had 
been well if the labour and perseverance which 
must have been requisite for their production 
could have been more profitably directed. 
The constant study of canon-writing is much 
to be deprecated, as it checks the inventive 
faculty, and at most only teaches the student 
how to force themes into cohesion. It is 
probable that much of the ugly and crabbed 
part-writing of the 17th and early part of 
the 1 8th century is due to the over estimation 
of canons. Canonical imitation with free 
accompaniment is, however, capable of very 
beautiful effects. Specimens of this style have 
already been given in Ex. 4 and 5, and the 
fine example in Mendelssohn's 95th Psalm 
may be studied with advantage. The highly 
dramatic effect of the canon in two parts, 
afterwards breaking into four, at the words, 
" And the sea was upheaved," in No. 34 of 
Mendelssohn's " Elijah," is so well known 
that it need not be quoted here. 

Canone al sospiro (It.) A canon, the 
subject of which is answered at one beat 
of time : 









The answer to any subject is said to be 
close when it enters shortly after the subject. 
A canon al sospiro is therefore the most close 
of all canons, as it is impossible to answer 
at less time than the beat. 

Canone aperto (It.) A canon written out 
in full. 

Canon cancrizans. A canon by retro- 
gression. A canon practically consisting of 
two parts in double counterpoint, that is, parts 
which are grammatically interchangeable, so 
constructed that they may read actually back- 
wards, hence probably the derivation of can- 
crizans, walking backward like a crab. The 
following example will be found to consist 
only of four bars, at the close of which, hav- 
ing exchanged lines, the parts proceed back- 
wards. A canon cancrizans may of course 
be accompanied by free parts : 

(71 ) 


From Andr£'s "Lehrbuch der Tonkunst," 1832. 

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V. ^ 





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The following is a canon cancrizans with a 
bass part per recte et retro : 

















q t -*^— r- 



-r- — t- 

Productions of this class are utterly value- 
less as contributions to art. 

Canone chiuso (It.) A close canon. 

Canone infinite or perpetuo (It.) Never 
ending canon. Infinite canon. 

Canone sciolto [It.) A free canon, not 

Canonici. A name given to followers of 
the Pythagorean system of music, as opposed 
to Musici, the followers of the Aristoxenian 
system. [Pythagoreans.] 

Cantabile (It.) In a singing style. 

Cantamento (It.) The air or melody of 
a phrase. 

Cantando (It.) [Cantabile.] 

Cantadour (OWi^r.)| A street singer. 

Cantambanco (/^.) I A mountebank. 

Cantante (7^) A singer. 

Cantare (It.) To sing. 

Cantare a aria (It.) To sing with a cer- 
tain amount of improvisation. [Penillion 

Cantare a orecchio (It.) To sing by ear. 

Cantare di maniera (It.) f J° .^j"^ ^" ^ 

Cantare di manierata(/^.)i ^°"^ °^ f "^- 

^ ^ (_ mental style. 

Cantata (It.) A cantata consisted origin- 
ally of a mixture of recitative and melody, and 
was given to a single voice, but the introduc- 
tion of choruses altered the first character of 
the cantata, and gave rise to some confusion 
in the manner of describing it. So that it has 
been variously defined as " an elegant and 
passionate species of vocal composition for a 
single voice," " a long vocal composition, the 

text of which is Italian," " a kind of short 
oratorio, or opera not intended for the stage," 
" a short piece of vocal music of a pathetic 
character," " one of the Psalms or portions 
of Scripture set to music for voices and in- 
struments," according to the work the de- 
scriber had in his mind at the time, but a 
cantata is now understood as a short work in 
the musical form of an oratorio, but without 
dramatis personce. 

Cantatilla ,j, •, | The diminutive of Can- 

Cantatina ^ ' Jtata. 

Cantatore (7^) A male singer. 

Cantatrice (7^.) A female singer. 

Cantatorium. A music book. 

Cantellerando (7^) Singing in a sub- 
dued voice, trilling. 

Canti carnascialesci ,j. A ^^^^^ ^^i^ 

Canti carnivali ^ •''\ carnival. 

Cantici (7^.) Another name for the Laudi 
spirituali, or songs sung in the old Romish 
church in praise of God, the Blessed Virgin 
and Saints, and Martyrs. 

Canticle (i) A song or hymn in honour of 
God, or of some special sacred event. 

(2) The word is also applied to certain de- 
tached psalms and hymns used in the service 
of the Anglican Church, such as the Venite 
exultemtis, Te Deiim laudamus, Benedicite 
ovmia opera, Benedictus, jfiibilate Deo, Mag- 
nificat, Cantate Domino, Nunc dimittis, Deus 
7nisereatur, and the verses used instead of the 
Venite on Easter-day. 

Canticum (Lat.) (i) A song. (2) A song 
in the Roman comedy, accompanied by music 
and dancing. Sometimes one person sang 
the song while another went through the ap- 
propriate gesticulation. 

Cantilena (7^.) (i) An oft-repeated, old 
song. (2) In mediaeval music, singing exer- 
cises, in which were introduced all the inter- 
vals of the scale, &c. (3) In old church-song 
the plain-song or canto-fermo sung in unison 
by one or more persons to an organ accom- 
paniment. (4) A ballad. 

Cantilenare (It.) To sing without ac 

Cantilenaccia (It.) Bad singing. 

Cantillatio (Lat.) Declamation in a sing- 
ing style, applied to a method of reading the 
Epistles and Gospels in the church. [Ac- 
centus Ecclesiasticus.] 

Cantino [It.) The smallest string upon the 
violin. The E string. (Fr.) chanterelle. 

Cantique (Fr.) A sacred song or melody, 
a canticle. 

Canto (It.) The upper voice-part in con- 
certed music, so called because it has the 
melody or air. [Air.] 

Canto a cappella (It.) Sacred music; 
cantore di cappella, the precentor. 



Canto armonico (It.) A part-song. 
Canto cromatico (It.) A scale or song 
in chromatic style. 

Canto fermo (It.) [Cantus firmus.] 

Canto figurato (7^) Florid melody, or 
melody varied. [Cantus figuratus.] 

Canto Gregoriano (It.) Gregorian chant. 

Cantollano (Sp.) Plain chant. 

Canto piano (7^.) Plain chant. 

Canto primo (7^) First soprano. 

Canto recitativo (7^.) Declamatory sing- 
ing, recitative. 

Canto ripieno (7^.) Additional soprano 
chorus-parts. [Ripieno.] 

Canto secondo (7^.) Second soprano. 

Cantor. [Precentor.] 

Cantor choralis (Lat.) Chorus master. 

Cantore (7^.) A general name for a singer. 

Cantoris (Lat.). (From the word Cantor.) 
The cantoris side in a cathedral choir is the 
side upon which the Precentor sits, usually 
the north side, opposite to Decani. 

Cantus Ambrosianus {Lat.) Ambrosian 
chant. [Plain-song.] 

Cantus coronatus (Lat.) [Cantus fractus.] 
Cantus durus (Lat.) Music which modu- 
lated into a key having one or more sharps in 
its scale. Such keys were at one period 
strictly proscribed by church-musicians. 

Cantus ecclesiasticus (Lat.) (i) In a 
general sense, plain-song and other early 
church-melodies. (2) The method of singing 
as opposed to saying Lections, Collects, Gos- 
pels, and special offices, such as the Impro- 
peria, &c. See Accentus ecclesiasticus under 
Accent § 4, and "Passion Music." 

Cantus figuratus (Lat.) Florid church 
song, that is, in which more than one note of 
music was sung to a syllable. The purest 
system of ancient church-song prescribed only 
one note to each syllable. [Plain song.] 

Cantus firmus (Lat.) (i) The tenor or 
chief melody, originally sung by the tenor- 
voices, afterwards transferred to the treble- 
part, hence called Canto. (2) A fragment of 
plain-song, to which counterpoint has been 
added. (3) Any subject chosen for con- 
trapuntal treatment, generally a short dia- 
tonic passage of semibreves or other long 

Cantus fractus (Lat.) A broken melody, 
a term applied to a tune which proceeded 
either by perfect or imperfect consonances. 
When accompanied by a Faburden, or Faux- 
bourdon, it was called Cantus coronatus. 

Cantus Gregorianus (Lat.) The Gre- 
gorian system of church-song. [Plain song.] 

Cantus mensurabilis (Lat.) Mensurable- 
song. The ver}'^ name of this art explains at 
once its scope and the probable date of its 
birth. The indissoluble association of music 
and poetry, or of music, poetry, and dancing, 
in ancient times, rendered a system of nota- 
tion, by which the comparative duration of 
sounds could be exhibited to the eye, un- 
necessary. If the metre of the poetry were 
duly appreciated, the length of the musical 
notes to which the poetry was set would be 
undoubted. If dancing accompanied the mu- 
sic and poetry, it would be, of course, impos- 
sible to sing to any other rhythm than that 
prescribed by the movement of the feet. As 
long as music of this kind was unisonous, or, 
at most, consisted of a series of chords, the 
component parts of which were of e^jual 
length, no difficulty or doubt as to the length 
of notes could occur. But when prose-writ- 
ing was set to music, and still more when, in 
polyphonous compositions, it was desired that 
a particular voice should sing two or more 
notes to one note of another, it became an 
absolute necessity that the signs used should 
be so formed as to direct the performer, with- 
out a chance of doubt, as to how long he 
should hold any note with reference to that 
held in another part. Hence, the formation 
of Cantus mensurabilis. As to the date of its 
invention, learned and reliable authors differ 
much in their opinion. Having: been ascribed 
to Johannes de Muris (circ. 1330) for many 
centuries by writers who have been but too 
ready to copy from each other, asking no 
questions, it seems that the laurel must be 
taken from his brow, and that the credit is 
due to authors who lived — some say a few 
years, others two centuries at least — be- 
fore him. It is, however, certain that Robert 
de Handle wrote on the subject before Jo- 
hannes de Muris, and equally certain that 
Robert de Handlo had the benefit of the labours 
of Franco. But here a new difficulty arises : 
not only was Franco so common a name that 
many learned Francos existed at the same 
date, but at least three of this name were 
musicians — Franco of Paris, Franco of Co- 
logne, Franco of Liege. Nor is this all — two 
distinct dates are attributed to the Franco 
who wrote on Cantus mensurabilis, which 
differ by about 200 years ! The reader who 
cares to enter deeply into this question may 
refer to Fetis, Kiesewetter, Hawkins, Burney, 
Forkel, and Coussemaker, all of whom 
have bestowed much thought on the subject ; 
having done so, he will find that he is still in 
ignorance. The truth is, that mensurable 
music, like many other highly important in- 
gredients of our intellectual life, was a. growth, 
not a sudden invention. There are evidences 
that in the twelfth century a proportionate 

(73 ) 


subdivision of the length of sounds was 
reached after, and naturally enough, the first 
step was, that two sounds might be sung to 
one, hence the long and short, or long and 
breve, as they were called. The shortest note 
or minim found its way into use, probably, in 
the thirteenth century, and was in time fol- 
lowed by other subdivisions. Then followed 
the triple division of notes, a threefold division 
being called perfect on theological grounds ; 
then rapidly followed, in the 14th and 15th 
centuries, a complication of mensurable signs, 
which now baffles the most enthusiastic 
interpreter of music of that period, — the 
value of notes varying according to their 
position with regard to other notes ; or, ac- 
cording to the position of the tails, if up or 
dowh, or on the right or left sides ; or, as to 
the complete blackness or open outline [evacii- 
atio) of the notes ; or as to the manner in which 
consecutive sounds to one syllable were writ- 
ten in continuous lines, forming ligatures. 
Happily, from the i6th century a genuine 
taste for part-music led to an unremarked dis- 
use of these utterly useless conceits, a full 
account of which can only be found in ancient 
learned treatises, where any one having more 
taste for music than antiquities, will do well 
to leave them. 

Cantus planus [Lat.) Plain song. 

Cantus Romanus {Lat.) Roman chant 
or song, (i) The Gregorian system of music. 
(2) The early attempts at harmonizing a 
melody known as the organum. 

Canun or Kanoon (Turkish). An instru- 
ment strung with cat-gut, in form like a 
dulcimer, with which the women in the 
harems accompany their singing. The sound 
is brought out by means of plectra — thimbles 
made of tortoiseshell pointed with cocoa- 
nut wood, and worn upon the ends of the 

Canzona (It.) (i) A short song, in which 
the music is of much more importance than 
the words. It is one of the ancient forms 
of measured melody, and when the older 
writers employed it, it was usually made the 
vehicle for the display of skill and contrivance 
in the treatment of the phrases in fugal imi- 
tation. A secondary meaning of the word, 
scoffing or banter, perhaps accounts for the 
use of a form in which a musical imitation 
or mocking was shown. 

(2) In the early part of the last century the 
word was used to describe an instrumental 
composition, similar to the sonata as then 

(3) It was also understood to mean the same 
as allegro, " for it denotes that the movement 
of the part to which it is fixed ought to be 
after a lively, brisk, or gay manner." 


Gir.oLAMo Frescobaldi (1591—1640). 



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Canzonaccia (/f.) A commonplace song. 
Canzoncina (7f.) A short poem or air. 

• From " II secondo libro di Toccate, Canzone versi 
d'Hinni Magnificat, Gagliarde, Correnti, et Altri Par- 
tite, di Cembalo et Organo." Rome, 1637. 



Canzonet, Canzonetta(/^.) A diminu- 
tive of canzona, " denoting a little short song, 
tune, cantata, or suonata." Originally applied 
to a short song in parts. Luca Marenzio, 
Giovanni Ferreti, and Horatio Vecchi are said 
to have excelled in this species of compo- 
sition. The title was also employed by poets 
to describe verses either of a trifling character 
or subject ; and musicians, when they set 
such words, repeated the poet's title without 
reference to the musical meaning of the word. 
Brossard, " Dictionnaire de Musique, 1703," 
speaks of two sorts of canzonets — the Neapo- 
litan, with two phrases, and the Sicilian, a 
sort of jig in y or -f time, each in rondo 
form. Thomas Morley (1597) describes a 
series of madrigals as " Canzonets, or Little 
Short Songs to Four Voyces ; celected out 
of the best and approued Italian Authors ;" 
and Haydn's use of the word with refer- 
ence to his well - known examples will be 

Canzoniere (It.) A lyric poem or song. 

Caoinan (Irish.) A funeral song (Keeners). 

Capellmeister (Ger.) Maestro di Cappella 
(It.) (i) The musical director of a church or 
chapel. A post of considerable honour, espe- 
cially when connected with a royal or ducal 
chapel. The list of eminent musicians, from 
Palestrina to Mendelssohn, who have held 
such offices is very large, and the fact that 
men of general musical ability have thus been 
necessarily brought into contact with sacred 
music, has probably greatly influenced the 
character of the compositions of the i6th, 
17th, and i8th centuries. There is no post 
in the English Church or at our Court which 
exactly corresponds to that of Capellmeister, 
including as it does the duties — as circum- 
stances may require — of conductor, accom- 
panist, choir-trainer, and composer. The 
choir-master — an office lately instituted or re- 
vived in this country — is perhaps the nearest 
approach to the Capellmeister. By the com- 
bination, which not unfrequently took place, 
of the offices of " Composer to his (or her) 
Majesty " and " Master of the Children of 
the Royal Chapel," a veritable Capell meister 
was created. In our cathedrals the precentor 
and organist practically divide the duties of 
this post. 

(2) The title has sometimes been applied 
to a conductor of a band or an opera. 

Capellmeister Musik (Ger.) A term of 
contempt for music tnade and not inspired. 

Capiscolus (Precentor) Cabiscola. 

Capistrum (Lat.) A muzzle. A sort of 
bandage wound round the head and face of 
the ancient trumpeters, to protect the cheeks 
while playing their instruments, on account 

of the unusual exertion necessary for the 
proper production of tone. 

Cappella, alia (It.) In the ecclesiastical 
style. In duple time. [A cappella.] 

Capo (It.) Head, commencement. 

Capo, da (It.) A direction to return to the 
first or other indicated movement. 

Capo d'opera (It.) (i) The principal song 
or piece in an opera. (2) A chef d'oeuvre. 

Capo tasto (It.) (Lit. head-stop.) A me- 
chanical arrangement by which the pitch of 
the whole of the strings of a guitar is raised 
at once. The capo tasto, or capodastro as it is 
sometimes called, is screwed over the strings 
on to the finger-board and forms a temporary 
nut, e.g. con capo tasto sulla 3a Poz. 

Capriccietto (It.) A little caprice, or 

Capriccio (It.) A freak, whim, fancy. A 
composition irregular in form. 

Caprice (Fr.) [Capriccio.] 

Capriccioso (It.) Whimsical, humorous. 

Caracteres de musique (Fr.) The signs 
used in music. [Notation.] 

Caral (old Eng.) Kyrriole (Ang.-Sax.) 

Carattere (It) Character, dignity, quality. 

Carezzando (7^.) 1 Caressingly,singingor 
Carezzevole (It.) J playing with a frequent 

introduction of notes of anticipation or ap- 


Caricato (It.) Loaded, over displayed. 

Carillon. A set of bells so arranged as to 
be played by hand or by machinery. The 
word has by some authors been connected 
with (Fr.) clarine, a little bell, which is pro- 



bably connected with (Lat.) clarisonus ; but 
others derive it from the word quadrille, or 
quadriglio, on the ground that this dance was 
popular, and probably " set " to bells, in the 
i6th century. There can be no doubt as to 
the antiquity of thus using small bells. They 
were probably graduated in size so as to 
produce a diatonic scale, and were called a 

Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig- 3- 

Fig. I is given by M. Coussemaker as being 
from a MS. probably of the gth century. 
Fig. 2 is from an ancient Psalter in the 
British Museum. Fig. 3 is from a MS. 
in the Royal Library of Brussels. Five 
seems to have been the number of bells 
usually employed in earliest times, but they 
were afterwards increased to six or seven. It 
is to the bell-founders of the Low Countries 
we owe the perfecting of the art of bell-found- 
ing and the construction of carillons, during 
the 15th, i6th, 17th, and i8th centuries. Pre- 
eminent among them stands the Van den 
Gheyn family, whose works are to be found 
in almost every Belgian belfry. Originally of 
Mechlin, they afterwards removed to Louvain, 
where Matthias Van den Gheyn (b. 1721) 
deservedly attained the highest fame, as or- 
ganist, composer, carillon-maker, and caril- 
loneur. The brothers Von Aerscholdt, the 
great bell-founders, now living in Louvain, 
are lineal descendants of Matthias Van den 
Gheyn. The finest carillons, namely those 
at Antwerp, Mechlin, Bruges, Ghent, and 
Namur, consist of about forty bells, extending 
from huge specimens of several tons in weight 
up to little bells weighing only a few pounds.* 

* The fine chimes in Mechlin consist of 45 bells, the 
largest of which weighs between g and 10 tons. This 
rich-toned bell was cast by Aerscholdt in 1844. At 
Ghent there are 48 bells (44 above and the 4 heaviest in 
the lower storey), the largest of which was cast by Du 
Mery, 1744, and weighs about 5^ tons. At Antwerp 
there are in reality two carillons — one connected to the 
machinery, and in use, the other disused. That in use 
consists of 48 bells, the largest of which weighs about 
7 tons. At Bruges there are 48 bells, the largest nearly 
10 tons. At Namur there are about 50 bells, the largest 
about 4 tons. Many of the bells in the Belgian chimes 
are found to be of Dutch make, and (by their inscrip- 
tions) have been issued from old foundries in Amsterdam, 
Rotterdam, Zutphen, and elsewhere. 



They are in most cases arranged as follows : 
the smaller bells are fixed to strong timbers 
and arranged in rows, according to size, the 
largest being nearest to the floor — the bells 
and framework thus representing the outline 
of a pyramid. Where there are many spe- 
cially large bells, these are generally placed 
in a lower storey, not uncommonly below the 
chiming machinery. To each bell is attached 
one or more hammers on the outer side, and 
a clapper in the inside. To the lever-end of 
the hammers thick wires are attached, which 
pass down to long iron rods. The lever-end 
of these rest on the tambour, or barrel, on 
which are arranged projecting staples. When 
the barrel is turned (which is done by ordinary 
clockwork) the staple forces up the end of the 
iron rod, the other end at the same time pull- 
ing down the wire and raising the hammer. 
When the barrel releases the iron-rod, it drops 
suddenly and causes the hammer to strike the 
bell. Some time is of course required for the 
raising of the larger hammers, hence the 
necessity of having several hammers to some 
of the bells, so that if a quick repetition of the 
sound is required, one hammer shall be ready 
to strike while another is being brought into 
position. There are, therefore, always a 
larger number of staples on the barrel than 
there are bells in the carillon. The clapper, 
before-mentioned as being in every bell, is 
held by a wire-loop, within an inch or two of 
the side of the bell ; this wire passes down 
to the clavier, or keyboard — a series of small 
round sticks, arranged in an order similar to 
that of the black and white keys of a piano- 
forte, but separated from each other by a 
sufficient distance to allow each one to be 
struck with the Jist without fear of that on 
either side of it being also struck. The clap- 
pers of the heaviest bells are, owing to their 
weight, generally attached to a pedal-board, 
and the carilloneur usually guards his hand 
with a thick glove when playing. 

It will be understood from this short de- 
scription that the mechanism by which these 
beautiful bells are chimed and played is of 
the roughest description. Vast improvements 
have, however, been lately made, chiefly in 
England ; and Messrs. Gillett and Bland have 
invented an ingenious piece of mechanism, 
by which the hammers are held up constantly, 
and only have to be released by the action of 
the barrel. This insures a regularity in the 
striking which cannot on the old system be 
attained, and does away with the necessity 
for multiplying hammers to a single bell. 

The higher octaves contain generally a com- 
plete chromatic scale. But the heavier bells, 
owing to their great cost and the large amount 
of room they occupy, are limited to such import- 
ant fundamental basses as tonic, subdominant, 

and dominant f or, at most, to the first five 
degrees of the diatonic scale. A short 
" flourish " is played at the half-quarter, a 
slightly longer phrase at each quarter, a tune 
at each half hour and hour. It is to be re- 
gretted that we in England are but just begin- 
ning to appreciate the beauty of the effect 
produced by carillon - music. But, on the 
other hand, nowhere but in England can 
genuine change-ringing be heard, in which, 
the tone produced by the bells as they swing 
completely round is totally different in cha- 
racter from that obtained by the dead stroke of 
a hammer. But bells can be easily arranged 
so as to do the double duty of chiming and 
change-ringing, and it is to be hoped that they 
will often in future be so arranged. 

Carillonneur (F?'.) Bell-player. [Carillon.] 

Carita, con (7^) With tenderness. 

Carmagnole. A dance accompanied by 
singing, named from Carmagnola in Pied- 
mont. Many of the wildest excesses of the 
French revolution of 1792 were associated 
with this dance. It was afterwards applied 
to the bombastic reports of the French suc- 
cesses in battle. The song commenced with 
" Madame Veto avait promis," and each verse 
ended with the burden " Dansons la car- 
magnole, vive le son du canon." 

Carol. To sing or warble, to celebrate in 

Carol. A song of praise, applied to a 
species of songs sung at Christmas-tide. It 
originally meant a song accompanied with 
dancing, in which sense it is frequently used 
by the old poets (perhaps connected with 
choraula). It appears to have been danced 
by many performers, by taking hands, form- 
ing a ring, and singing as they went round. 
It will be readily imagined that a dance of 
this character would lead to a certain wildness 
if not rudeness of behaviour, so that the warn- 
ing contained in the following verse addressed 
to those of gentle blood who indulged in the 
exercise, might not be altogether unnecessary : 

" Fille quant ferez en karolle 
Dancez gentiment par mesure 
Car, quant fille se desmesure 
Tel la voit qui la tient par folle." 

Bishop Taylor says that the oldest carol 
was that sung by the heavenly host when 
the birth of the Saviour was announced to 
the Shepherds on the plains of Bethlehem. 
It is probable that the practice of singing 
carols at Christmas-tide arose in imitation of 
this, as the majority of the carols declared 
the good tidings of great joy; and the title of 
Noels, nowells, or novelles, applied to carols, 
would seem to bear out this idea. 

Carol singing is of great antiquity among 
Christian communities, as the carol by Aure- 
lius Prudentius, of the 4th century, will show. 

(77 ) 


This poem contains twenty-nine stanzas, 
commencing : — 

" Quid est quod arctum circulum 
Sol jam recurrens deserit, 
Christusne terris nascitur, 
Qui lucis auget tramitem ? " 

Carols were both serious and humorous in 
the 14th and 15th centuries. Mr. Chappell 
quotes a tune that might be sung to words of 
either character, but bearing reference to the 
observances of the season of Christmas. 
(Popular Music, i. 42.) 

In later times carols were written of a more 
sober character, and we find in 1630 the pub- 
lication of " Certaine of David's Psalmes in- 
tended for Christmas carols fitted to the most 
sollempne tunes everywhere familiarlie used, 
by William Slayter, printed by Robert Yong." 
Upon a copy of the later edition (1642), pre- 
served in the British Museum, a former 
possessor has written the names of some of 
these tunes; for example. Psalm 6, to the tune 
of Jane Shore, Psalm 9 to Bara Forster's 
Dreame, Psalm 43 to Crimson Velvet, Psalm 
47 to Garden Greene, &c. Shakspeare alludes 
to the Puritan practice of adapting religious 
words to secular melody in his " Winter's 
Tale :" 

" There is but one puritan among them and he sings 
psalms to hornpipes." 

After the Restoration, carols of the old kind 
became again popular, and from that time to 
the present the singing of carols at Christ- 
mas became steadily encouraged. 

Warton supposes the religious carol to have 
been introduced by the Puritans, but this is a 
mistake, as a reference to Mr, Wright's col- 
lection, made for the Percy Society, will show. 

The earliest printed collection was made by 
Wynkyn de Worde, 1521, but all these are of 
a convivial character. 

Many of the old carols had scraps of Latin 
intermixed with English, as — 

•* Puer nobis natus est de Maria Virgine 
Be glad lordynges, be the more or lesse, 
I bring you tydinges of gladnesse 
As Gabriel me bereth witnesse." 

Compare also " In dulci jubilo," in which 
Latin and German were used. 

Carola (It.) A dance accompanied by 
singing, which grew into unenviable notoriety 
during the Republic of 1792 in France, cf. 

Cartellone {It.) The prospectus of an 
operatic season, 

Carnyx (Gk.) An ancient Greek trumpet 
of a shrill tone, known afterwards to the 
Celts and Gauls. Kapwt, (Gk.) 

Cassa-grande {It.) The big drum. 

Cassatio. [Gassatio.] 

Castagnette {It.) Castagnettes {Fr.) 

Castanuelas {Sp.) Castanets. 

Castanets. A musical instrument of per- 
cussion introduced into Spain by the Moors. 
The castanets were originally dried chestnut 
husks, from whence their name is derived, 
but were afterwards made of hard wood, by 
which means the tone was rendered more 
defined. The ancient KpSraXov, was a species 
of Castanet (knicky-knackers). [Bones.] 

Castrato {It.) A male singer with a 
peculiarity of voice, produced by a natural 
deprivation procured in early youth for the 
purpose of preserving the normal tone. 

Catch. A species of canon or round for 
three or four voices, in which the words are 
so contrived that by the union of the voices a 
different meaning is given by the singers 
catching at each other's words. Poems of a 
trivial character, similar in style to nursery- 
rhyme doggrels, were also called catches. 
For example, there is a poem by " the learned 
Clarke, Lewis Wager," printed in 1567," be- 


" I have a pretty titmouse 
Come peclcing on my toe ;" 

and one of John Lyly's songs from " Endy- 
mion," 1591, is distinguished by the title of 
"a catch." The musical catch originated 
about the early part of the 17th century, the 
first collection of catches being made by 
Ravenscroft in i6og, under the title of" Pam- 
melia, Musicks miscellanie, or mixed varieties 
of pleasant Roundelays and delightfuU Catches 
of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 parts in one ; none so 
ordinarie as musicall ; none so musicall as 
not to be all very pleasing and acceptable." 
These, and others contained in later publica- 
tions are little else than rounds, without the 
humour, so called, of the catch as it was after- 
wards accepted. William Jackson, of Exeter, 
says that " they are three parts obscenity and 
one part music. If they are not indecent, 
they are nothing. There is no particular ob- 
ject in them, but they are a species of musical 
false wit." Of the few catches which may be 
yet sung in a mixed company, " Would you 
know my Celia's charms ?" by S. Webbe, and 
" Have you read Sir John Hawkins's History ?" 
and " Ah ! how Sophia," by Callcott, are the 
most favourable specimens. The words of 
the first are as follows : 

" Would you know my Celia's charms, 
Which now excite my fierce alarms ? 
I'm sure she has fortitude and truth 
To gain the heart of every youth. 

She's only thirty lovers now, 
The rest are gone I can't tell how , 
No longer Celia ought to strive, 
For certainly she's fifty- five." 

The humour of this catch consists in the 
emphasis placed upon the words fortitude, 
thirty, and fifty -Jive, by which it appears to 
the hearers that each singer is contending in 



turn to uphold his notion of the age of the 
lady. Inthe second, the words " Burney's 
History " are made to sound like " burn his 
history," and in the third, one voice cries, " a 
house a fire," another, " go fetch the engines," 
while one apparently indifferent exclaims, 
" I'm but a lodger," from the following words : 

■' Ah ! how, Sophia, could you leave 
Your lover, and of hope bereave, 
Go fetch the Indian's borrowed plume. 
But richer far than that you bloom. 
I'm but a lodger in her heart, 
Where more than me I fear have part." 

There were formerly a number of clubs sup- 
ported for the purpose of encouraging the 
production and performance of this species of 
musical trifle, only one or two of which are at 
present in existence, a better feeling having 
diverted the main object of these societies into 
the encouragement and execution of glees, 
part-songs, &c. [Round, canon.] 

Catena di trilli (It). A chain, or succes- 
sion, of short vocal or instrumental shakes. 

Catgut. Boyau (Fr.), Minugia [It.), Darm 
(Ger.) The name given to the material of 
which the strings of many musical instru- 
ments are formed ; it is made from the intestines 
of the sheep, and sometimes from those of the 
horse, but never from those of the cat. 

Cathedral Music. A term applied to 
that music which has been composed to suit 
the form of service used in our cathedrals 
since the Reformation. It includes settings 
of canticles and also of anthems. The first 
writers of this class of music were Marbecke, 
Tallis, Tye, and Byrd, and the works of the 
two last named especially illustrate the state 
of cathedral music at the period in which 
they lived, for they emplo3''ed Latin and 
English words to the same music, so that it 
might be available whether the service was 
according to the ancient or reformed usage. 
The style of the earliest cathedral music was 
formed on the model of the Italian motets 
and other sacred compositions, and with the 
exception of a difference in the words was 
identical with the secular music of the period. 

It was feared that the Commissioners ap- 
pointed by the Statute 27 Henry VIII. to 
compile a body of ecclesiastical laws " as 
should in future be observed throughout the 
realm," taking into consideration the abuse of 
music in the Church, would forbid its use 
altogether. As the King was fond of music 
they deemed it politic to retain it for the service 
of the Church, but they implied a return to 
simple forms, in directing certain parts of the 
service to be sung by the "ministers and 
clarkes " in a plain, distinct, and audible 
manner. The rubric of the First Book of 
Edward VI. prescribes the saying or singing 
of " mattens and evensong ; " and in the minis- 

tration of the Communion that the clerks shall 
sing in English for the office or " Introite as 
it is called," a psalm appointed fcr that day. 
And again it directs that the clerks shall sing 
one or many of the sentences therein mentioned, 
according to the length and shortness of the 
time that the people be offering. In John 
Marbecke's " Booke of Common Praier noted " 
1550, it will be seen that the whole of the 
service was sung either to some general kind 
of recitation or intonation with small inflec- 
tions, to an adaptation of the ancient cantus or 
accenttis ecclesiasticus, or to some modification 
of the old use by Marbecke himself. Queen 
Elizabeth in her injunctions concerning the 
clergy and laity of this realm, published in 
the first year of her reign, 1559, desired the 
" continuance of syngj^nge in the Churche " 
and " that there bee a modeste and destyncte 
song so used in all parts of the Common 
Prayers in the Churche, that the same may 
be as playnely understanded as if it were 
read without syngynge." 

Notwithstanding this injunction the use of 
singing and of organs in the Church was 
only maintained by a majority of one in the 
Lower House of Convocation, a strong objec- 
tion to Cathedral music existing even in that 
early period. After Marbecke's book, which 
has music in one part only, John Day (1560) 
published a service in four parts, adding five 
years later, those " offices " which had been 
omitted in the former collection. These pro- 
served to a certain extent the prescribed or 
adopted " use " in those parts of the service 
which were always intended to be performed 
simply, the publication also indicated the 
places where a more elaborate musical setting 
might be allowed, and composers taking ad- 
vantage of the licence wrote original music 
for the Venite, Te Deum, Benedictus, Jubilate, 
Communion Service, the Canticles used at 
evensong, and " such godly praiers and psalmes 
in the like form to the honor and praise of 
God," — " so they may be songe as anthems." 
The use of organs and singing in the Church 
was nevertheless a sore grievance to the 
Puritans ; they did not, however, object to 
metrical psalms, and employed them when- 
ever and wherever possible; but the cathedrals 
always objected to their introduction, as not 
being cathedral music properly so called ; it 
is within the last ten years only that hymns 
or psalm tunes have been sung in cathedrals 
as an integral part of the ordinary service. 
In the time of the Commonwealth metrical 
psalms were the only things sung in the 
churches, but they were also sung at other 
times, and it was not until the Restoration of 
Charles II. that Cathedral service was re- 
sumed, this time in a considerably altered 
form. The Communion Service or Mass, in 



times past held to be the most important act 
of worship, was placed in the back -ground, 
and was, when celebrated, given without the 
aid of music. Church composers did not 
take the trouble to set those parts of the 
service which were never performed, and con- 
sequently there is not a single " Gloria in 
excelsis " produced by any cathedral writer 
between 1660 and 1840, other than as an 
anthem. When so set, it was considered 
allowable to omit some sentences and add 
others at discretion, so that it would be 
scarcely available for the Communion Ser- 
vice. The " Sanctus " was set to music, 
as it became the habit to sing it in the 
place of the Introit, a fashion not yet dead 
in many cathedrals. When the Communion 
Service was restored to its true importance 
about twenty-five years since, adaptations of 
Marbecke's arrangements were freely and 
properly used, until a new generation of com- 
posers employed their talents to supply the 
deficiencv. At the time of the Restoration, 
the character of cathedral music also under- 
went a change. The influence of the French 
school may be traced in the writings of Purcell, 
Humphries, Blow, Wise, Weldon, and others. 
It is not a little strange that while most tem- 
porary influences can be seen in the various 
periods of cathedral music, there are few in- 
stances of any church composers copying 
Handel's style, and none in which it was done 
with success. Dr. Greene, his contemporary, 
has a special character of his own, Dr. Boyce 
has also his individuality, and the elder Hayes 
shows no leaning towards the great oratorio 
writer. Handel's oratorios, though not writ- 
ten for the cathedral, are often laid under con- 
tribution, whereas the anthems composed by 
him for the service of the Church are com- 
paratively neglected and unknown. 

At the latter part of the last century and 
the beginning of the present, cathedral music 
was at its weakest point ; adaptations, arrange- 
ments, florid melodies, with paltry accompani- 
ments, chants of a gay and undignified style, 
and all music used in the service, showing 
the influence of a general indifference and 
carelessness, which, to a certain extent, still 
exists, though happily in no strong degree, 
for a more reverent feeling abounds and is 
nourished. Cathedral music, like every other 
branch of art, should increase and be pro- 
gressive, should take advantage of every new 
discovery or admitted truth in music. All 
styles should be fairly represented, and no 
one style should be considered as indicative 
of special doctrinal views. There are few 
who seriously object to a building in which 
successive styles are seen, but on the con- 
trary think that all that is good should be 
retained. The many who have spoken in 

music in past ages should have their sayings 
preserved when they are worthy of being 
kept, but it would be folly to insist upon the 
retention of all that could be gathered of the 
works of a writer, because he has said one 
happy and lasting thing. It is not given to 
men to be wise at all times, and the best of 
cathedral musicians have written unworthy 
stuff". Taste and good sense, free from pre- 
judice, will guide to a proper and useful 
selection, so that cathedral music for ordinary 
purposes may include the thoughts uttered 
under all influences in many ages. 

The small number of voices considered suf- 
ficient for the usual services of our cathedrals 
is a bar to grand effects. This has been felt 
by composers, who have been compelled so to 
arrange their music that it may produce ade- 
quate effects from the usual small choirs. 
Probably with a prophetic view of the future 
augmentation of the musical staff" of a cathe- 
dral, many modern composers have so con- 
structed their works, that while they are not 
ineffective with a small body, they are nobly 
grand when given by increased numbers. So 
that there is reason to believe that in the days 
of the future, when cathedral choirs shall be 
in numbers and skill worthy of the service to 
which they minister, cathedral composers will 
be equal to the task of writing music suitable 
to the time and place. The grand effect pro- 
duced by a large body of voices in a cathedral 
during the performance of an oratorio upon 
the occasion of a festival is never without 
some influence in turning men's minds to 
higher things. Music is the handmaid of re- 
ligion, and there can be no reasonable objec- 
tion to the introduction of oratorios and other 
extensive sacred compositions, with all the 
effects that a trained choir and orchestra can 
produce, provided always, that such perform- 
ances are made an integral part of an act of 
worship. In the metropolis such perform- 
ances have been given with the most satis- 
factory results at stated times, and the day 
may not be very far distant, when they may be 
made of more frequent occurrence, and so, our 
cathedrals, by calling into requisition all musi- 
cal talent, inventive or executive, will become 
again what they once were, the nurseries and 
centres of musical culture and knowledge. 

Catlings. The smallest sized lute-strings. 

Cauda (Lai.) The tail of a note. 

Cavaletta (It.) [Cabaletta.] 

Cavaletto (It.) (i) A little bridge. (2) 
The break in the voice. 

Cavalquet {Fr.) A trumpet-signal to 

Cavata (It.) [Cavatina.] 

Cavatina (it.) A melody of a more sim- 
ple form than the aria. A song without a 
second part and a " Da capo." The term is, 




however, applied with less strictness to airs 
of other kinds. (See " Be thou faithful," in 
Mendelssohn's «' St. Paul," and " Salve di- 
mora," in Gounod's " Faust," &c.) 

C.B. Abbreviation for Contra-basso. 

C barre (Fr.) The term for the time indi- 
cator C, with a dash through it, (^. 

C clef. The clef showing the position of 
middle C, in which are written the alto, tenor, 
and (in old music) other parts. 




Soprano Cle£ Mezzo-Soprano Alto Clef Tenor Clef. 


C dur (Ger.) C major. 

Cebell. The name of an air or theme in 
common time of four bar phrases, forming a 
subject upon which to execute " divisions " 
upon the lute or violin. This style of air, 
although frequently found in books for the 
violin in the 17th century, is now obsolete ; 
its principal feature was the alternation of 
grave and acute notes which formed the 
several strains. The following are examples : 

Tho. Mace, 1676. 


i-J^ I J'- j6'J 



fl^^^-^m-f^3^v'-^ ^ J 4 J 



|^^ ^^-Fg?=^^ ^5 



f * ^' 




H. PURCELL, b. 1658. 




I f , r 



















i # m( f ^- m 







^ *^ J 









J L_H 


^^I^^ ^^S gg 


J l ^ J-zJe-IJ^ 





I I I 



J J i J-_ l J JjuL^i-^ 










_A J 



r _T 





M> ): , g l . g l I ^ ^ L g * ^ '^ ■ ^ 

i- ^ r 






fr-^rrrf|rrri;a!rlfrrr e£ r; 


/) ^ J J I h 




I i I ' 












Celere (/^) Quick, swift. 
Celerita, con {It.) With speed, haste. 

( 81 ) 


Celeste {Fr.) A direction for the use of 
the soft pedal. 

Celeste, voix (Fr.) A stop on the organ 
or harmonium. [Vox Angelica.] 

Celeusma (Gk.) KiXevafxa, or KiXevna (from 
KeXev'j), to urge on, to command). The word 
or sing-song of the /weXtvcrn?? (fugle-man or 
leader), by which oarsmen were encouraged 
to row rhythmically, and by which, to this 
day, sailors pull uniformly and simultaneously 
at a rope. 

Celli. .(4&6. of violoncelli. 

Cello. ^6&. of violoncello. 

Cembalista (It.) A pianoforte player. 

Cembalo. Clave - cembalo, cimbalo. A 
harpsichord. [Pianoforte.] 

Cembanella (It.) [Cennamella.] 

Cennamella (It.) A pipe, or flute. 

Cento (Lat.) \ (In Greek Kivrpujv.) 

Centone (/^.)j Patch-work. A musical work 
made up of extracts from an author's compo- 
sitions, as a cento was from an author's poems. 
cf. pasticcio. 

Cercar la nota (It.) To feel for a note, 
to reach it by slurring. 

Cervalet or Cervelat (perhaps dim. of 
cervus, signifying a little stag-horn). An an- 
cient wind-instrument of a small size, from 
which, by means of a reed, tones similar in 
character to those of the bassoon could be 

Ces (Ger.) C flat. 

Cetera (It.) A citara or guitar. 

Chacona (5/.) "1 A slow dance in | time, 

Ciaccona (It.) I- frequently constructed 

Chaconne (Fr.) j upon a ground bass, and 
sometimes formerly introduced as a move- 
ment of a sonata. [Chica.] 

It is usually stated that the chaconne is in 
the major mode, and that the passacaille, 
which is somewhat similar to it in rhythm, 
is in the minor. This is not the case, as the 
following theme, on which Bach's celebrated 
ciaccona for violin solo is founded, will show: 


Chair organ. A name given to the Pre- 
stant or choir-organ, from a notion that it 
formed the seat of the organist, when placed 
behind him. 

Chalameau {Fr.) Stem, or straw-pipe, 
from the Latin calamus, a reed. The lower 
register of the clarinet and the basset-horn is 
called the chalameau tone, from the obsolete 
instrument shawm, schalmey, precursor of the 
oboe and clarinet. 

Chamber music. Kammermusik [Ger.) 
Musica di camera {It.) Vocal or instru- 
mental compositions suitable for perform- 
ance in a chamber, as opposed to a concert- 

room. The performance in private upon single 
instruments of any class constituted the first 
chamber music properly so-called. Strictly 
speaking, any music vocal or instrumental 
played in private is chamber music ; but the 
term is now applied not only to perform- 
ances upon a single instrument, with or 
without accompaniment, but also to any 
combination of different instruments, with 
only one player to each part — duets, trios, 
quartetts, &c., for voices or instruments. It 
is probable that the first chamber music con- 
structed as such was entirely vocal, and not 
of much earlier date than the end of the 15th 
or the beginning of the i6th centuries — the 
Soolia of the Greeks, the music of the min- 
strels, and of public and private musicians of 
later date, including among the former "the 
waits," " noises," and other private bands, 
not being of a character that could fairly be 
called by the title chamber music. Therefore 
the Madrigal will be regarded as among the 
first specimens of chamber music. The titles 
of more than one collection, for example, 
" Madrigali di Tavolina," " Madrigali di 
Camera," " Madrigali Concertati," " Madri- 
gali et Arie per sonare et cantare," and so 
forth, together with the peculiar style in which 
many of the early books are printed, — two 
parts on one page intended to be read by two 
persons seated opposite to each other at the 
same table — would show conclusively that 
they were intended as chamber music. 

The addition of instrumental accompani- 
ments to madrigals probably arose out of a 
desire to support the voices and keep them in 
tune, as well as to give employment to those 
who could play and not sing, but who were 
desirous of taking part in that which was 
going on. This practice — at first a mere 
conciliation to the instrumentalists — sug- 
gested the use of instruments alone for the 
purposes of concert. Thus we find attached 
to the early productions, instructions to the 
effect that they are " apt for Instrumentes 
and Voyces," as in Alison's "An Howres 
Recreation in Musicke," or as in Bonaffino's 
" Madrigali," that they are available " per 
cantar e sonar nel Clave cimbalo, Chitarrone o 
altro simile Instrumento," or as in the later 
editions of Byrd's Psalmes, Songs, and Son- 
nets, framed to be " fit for Voyces or Viols." 

Doubtless from such small beginnings the 
writers of the time were induced to compose 
"Consort lessons," " Ayres," "Fancies," 
" Canzone da Sonare," and the like, often 
written in six parts, the number of viols in a 
" chest." These compositions at first differed 
very little in point of form and treatment from 
the madrigals from whence they were derived, 
until the demand arose for pieces of less dig- 
nity, in obedience to which demand we find 



dance tunes, " Almaines, Ayres, Corants, 
Sarabands, Moriscoes, Jiggs, &c.," hitherto 
only set for a single instrument, arranged in 
parts for "Viols or Violins;" and these and 
other dance-tunes issued in suites made into 
the first sonatas, and the symmetrical shape 
in which each was necessarily written for the 
purposes of the dance gave rise to that which 
is known as Form. The word Sonata, at 
first applied to pieces for a solo instrument, 
as well as to those for several, became gradu- 
ally to be used as a term for compositions 
of a certain character for a single compound 
instrument, as the organ, harpsichord, or 

The most important era in the history of 
chamber music was the final quarter of the 
last and the first of the present centuries ; 
the labours of Boccherini, whose trios, quar- 
tetts, and quintetts are form-like, easy, and 
graceful, as well as those of Fiorillo, Giardini, 
Pugnani, and Viotti, leading to the foundation 
of the school in which Pleyel, Haydn, Mozart, 
and Beethoven were such apt pupils and 

Changeable chant. A single or double 
chant which can be sung either in the major 
or minor mode without other alteration than 
the substitution of the minor third and sixth 
of the scale for those of the corresponding 

I W. Turner. 








[— :=J *— 1 1 \ 






W. Turner. 









Change of voice. [Larynx.] 

Change ringing. [Bells.] 

Changer de jeu (Fr.) To alter the stops 
on an organ or harmonium. 

Changes. The altered melodies produced 
by varying the sounds of a peal of bells, 

Changing notes. Passing notes or dis- 
cords which occur on the accented parts of a 

Chanson (Fr.) (i) A song, (2) A national 
melody. (3) A part-song. 

Chansonnette {Fr.) A little song. 

Chant. A short musical composition to 
which the Canticles and the prose version of 
the Psalms are sung, either in unison or in 
four-part harmony. There are two kinds of 
chant in common use — the Anglican and the 

(i) A Gregorian chant consists of five parts ; 
the intonation; the first reciting note or domi- 
nant ; the mediation ; the second reciting 
note or dominant; the ending, ^.o-. : 

Intonation. ist Mediation. 2nd 

Dominant. Dominant. 


The intonation is used generally to every 
verse of a canticle, but only to the first verse 
of a psalm, unless a special psalm be used on 
a solemn occasion, as for instance the Mise- 
rere (Psalm li.) during Lent. 

With regard to the pointing of the Prayer- 
book version of the Psalms, several important 
facts have to be considered. The undoubted 
object of the chants as originally used in the 
Roman Church was to enable, as far as pos- 
sible, a pure syllabic recitation of the words, 
so many of the words of a verse being recited 
on the dominants as would leave one syllable 
only to each note of the mediation and end- 
ing. As these chants were in use many 
centuries before the invention of cantus men- 
surabilis, it is quite impossible that they were 
ever sung rhythmically at the close of each 
recitation. But there is a growing tendency 
to treat the Gregorian chants Anglican-wise, 
and either by accents or bars, to definitely 
shape out their rhythm. If any proof were 
wanting of this fact, it is only necessary to 
give the following : 

Ex. I. a. 






4th Tone, 







The ending of the first of these is evidently 
intended to be in triple measure, that of the 
second in duple. But to force the ending into 
either one of these measures is to wilfully 
cast aside the invaluable property it possesses 
of bearing an accent on any note, as the words 
require, A like desire for modern chant-form 
has led to the following differences of accent : 

Ex. 2. a. 


From Sargent's Psalter, 
I t 

S—'^ — &- 



-J— f=-- 

From Gray. 




-^-^=^S - 








r- ^ j- 

It will be seen from the above, that in pro- 



portion to the adoption of strict time in the 
ending, the true use of chants for syllabic 
treatment becomes lost. In short, " Gre- 
gorians," as used for the most part in England 
at the present time, are nothing more than 
ordinary chants, not, however, having an 
uniform number of bars of music. Hence 
the same difficulties present themselves which 
will be explained below in the account of 
Anglican pointing, e.g. : 

Ex. 4. a. 

at the presence 

of the God of Jacob. 



at the presence of the | God of Ja 

It is generally understood that when the 
number of notes exceeds the number of syl- 
lables, the notes not required may be omitted. 



^ ^=^ 

From Sargent. 






''the'^FatVe°}*"'^'°*'^^^°" and to the Ho-ly Ghost. 

This is a negative proof of the original 
syllabic tendency of Gregorian pointing, it 
being merely a corollary of the law that there 
should be " one syllable to one note," to say, 
" if only a few syllables are left, let the notes 
not wanted be omitted." This rule is now 
generally neglected ; and, even in canticles 
with such short verses as the Te Deum, the 
syllables are slurred to the superfluous notes, 
lest the hearers' notion of " the tune " should 
be disturbed. 

In 1843, the Rev. F. Oakeley published his 
Gregorian Psalter, carrying out, in its integrity, 
the principle of the syllabic system, e.g. : 

Ex. 6, From Oakeley. 




My soul truly waiteth | still up - on God : 





for of Him com 


eth my 

sal - va - tion. 
From Oakeley. 







The Lord shall root | out all 


-> r 

de - ceit - ful lips, 




and the tongue 

that speak - eth proud things. 

Notwithstanding its merits, this Psalter 
seems not to have been largely used, and 
where used has been superseded by others 
in which the tones have been " anglicanized " 
and made more palatable by the unjustifiable 
introduction of fixed accent and rhythm. 

Another danger which presents itself to the 

advocates of Gregorian chants is their limited 

number. It is out of the question that new 
Gregorian chants should be " expressly com- 
posed " for Psalters, but it is absolutely neces- 
sary to provide a variety of chants to avoid 
the monotony of over-repetition. Hence it is, 
(i) tha.t endings heard on the Continent, what- 
ever be their modern growth or their incom- 
patibility with the Gregorian scale, are greedily 
seized and made use of in this country ; and 
(2) that foliations or the vicious introduction 
of auxiliary notes, above or below the genuine 
notes of the chant, are as readily welcomed 
by Gregorian editors, e.g. : 






si—^ i k T J l <g- 



Ex. 9. 



i> g( i 



igai ^j -& 



Ex. 10. 




T -T fr H^ ^ 

r-i rJ 


Ex. 8 is called a form of the 5th tone, No. 
9 a form of the 4th. 

Ex. 10 shows a foliated form of the media- 
tion of the 1st tone. The division of the plain 
tones and foliated tones into ferial and fes- 
tival does credit to the ingenuity, but not to 
the historical integrity, of Psalm-pointers. 

The French and Belgians have ever been 
celebrated as clever adulterators of plain-song ; 
and as their manuals now form the chief text- 
books of English Gregorianizers, it is not 
difficult to prophecy a general decadence of 
the art of Gregorian chanting in this country. 

(2) An Anglican chant is of two sorts, single 
and double. A single chant is in two strains, 
the first of three, and the second of four bars 
in length : 

Pelham Humphreys. 


r^ f^ 


(^ r-> 


A double chant has the length of two single 

ones : 









-- J ^ 

* It has been stated, and the statement is often re- 
peated, that the double chant was suggested by the 
accidental performance of two single chants in succes- 
sion by a nameless pupil of Hine, who was organist of 
Gloucester Cathedral between the years 1710 and 1730. 
In " Boyce's Cathedral Music," published 1760— 1778, 
is a double-chant by John Robinson, who was organist 
of Westminster Abbey from 1727 to 1762, dying at the 
ripe age of eighty ; and as there exists a MS. copy of 
the same chant in the handwriting of Dr. Turner, the 
father-in-law of Robinson, with the date 1706, in one 
of the old MS. service-books belonging to St. Paul s 
Cathedral, there is reason for questioning the story 
concerning the accepted origin of the doub'e chant. 

( 84 } 



The two strains are also called halves; one 
half is sung to that part of a verse of the 
Prayer-book version of the Psalms on each 
side of the colon, whether the number of words 
be many or few, whether the sentence is com- 
plete or not ; as : 



When the company of the spearmen and mul 
titude ot the mighty are scattered abroad 
among the beasts of the people, so that 
they humbly bring . . . - 

> pieces of silver: 







^"^hepeo''ple''^'- '"""'-} '^^^ ^^ ' "g^* '" ^^^^ 









My tongue is the pen : of — a rea - dy writer. 

The opening chord of a chant, and also the 
first chord after each double bar, may be sus- 
tained at will, to accommodate the number of 
syllables contained in each part of the verse. 
These chords are called reciting notes, those 
which follow are called the inflections; or, 
according to some, the first half of the chant 
is the mediation, and the second the ca- 
dence. The fitting of the words to the music 
is called pointing. The pointing of the 
Psalms and Canticles is a matter concern- 
ing which there are diversities of opinion. 
The principal object to be aimed at in 
pointing is ** the apportioning out of the 
emphasis of the words to be sung, after the 
manner that an eloquent speaker would recite 
them ;" but as sentences are capable of as 
many accents more or less sensible as there 
are words, the diversity of opinion on the sub- 
ject is not to be wondered at. The words are 
divided in the Prayer-book not always in the 
best manner as regards their complete gram- 
matical sense ; and as it is at present deemed 
unwise to adopt any plan but the one therein 
JiUggested, difference of opinion will exist until 
a change is made in its system of stops. The 
varieties of pointing arise from the desire to 
unite an oratorical with a musical accent ; and 
the many ways in which this is attempted 
will be best seen by the following quotations 
from pointed Psalters in frequent use. 

[The lines after each set of words indicate the place 
of the bar in the chant.] 

Psalm cxxxvii. 
No. I. Dr. Wesley's Psalter. 
For they that led us 
away captive required 
of u£ then a song and 

melody in our 


No. 2. The Cathedral Psalter. 
For they that led us 
away captive required 
of us then a song and 

melody in our heaviness. 

No. 3 

For they that led us 

away captive required 

of us then a song and 

melody in 

The Congregational Psalter. 



No. 4. Monk and Ouseley's Psalter. 
For they that led us 

away captive required 

of us then a song and 

melody in our 



The fonn of the chant has been the real 
cause of the difficulties of pointing. An 
ordinary melodic sentence consists of two, 
four, or eight bars, but the chant has first 
three, then four bars. This peculiarity does 
not, however, offend the ear so much as 
the eye, for in reciting, the rhythmical 
cadence is to a certain extent completed. 

Various theories have been put forth to ac- 
count for the 7-bar or twice 7-bar form of the 
Anglican Chant, all writers being agreed that a 
7-bar phrase is not actually presented to the 
ear in the process of chanting. The theorists 
may be divided into two classes — those who 
would add a bar to the commencement of the 
chant, that is, to the reciting note ; and those 
who would add a bar at the half cadence and 
whole cadence. The following is the method 
in which the former would write out Robin- 
son's Chant : 

Ex, I. 


7- ,^\-^ P'v r 1 — Tl ' d "d ~ ~\ 


r> ^ — g — 1 — f ^ — s,_.[]fJ - — 2.t}=^_^- 

h — ^5^""^ "^ — 75 1 1 — 1 


" ^'■'—^ id-'S' — T^r-r^-.-^. 

Those who lean to the latter opinion would 
write it thus : 




J-fJ- j U- 






of rhythm. 

In opposition to the first view taken, it may 
be urged that in music the chords of cadence 
precede the final chord, and in Ex. i, they fall 
on the final accent, as is shown by doubling 
the bars, e.g. : 


Except in rare forms of dance-tunes the 
above rhythm would be unbearable. In favour 
of the second form (Ex. 2), it may be stated 
that in all the best pointed Psalters an accent, 
a larger fount of type, or a bar, marks the 
close of the Recitation and commencement of 
the musical rhythm, and tnat the syllable or 
syllables so made prominent only occupy one 
bar of time. In opposition to the second 



form, it may De remarked that the final bar of 
both halves of a double chant is not in prac- 
tice held out for the length of two bars. One 
or the other of these theories may be true, 
and the reader is left to decide on their re- 
spective merits. 

Certain writers have assumed that the 
Anglican Chant is a highly tractable collection 
of sounds, bound by no laws of rhythm ; and 
acting on this notion, have attempted to unbar 
some modern chants. This view has led 
to a system of pointing by which as many 
words as possible are collected on the reciting 
note, e.g. : 




Praise Him in the sound of the I trum- | pet, |1 &c. 



Praise Him in the cymbals and | dan- lces,|l&c. 








Praise Him upon ,,_, „ Praise Him , . , lu . n 

the well-tuned I cym-|bals|l ^p^^ j^e | loud.|cym-|baIs]| 

The above system (known as the " Sud- 
bury ") is said to be smooth, but the number 
of slurs involved would produce this effect, 
although opposed to the true principles of 

It has been said " that the best practical 
solution of the difficulty of chanting would be 
offered by selecting a set of the most appro- 
priate chants, whose melodies, within the 
range of all voices, would not suffer by being 
sung by a whole congregation, and to have 
every word set to a note of relative length, so 
as to ensure evenness of tone and accuracy 
of accent." Some of the early church com- 
posers have left examples of the Venite set 
to distinct music, often chant-like, so that 
the thing here suggested would not be so great 
a novelty. But it would be difficult to make 
such a plan general, for, leaving out of the 
question the additional time such a service 
would occupy, none but educated choirs could 
perform it, and the ordinary chant is so easy 
that there is little if any trouble needed to 
teach it to unskilful choristers. The chant at 
present in use might be retained, and if elocu- 
tion is the main object of chanting, a different 
system of pointing might be devised, by em- 
ploying the present authorised division of the 
verses only when convenient. Alterations 
might be made in a verse (i) when the sense 
is incomplete in it, (2) when a verse contains 
two distinct subjects, (3) when the present 
colon interrupts the logical sequence, e.g. : 

(i) Psalm xvii. 
8. Keep me as the apple of an eye : hide me under 
the shadow of thy wings, (9) from the ungodly that 
trouble me. 

(2) Psalm Ixxxix. 

49. Remember Lord the rebukes that thy servants 
have : and how I do bear in my bosom the rebukes of 
many people ; (50) wherewith thine enemies have blas- 
phemed thee, and slandered the footsteps of thine 

Praised be the Lord for evermore : Amen and 

(3) Psalm xiv. 

II. Who shall give salvation unto Israel out of 

Sion ? (:) when the Lord turneth the captivity of his 

people, then shall Jacob rejoice, and Israel shall be 

In some of the numerous editions (issued 
between the years 1655 and 1730) of Play- 
ford's " Introduction to the Skill of Musick," 
there is an appendix containing the " order of 
singing the Divine Service in Cathedrals." 
In these it is said that " the Venite is begun 
by one of the choir, then sung by sides, ob- 
serving to make the like break or close in the 
middle of every verse, according as it is 
shorter or longer." The use or tune for each 
day in the week is given to the first verse of 
the Venite, and these tunes are such as are 
now called Gregorian. There are two others 
— "Canterbury tune" and "Imperial tune" 
— " proper for Choir ; to sing the Psalms, Te 
Deum, Benedictus, or Jubilate, to the organ 
or sometime without it." The manner in 
which the words are disposed will be seen by 
the following copy of the first-named of these 
tunes : 

O come, let us sing un-to the Lord Let us heart- j - ly 


^i m J m m m &' m- 

re - joice in the strength of our sal - va - ti - on. 

Dr. Turner, 1706, gives the pointing of the 
same verse as follows : 



r r I ^ ^' 

O come, let us sing un - to the Lord : let us 


^r:^^^ ^i-j^ 


heart- i - ly re-joice in the strength of our sal - va- ti - on. 

It will be seen that this chant contains only 
five complete bars of four crotchets each. 
The bars in it do not indicate the place of 
accent, or even the best division of the chant 
for the purpose of pointing. The earliest 
printed copy of a now well-known chant by 
the same author, is given in the following 
form (from "Fifty double and single chants 
being the most Favourite as performed at St. 
i Paul's, Westminster, and most of the Cathe- 
drals in England. London : Printed for C. 
and S. Thompson, at No. 75, St. Paul's 




r : ^ -d- 









In the following example (from the " Har- 
mony of Sion ") the chant is compressed into 
four bars. 







WepnUse Thee, O God : we acknowledge Thee to be the Lord. 

JJJ I .^../// J^ '^ - ^"^ 

And Dr. Boyce, in his " Cathedral Music," 
writes the Venite to the chant ascribed to 
Tallis thus : 






O come, let ns sing un - to the Lord, 




■J J ,^^ ^^=lt 

Let us heartily rejoice in the strength of our sal - va - tion. 

The method of chanting the Psalms adopted 
in the present day is for each of the two di- 
visions of the choir to sing a verse alternately. 
In some places where a double chant is used 
the whole of the chant is sung to two verses 
by each side in turn. In one cathedral (Ox- 
ford) each side sings one half of a verse only. 
In consequence of this custom of the alternate 
chanting of the Psalms, it is supposed that 
wherever alternate singing is mentioned in 
ancient records, chanting is meant. The ob- 
jections entertained against chanting by the 
followers of Wickliffe, and in later time by 
those of Calvin, were expressed in violent terms, 
not altogether necessary to repeat here. It is 
true these reformers approved of the people 
joining "with one voice in a plain tune, but 
not of tossing the Psalms from one side to 
the other with intermingling of organs." Less 
moderate in their deeds than in their words, 
the Puritans, when in power during the Com- 
monwealth, destroyed all organs and every 
music-book they could lay their hands upon. 
Metrical psalmody supplied the place of chant- 
ing, the Psalms were rarely if ever sung, and 
so, in contradistinction to Sternhold and Hop- 
kins, or Tate and Brady, were called the 
" Reading Psalms," a practice continued as 
lately as the year 1873, when the Psalms for 
the day sung at the meeting of the Charity 
Children in St. Paul's Cathedral were so called. 
Chanting was regarded as essentially Popish, 
and alternate singing an abomination even 
among church people. It was never heard in 

parish churches in the last century, the ca- 
thedrals alone retaining the traditional use. 
By degrees a change was effected ; the un- 
clean thing was handled without any alarming 
effect, and even Dissenters changed their 
opinions upon the subject. Instead of con- 
demning chanting, they adopted it. Dr. Chan- 
ning thought it " the most purely Protestant 
music ;" Mr. Newman Hall considered it " a 
homage to the Bible, calculated to make the 
Word of God better known, appreciated, and 
loved ;" others would " by no means have 
it banished ;" and the preface to the fourth 
edition of a little book called " Euphonia " 
(1870), designed to familiarise Non-conform- 
ists with the principles of chanting, states 
that " the objections entertained by many to 
the ancient practice of chanting having been 
much diminished, there is now a growing 
feeling in favour of singing portions of the 
Bible in the very words of Scripture, rather 
than through the medium of metrical versions 
exclusively." This book, which is historically 
valuable, contains one hundred portions of 
Scripture pointed for chanting, together with 
a selection of familiar, if not good, Anglican 
chants ; the principle guiding the choice being 
liveliness of melody and general tunefulness. 
These facts tend to show that the usefulness 
of chanting is in process of general recog- 
nition by " all who profess and call themselves 
Christians ;" that it is no longer held to be 
the type of a peculiarity of religious opinion ; 
that there is a mutual interchange of means 
towards a spiritual end ; that whereas one 
side does not disdain to encourage the use of 
metrical psalmody in its services, the other 
borrows chanting, defending it as " a simple 
but impressive mode of worship." 

Chants have been found convenient means 
of rendering hymns of irregular metre, or any 
hymn of which a simple musical treatment 
is required. 

Chant (Fr.) (i) Song, tune. (2) The voice 
part or melody. 

Chantant (Fr.) Singing, musical, as cafe 
chantant, a musical coffee-house. 

Chant en ison, or chant egal {Fr.'^ (i) 
The name of a species of chant, consistmg of 
two sounds only, which was adopted by many 
of the old religious orders. (2) Monotone. 

Chanter, (i) A name given to the singing 
priest on duty. (2) A lay vicar. 

Chanter a livre ouvert (Fr.) To sing at 

Chanterelle {Fr) (i) The first or highest 
string upon instruments played with a bow. 
The E string of the violin, and the A of the 
viola and violoncello. (2) The highest string 
of a guitar or lute. 

Chanterres (Fr.) A name given to ballad 



or poem singers in mediaeval times, originally 
applied to the Proven9al Cantadours. 

Chanteur ,p J A male singer. 

Chanteuse ^ ''''') A female singer. 

Chant Gregorien {Fr.) Plain song. 

Chant pastoral (Fr.) A shepherd's song, 
or melody in imitation of one. 

Chantries. Endowed foundations in the 
Romish Church, instituted for the due per- 
formances of requiem masses for the repose 
of the soul of the founder and his family. 
Chantries were attached to existing parish 
churches, or more frequently to monastic 
establishments and cathedrals. At the Refor- 
mation the practice of soul-masses and the 
chantries became disused, and their revenues 

Chant-royal (Fr.) A certain form of early 
French poetry set to music. Pasquier de- 
scribes it as a song in honour of God, the 
Virgin, or the saints, or any other " argument 
of dignity, especially if coupled with distress." 
The chant-royal was written in heroic stanzas, 
and closed with a L' envoy or stanza containing 
a dedication, recapitulation, or moral. 

Chantry priest. A chaplain or singing 
priest attached to a chantry. One whose 
duty it was to sing masses for the speedy 
deliverance of the soul of a founder or bene- 
factor from purgatory. 

Chant sur le livre {Fr.) A system of 
descant by which the part sung by one voice, 
as written in the open book, could be accom- 
panied by another voice in counterpoint, more 
or less free, according to the movement of 
the canto fermo , which was sung generally by 
a bass voice, the dechant being taken by a 
tenor or other high voice. It was necessary 
that the singer of the canto fermo or plain- 
song should render it a la rigueur, that is, 
should not make those slight changes of the 
length of the notes which would be justifiable 
and usual when singing alone ; nor could he 
hold out the rests (tenere ptmctum) as he other- 
wise would, lest the dechanteur should be 
upset in his calculations. The full rules of 
this system are to be found in early treatises. 
It was called in Italy contrappunto di mente, 
or alia mente. 

Chapeau Chinois {Fr.) A set of small 
bells arranged in the form of a Chinese hat. 
Pavilion chinois. 

Characteristischer Ton {Ger.) The 
leading note. {Fr.) Note sensible. 

Characters. A general name for the signs 
employed in music, such as brace, bind, bar, 
sharp, fllat, natural, clef, stave, shake, turn, 
beat, and the signs of words indicating time 
and expression, e.g. -< => C (t' ^'^* 

Characterstucke {Ger.) Pieces of music A 
written with the intention of describing cer- " 
tain impressions by means of sound. Beet- 
hoven's Pastoral Symphony, Mendelssohn's 
Reformation Symphony, and the overture and 
music to " A Midsummer Night's Dream," 
are specimens of this style of composition. i 

Charivari {Fr.) Mock music, clatter. 

Chasse {Fr.) Hunting ; a la chasse, in 
the hunting style. 

Chatzozerah {heb.) The chatzozerah is 
generally thought to have been a straight 
trumpet, with a bell or " pavilion "~as it is 
termed. Moses received specific directions 
as to making them. " Make thee two trum- 
pets of silver ; of a whole piece shalt thou 
make them : that thou mayest use them for 
the calling of the assembly, and for the jour- 
neying of the camps." In Ps. xcviii. 6, the 
chatzozerah and shophar are brought into 
juxtaposition : " With chatzozerah and sound 
of shophar make a joyful noise before the Lord 
the King ;" or, as it incorrectly stands in the 
Prayer-book version, " With trumpets also 
and shawms, &c." In this passage the Sep- 
tuagint has it, 'Ev aaXiriyliv eXaralc, Kai <pojv^ 
aaXTTiyyoc iceparirriQ, " With ductile trumpets, 
and the sound of horn-trumpets." So, too, 
the Vulgate : " In tubis ductilibus et voce 
tObas corneae." The word mikshah, which is 
applied to the description of the chatzozerah 
in Num. x. 2, which means "rounded" or 
" turned," may either apply to a complete 
twist in the tube of the instrument, or, what 
is more probable, to the rounded outline of 
the bell. But if the former is the real inter- 
pretation of the epithet, it would make it more 
like a trombone, and similar in form to that 
depicted on the Arch of Titus. But, on the 
other hand, the account given by Josephus 
points out the latter characteristic of shape. 
He says, " Moses invented a kind of trum- 
pet of silver ; in length it was little less than 
a cubit, and it was somewhat thicker than a 
pipe ; its opening was oblong, so as to permit 
blowing on it with the mouth ; at the lower 
end it had the form of a bell, like a horn." 
It seems chiefly to have been brought into 
use in the Hebrew ritual, but was also occa- 
sionally a battle-call, and blown on other 
warlike occasions. 

Check-action. [Pianoforte.] 

Check-spring. A small spring added for 
the assistance of any weakness in the return 
of action in the mechanism of an organ. 

Chef d'attaque {Fr.) The leader of an 
orchestra, or chorus. 

Chef d'ceuvre {Fr.) The master-work of 
any composer. 

Chef d'orchestre {Fr.) (i) The leader. 
(2) Conductor of an orchestra. 



Chelidonizing (from the Gk. x^>^i^ovli^o), tc 
twitter like a swallow). Singing the swallow- 
song (^fXtSdviffyua), a popular song sung by 
Rhodian boys in the month Soedromian, on 
the return of the swallows, and made into an 
opportunity of begging. A similar song sur- 
vives in modern Greece. A crow was also 
carried about by begging boys who sang ; 
whence Gk. Koptovii^o). Examples of both songs 
are given by Athenaeus. Pamphilicus of Alex- 
andria, in his chapter on names, calls the men 
making collections for the crow, coronistce, 
and their songs, coronismata. There was a 
similar custom in Ireland on St. Stephen's 
day. A number of young men carried a furze- 
bush on which a wren was tied, and stopping 
before the houses of the gentry, repeated the 
following lines : 

'• The wren, the wren is the king of all birds, 
Was caught on St. Stephen's day in the furze, 
Although he's little, his family's great, 
Then pray, kind gentle folks, give him a treat." 

In England and Scotland there are many 
customs of a like character, as for example, 
"going a gooding" on St. Thomas's day; 
singing the Hagmena on the three days pre- 
ceding Christmas day ; the children's May-day 
march, when they carry garlands of spring- 
flowers and boughs, and stopping at the doors 
of people of the better sort, sing a long song, 
one verse of which runs : 


%^<' ^j 






A branch of May we have brought you, And 




STJ- ^Tlr ^:^ ^ 

at your door it stands; It is but a sprout, but it's 

4^-r—^ z r~^d=^=^=£u^ ^m 

well bud-ded out. The works of our Lord's hands. 

Chelys. (Gk.) x^^^c, lit. a tortoise [Lat. 
testudo). (i) The lyre of Mercury, supposed 
to have been formed by strings stretched 
across a tortoiseshell. (2) In the i6th and 
17th centuries a bass-viol and division-viol 
were each called chelys. 

Cheng. The Chinese organ, which con- 
sists of a series of tubes having free reeds. It 
is held in the hand and blown by the mouth. 
The introduction of this instrument into Eu- 
rope led to the invention of the accordion and 
harmonium. Kratzenstein, an organ-builder 
of St. Petersburg, having become possessed 
of one, conceived the idea of applying the 
principle to organ-stops. The tone of free 
reeds is enforced by tubes, as in the cheng 
and in certain organ-stops, but the tubes can 

be dispensed with, as is the case in a har- 

Cherubical hymn. The ter sanctus, or 
trisagion in the service of the Holy Commu- 
nion, " Holy, holy, holy," &c. 

Chest of viols. An expression signifying 
a set of instruments necessary for a " consort 
of viols." They were six in number, namely 
two trebles, two tenors, and two basses. A 
chest of viols, with a harpsichord or organ, 
with an occasional hautboy or flageolet, formed 
an ordinary orchestra in the early part of the 
17th century. 

Chevalet {Fr.) The bridge of a stringed 

Cheville [Fr.) A peg for a violin, guitar, 
lute, &c. 

Chevroter {Fr.) To skip, quiver, to sing 
with uncertain tone, after the manner of goats 
Alia vibrato. 

Chiara (7^.) Clear, distinct, pure, e.g., 
chiara voce, clear voice ; chiara quarta, a per- 
fect fourth. 

Chiaramente (7^.) Clearly, purely, dis- 

Chiarezza, con (7^.) With brightness, 

Chiarina (7^) A clarion or trumpet. 

Chiave (7^.) (i) Key or clef. (2) A failure. 

Chica. The name of a dance popular 
among the Spaniards and the South American 
settlers descended from them. It is said to 
have been introduced by the Moors, and to 
have been the origin of the Fandango, which 
some writers declare to be the Chica under 
a more decent form. It is of a similar cha- 
racter with the dance of the Angrismene per- 
formed at the festivals of Venus, and still 
popular among the modern Greeks. The 
English jig is said to be one form of the Chica. 
It is not a little singular that the word came 
into use soon after a free intercourse with 
Spain was opened. The words Chaconne 



(Fr.), Ciaccona (It.), Cachuca {Sp.), Czardasch 
[Hungarian), describe modern modifications 
of the Chica. [Bolero.] [Country Dance.] 

Chiesa [It.) Church, Sonata di Chiesa, 
a sacred sonata. 

Chiffres [Fr.) Figures, basse chiffree, 
figured bass. 

Chime, (i) To play a tune on bells, 
either by machinery or by hand, by means of 
hammers, or swinging the clappers, the bell 
remaining unmoved. It is opposed to ring- 
ing in which the bells are raised, that is, 
swung round. (2) A carillon. 

Chirimia {Sp.) An oboe (from Chirimoya, 
a pear), the portion of the oboe in which the 
mouth-piece is inserted, called in German 
Birn, a pear. 

Chirogymnast. Finger-trainer. A con- 
trivance for strengthening the fingers, consist- 
ing of a cross-bar, from which are suspended 
rings attached to springs. The term is also 
applied to any apparatus designed for a like 

Chironomy. Gk. y^tiporon'ia. (i) Gesticu- 
lation by the use of the hands. (2) Directions 
given by movements of the hand, especially 
to a chorus. In the early church of the West 
such a system was much in vogue ; and some 
have maintained that the signs of sounds, as 
then written, were merely pictorial represen- 
tations of the movement of the hand. 

Chiroplast. Finger-former. An instru- 
ment invented by Logier in 1810, to facilitate 
the proper method of playing the pianoforte. 
It consisted of a position-frame, finger-guides, 
and a wrist-guide. The position-frame con- 
sisted of two parallel rails extending from one 
extremity of the keys to the other, and fastened 
to the pianoforte. This frame served as a 
line upon which the finger-guides travelled ; 
these guides were two moveable brass frames, 
with five divisions for the fingers, and to each 
guide was attached a brass wire with a regu- 
lator, called the wrist-guide, by which the 
position of the wrist was preserved from in- 
clination outwards. With the instructions for 
the use of the chiroplast, progressive lessons 
on the pianoforte were given ; and in the suc- 
cess attending the use of the hand-guide, these 
lessons, which were cleverly designed, had 
doubtless as much to do as the machine itself, 
which, however, soon fell into disuse. 
Chitarra [It.) A guitar. 
Chitarra col arco (It.) A violin with 
sides gently curved, as in a guitar ; without 
corners, as in an ordinary violin. 

Chitarrina [It.) A small Neapolitan guitar. 

Chiudendo (7^.) Closing, ending. The 

word is generally employed in connection with 

another, chiudendo coUa prima strofe, ending 

with the first verse. 

Chiuso (7^.) Close, hidden, concealed. 

e.g., canone chiuso, a close canon, [Canon]; 
con bocca chiusa, with the mouth closed 

Choeur (7^^.) [Chorus.] 

Choir, (i) A part of the building in a 
cathedral or collegiate chapel set apart for 
the performance of the ordinary daily service. 
The choir is generally situated at the eastern 
end of the building, and is frequently enclosed 
by a screen, upon which the organ is placed. 

(2) The minor canons, choral vicars, and 
choristers, or other singers taken collectively, 
are spoken of as the choir. The choral body 
is usually divided into two sets of voices, the 
one sitting on the north and the other on the 
south side of the chancel, and are known by 
the respective titles of Cantoris and Decani 
from their nearness to the Cantor (or Pre- 
centor) and to the Decanus (or Dean). In 
most cathedrals and collegiate chapels, the 
Decani side is held to be the side of honour, 
the best voices are placed there, and all the 
"verses" or soli parts, if not otherwise directed, 
are sung by that side, which is also considered 
the " first choir " (coro primo) in eight-part 

Choir-man. An adult member of a choir. 

Choir Organ. [Organ, § i.] 

Chor {Ger.) Chorus. Choir of a church 
or concert room. 

Choragus. {Lat.) (i) The leader of the 
chorus in the ancient Greek drama. [Chorus.] 

(2) The title of a musical official at Oxford 
University, whose duties are described in the 

Choral, (i) Of, or belonging to the choir, 
concert, or chorus. Choral service, a service 
with music. (2) A hymn or psalm tune. 

Chorale {Ger.) [Hymn tunes.] 

Choraliter {Ger.) In a choral form. 

Choralmassig {Ger.) [Choraliter.] 

Choral Music. Vocal music in parts, as 
opposed to instrumental. 

Choral Service. A service of song ; a 
service is said to be partly choral, when only 
canticles, hymns, &c.,are sung; wholly choral, 
when in addition to these, the versicles, re- 
sponses, &c., are sung. 

Choral Vicars. [Lay Vicars.] 

Chor-amt {Ger.) Choral service. Cathe- 
dral service. 

Choraules {Gk. ^opavXrig from xoacg and 
nvXeoj.) (i) A player on the flute in the 
Greek Theatre. (2) One who keeps a chorus 
and plays in it himself. 

Chord. A combination of musical sounds, 
consonant or dissonant. [Harmony.] 

Chord. A string. 

Chorda characteristica. A chord of the 
7th in which a leading note appears. 

Chordae essentiales {late Lat.) The 
tonic and its 3rd and 5th. The key-chord. 

( 90) 


Chordaulodion. A self-acting musical in- 
strument, invented by Kauffmann, of Dresden, 
in 1812. 

Chor-dienst (Ger.) [Chor-amt.] 

Chordometer. A gauge for measuring 
the thickness of strings. 

Chords etouffes (Fr.) (i) Chords played 
on the pianoforte with the sordino pedal held 
down. (2) Chords on the harp, lute, guitar, 
or dulcimer, damped by placing the hand 
gently on the strings. 

Choriambus. A metrical foot consisting 
of two short between two long syllables. 

Chorister. A member of a choir whether 
juvenile or adult. At the present day the 
children of the choir of a church or cathedral, 
are those usually distinguished by the term, 
but so recently as the commencement of the 
present century, all who were engaged in 
taking part in the musical portion of the 
service, were called choristers. The word 
derived from x°P^?' ^7 rnetonomy came to 
signify a band of singers or dancers, or any 
member of such a band, and hence the term is 
often applied to a singer in a chorus not 
necessarily belonging to a church, just as 
choir is applied to the place in which church 
singers sit, as also to any body of singers of 
sacred or secular music. For example, Les 
enfans de chceur, children of the choir or 
chorus ; Dom-chor, cathedral choir or chorus, 
and Coro del chiesa, church choir or chorus ; 
Choristers, or boy singers, called " clerks of 
the third form," in some places, are attached 
to every cathedral in England, and receive 
advantages of more or less value, in exchange 
for their services as members of the choir. 
In addition to necessary instruction in music, 
they have an education in other matters, 
varying in many places according to the con- 
struction put upon the Statutes by the deans 
and chapters of the cathedrals. The interpre- 
tation of these Statutes has been the subject 
of grave dispute, as the advantages accruing 
to the choristers have been from time to time 
most shamefully ignored. In days past, the 
children have been shut out from the enjoy- 
ment of preferential privileges made con- 
cerning them, and their education and moral 
training has been so little cared for, that many 
a child who in early years was familiarised 
with the most sacred matters, has acquired for 
them the proverbial result of familiarity. A 
better state of things is now being brought 
into existence with a result which cannot be 
considered other than hopeful. 

In some places private instructors have 
been engaged to teach cathedral choristers a 
few matters besides music ; in others they 
are admitted into the chief grammar schools 
of the several cities. The course of instruc- 
tion also varies, for in some cases they are 

taught the simple elements of reading and 
writing, in others they learn as much of the 
higher branches of education as is possible 
in addi'aon to the duties of their profession. 
In many instances their musical instructors 
impart no more than is absolutely needful for 
the exercise of cathedral duty, and in some 
music is taught scientifically as well as practi- 
cally, not only in connection with the immediate 
work in hand, but also with reference to future 
use. In very few instances are the boys 
boarded and lodged within the precincts of 
the cathedral, or placed under the immediate 
care of the cathedral authorities out of the 
hours devoted to duty — a matter of much 
regret. The organist is sometimes music- 
master of the choristers, sometimes the office 
is distinct, and is held independently of the 
organist. In many cathedrals a sum of money 
as apprentice fee is paid to a chorister on 
leaving the choir; this is instead of the money 
at one time set apart for the maintenance of 
the chorister as a student at the universities. 
For instance, in the Statutes of Stoke College, 
in Suffolk, founded by Parker, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, are these words: " of which said 
queristers, after their breasts be changed 
(their voices broken) we will the most apt of 
wit and capacity be holpen with exhibition of 
forty shillings, the rest with lesser summe." 

In olden times, choristers were privileged 
to demand a fee from every newly installed 
officer of the church, and to levy "spur money" 
from all who attended the service in riding 
gear. In the former case the fee varied 
according to the position of the installed 
officer, and was paid without conditions being 
imposed in return ; in the latter, the wearer of 
spurs could require the youthful tax-gatherer 
to repeat his " gamut " perfectly ; if he hesi- 
tated, he lost his spur-money. The boys ot 
the Chapel Royal were the last to keep up 
the custom which has now fallen into disuse 
with many others equally absurd. For ex- 
ample : the choristers in many cathedrals and 
collegiate establishments were permitted to 
rule over their superiors for a short period 
once a year, generally from December 6th, 
the Feast of St. Nicholas (the patron saint of 
sailors, parish clerks, thieves, and boys) until 
Innocents-day, December 28th. From the 
aptitude acquired in these ludicrous ceremo- 
nies, the choristers gained such a skill m 
acting that they were selected to perform in 
the mystery plays of old time, and later to 
represent the masterly conceptions of such 
writers as Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and 
others. It was not alone to the choir boys 
attached to unimportant establishments that 
these matters were entrusted, but also to the 
children of " Powle's churche " and of the 
"Chapel Royale" of Her Majesty Queen 

( 91 ) 



Elizabeth. The possession of such powers 
and privileges may have been exceedingly 
pleasing while it lasted, but the ill sorted 
union of the theological and the theatrical is 
happily dissolved, it is hoped for ever. 

The life of a chorister in these remote days 
was, however, not all bliss, as the owner of a 
good voice would probably find to his cost, 
more especially if he was not fortunate enough 
to belong to St. Paul's Cathedral, or the 
Chapel Royal, for there were officers armed 
with the awful warrant of the Royal Court, 
empowering them to roam the country, to 
visit all churches and cathedrals of the lesser 
sort in which choral singing was practised, 
and to select and take away all boys "with 
good breasts," that is to say, all with voices 
of more than ordinary excellence, for the 
service ofthe privileged choirs. The "placard" 
or warrant was often used illegally, and chil- 
dren were impressed for choirs other than 
those above mentioned. There is reason for 
believing that choristers so gained were in 
general badly used, if we may trust Thomas 
Tusser (1523-1580), the author of " Five 
hundred points of good husbandry," for he 
speaks of his good fortune in having been 
assigned to John Redford, organist of St. 
Paul's, in terms which prove that choristers 
were not so kindly used in other places. His 
situation at Wallingford, from whence he was 
impressed, he laments in the words : 

" O shameful time ! for every crime 
What toosed ears, like baited beares. 
What bobbed lippes, what yerkes, what nips, 
What hellish toies ! 

What robes, how bare, what colledge fare, 
What bread, how stale ; what penny ale, 
Then Wallingford, how wert thou abhor'd 
Of silly boies." 

In another verse he contrasts his treatment : 

*' But marke the chance, myself to vance, 
By friendships lot to Pauls I got, 
So found I grace a certayn space 
Still to remaine 

With Redford there, the like no where, 
For cunning such, and vertue much; 
By whom some part, of musicke art 
So did I gain." 

On the Continent choristers are attached to 
many cathedrals, but their duties and educa- 
tion are based upon a different system to 
that in general use in Great Britain at the 
present time. Before the time ofthe dissolu- 
tion of the monasteries the position of choristers 
was much the same as that enjoyed abroad 
by them, and it was no uncommon thing to 
find " the children of the choir " in after life 
occupying stations of eminence and trust in 
both Church and State. The venerable Bede, 
St. Swithun, St. Hugh of Lincoln, William 
of Wykeham, William Wainfleet, Erasmus, 
and his friend. Dean Colet, the founder of St. 

Paul's School, and scores of other distin- 
guished men were choristers. The musicians 
who have gained the first knowledge of their 
art within the walls of a church are many, 
and comprise among others the names of 
Palestrina, Frescobaldi, Orlando di Lasso (im- 
pressed from Hainault into Italy as a child), 
Padre Martini, John Sebastian Bach, Haydn, 
William Byrd,Tallis, Dr. Bull, Dr. Rogers, Dr. 
Blow, Elias Ashmole, Henry Purcell, Dr. Croft, 
Pelham Humphreys, Dr. Greene, Battishill, 
Dr. Burney, Attwood, and many famous living 
musicians whose names it is not necessary 
here to catalogue. 

Chorton [Ger.) (i) The ancient ecclesi- 
astical pitch in Germany. It was supposed 
to be higher than that employed for secular 
music by about a tone. The terms Kam- 
merton and Chorton were used to signify the 
difference between a high and a low pitch for 
the same denominated sound. (2) The melody 
of a hymn or psalm tune. 

Chorus. ChoT{Ger.) Chceur (Fr.) Coro(7^.) 
(1) A band of singers and dancers employed 
on certain occasions in the ancient Greek 
theatres, and other public places. It was the 
custom for the whole population of a city to 
meet on stated occasions, and to offer thanks- 
givings to the gods for any special advantages 
obtained, by singing hymns accompanied with 
dances. Donaldson derives the word from 
Xopog, the name of the place where these exer- 
cises were performed in Sparta, and shows 
the connection between the civil and religious 
ceremonies of the ancient Greeks, saying that 
music and dancing were the basis of the re- 
ligious, political, and military organisation of 
the Dorian States. The choral songs were 
always written in the Doric dialect, and the 
choral dances were Dorian also. In course 
of time, as the fine arts became more culti- 
vated, the duties of the chorus as a branch of 
worship devolved upon a few, and ultimately 
upon one, who bore the whole expenses, 
when paid dancers were employed. This 
person was called the choragus and it was his 
business to provide the chorus in all plays, 
whether tragic or comic. His first duty after 
collecting his chorus was to find and pay a 
teacher (xopodi^aaKaXos) who instructed them 
in the songs and dances which they had to 
perform. The choragus was allowed to press 
children, if their parents did not give them up 
of their own accord. He lodged and main- 
tained the chorus until the time of performance 
and provided them with such aliments as 
conduce to strengthen the voice, he had also 
to find masks and dresses. The honour was 
much coveted among the wealthy Athenians. 
The choragus who exhibited the best theatrical 
entertainment generally received a tripod as 
a reward of praise. 



The choral dance reached its perfection in 
the xopoc KufcXifcoc at Athens. This chorus 
consisted of 50 persons. The number of the 
chorus varied in later times according to the 
performance. The xopoe rjoayiK'dc consisting of 
from 12 to 15, the ^opoc ko^ikoq of 24, and the 
XopoQ aarvpiKOQ of the same number as the 
rpayiKOQ. The chorus in the time of the Attic 
tragedy consisted of a group of persons, male 
and female, who remained in the theatre as 
witnesses as well as spectators. When they 
spoke, it was to offer reflections on the scene 
passing before them, taking part with or 
against the dramatis persoiice by offering 
advice, comfort, exhortation, or dissuasion. 
At times the chorus was divided and spoke 
antiphonally. These divisions moved accord- 
ing to a pre-arranged order, which movement 
probably originated the naming of the stanzas 
which were called strophe, antistrophe and 
epode. When not engaged in singing, the 
chorus grouped itself upon a platform called 
the Thymele, which was in the centre of the 
building, and from whence all measurements 
were made, the semicircle of the amphitheatre 
being described from it as its centre. Of 
the exact part music played, whether elaborate 
compositions were employed or not, little is 
now known. It is supposed that a simple 
rhythmical declamation analogous to chanting 
was used. The accompaniment of flutes in 
unison was made use of for the choruses. 
The chorus declined with the ancient tragedy, 
and the few attempts made by modern writers 
to revive the manner of the ancients, as in 
Schiller's " Braut von Messina" have not been 
successful. The well-known Antigone and 
CEdipus Colonaeus of Mendelssohn can 
scarcely be regarded as a reproduction of the 
ancient Greek chorus, owing to the insuperable 
difficulty of adapting modern instrumentation 
to the spirit and observances of the older 

(2) An ancient instrument variously de- 
scribed by different writers. A bagpipe must 
have been signified when the word was used 
in the loth century, as a chorus or corus is 
described as "pellis simplex cum duobus 
cicutis." The word is supposed to be connected 
with cornemuse, as it is sometimes written 
cormusa and corusa. In the Promptorium 
Parvulorum, 15th century, the word is used 
to describe "a crowde, an instrument of 
musyke"; — the drone of the bagpipe and the 
unstoppable strings of the "crowde" bearing 
a sort of burden or chorus to the melody 
played on the other pipes or strings. Busby 
in his "Dictionary of Music," 1810, says 
that the word is the old Scottish name for a 
trumpet of loud tone. 

(3) A personage in some of Shakespeare's 
plays, who between the acts utters reflections 

upon scenes that are past, and describes 
scenes to come. 

(4) A composition for a number of singers, 
with or without accompaniment, intended as 
the expression of the united sentiments of a 
multitude. A chorus may be independent and 
complete in itself, or may be a portion of a 
large work either sacred or secular. It may 
contain opposed sentiments interwoven, as in 
the Kermesse scene in Gounod's "Faust;" in 
Meyerbeer's "Huguenots," and "L'Etoile du 
Nord;" Wagner's "Tannhauser"and "Lohen- 
grin ;" according to the purposes of the drama. 
Choruses with opposed subjects are not in- 
frequent in oratorios, as in Handel's chorus, 
" Fixed in his everlasting seat," in " Samson." 
The union of independent themes may be 
traced by the student with advantage, in the 
choruses of such compositions as Bach's 
Passion music, &c. Double, triple, or even 
quadruple choruses are often found in the 
works of the old Italian church writers, as 
well as in the sacred compositions of Bach, 
Handel, and later musicians. 

The choruses in the early Italian operas 
were devoid of dramatic character, and in 
fact, were often independent of the action 
of the opera in which they were inserted. As 
they contained occasional reflections on pass- 
ing events they were in some sort connected 
with the ancient Greek chorus, the stage direc- 
tions enjoining the dancers to accompany the 
singing with motions and gestures, also formed 
another link binding them to their ancient 
model. The invention of the operatic chorus, 
or rather the introduction of combined voices 
as a necessary part of the dramatic action is 
claimed by the French. Many of the lesser 
musical dramas, burlettas, interludes, &c., had 
no choruses properly speaking, a glee or some 
concerted piece for the principals being all 
that is found in them. The choruses of 
LuUy are not very dramatic, and those of 
Rameau are very badly constructed, and often 
incorrect as to their harmony, so that the im- 
provements introduced by these two masters 
were not extended to the chorus. Among the 
followers of Lully, Campra (1660-1744) is the 
most distinguished; he treated his choruses 
in a more advanced manner than his model, 
not only in the development of harmonic effects, 
but also by the introduction of novel rhythms. 
Gluck invented morceaux d'ensemble, grand 
indeed, when compared with the choral effects 
by other composers of his own and preced- 
ing times; Spontini added new instrumental 
colouring ; Cherubini employed the graces of 
form to clothe the musical outlines suggested 
by his predecessors; Rossini did as little com- 
paratively for the chorus from a dramatic point 
of view, as Meyerbeer did much. Some of 
Bellini's choruses are conceived in fine dra- 

(93 ) 


matic spirit ; Verdi's, though occasionally 
vulgar in detail, are by no means wanting in 
general force and appropriateness ; the faults 
they exhibit are due to the influence of the 
fetters of tradition, and a wearying use of 
simple tonic and dominant harmonies ; Gou- 
nod's are often admirable, but as the expression 
of the voices and opinions of a multitude, 
Wagner's choruses are nearest the true ideal. 
In many of the early English operas the 
chorus is an inconsiderable item. Exception 
must, however, be made in favour of those by 
Henry Purcell, whose works of this class 
exist, while many of the other portions of his 
operas have fallen out of memory. Neither 
Lampe.Arne, nor Storace paid much attention 
to the development of chorus, but its improve- 
ment in smaller dramatic works is due to Sir 
Henry Bishop. As conductor of the music at 
Covent Garden Theatre for many years, he 
produced a series of compositions of more or 
less value, some of which live, while the 
dramas and plays for which they were written 
have fallen completely into oblivion. His 
earlier choruses have the glee attached, the 
part for the multitude of voices being as easy 
as possible. It is presumed that operatic 
chorus singing was not in its highest state of 
perfection in the days of Mozart or Beethoven, 
for neither of these composers has given the 
chorus much that is difficult or important in 
their operas — a matter of necessity perhaps, as 
it was hard to find a body of singers in those 
days, who would be so far content with the 
gifts they possessed as to accept an inferior 
position. Chorus singing was very little culti- 
vated in London so recently as the time when 
the Sacred Harmonic Society was established, 
for it was found necessarj' to invite a con- 
tingent of singers from the North of England 
to take up a residence in the Metropolis, 
employment being found for them for the 
hours when their vocal services were not 

If it is necessary to account for the slow 
growth of operatic chorus, when compared 
with the progress made in other portions of 
the musical drama, a very simple reason 
can be found, m the fact of the difficulty 
attending the first performance of a variety of 
works when the singers have to commit the 
whole of their parts to memory. Straight- 
foi-ward as many of Handel's choruses are, 
it was found necessary to make some slight 
alterations in the choruses of such a work as 
" Acis and Galatea " when given on the 
stage. It is not difficult to gain the most 
sublime effects from chorus singing when 
the performers have the copies before their 
eyes, as the performance of oratorios and 
similar works by large choral societies can 
sufficiently testify. 

In the Oratorio, the chorus is of the greatest 
importance, and the number of voices to a 
part is generally larger than it was in the 
time of Handel, though some writers ques- 
tion the advantage gained by multiplying 
the forces, as it is supposed by them that a 
greater number of voices does not necessarily 
produce a proportionate power of tone, and 
the difficulty of moving a large body in con- 
cert may involve a change of tempi, but this 
need not be the case with a trained body well 
acquainted with the works performed. It is 
said that " a chorus of thirty-five voices from 
the Pope's chapel who sang at the Coronation 
of Napoleon I., in the Cathedral of Notre- 
Dame, Paris, produced a far greater and more 
wonderful effect when they entered singing the 
Tu es Petrus, than another chorus of hundreds 
of voices, and eighty harps, that had been 
assembled and trained for the same occasion, 
in expectation of surpassing all that man 
could imagine." As the knowledge of music 
is more general in the present day, this ob- 
jection cannot with reason be entertained 
now, otherwise the choruses at the Handel 
Festivals could not be held to be the most 
attractive features of such gatherings. 

(5) The union of a number of voices for the 
joint performance of a composition. The 
whole of the male and female singers other 
than the principals whether in the oratorio, 
drama, or at a concert. 

(6) The refrain or burden of a song whether 
sung by one or by many voices. As for 
example : 

(a) I lov'd a lass, a fair one, 
As fair as e'er was seen ; 
She was indeed a rare one, 
Another Sheba Queen. 
But fool, as then I was 
I thought she lov'd me too, 
But now, alas ! she's left me. 
Chorus. Falero, lero, loo. 

George Wither, 

(6) Lisette, dont I'empire 
S'etend jusqu'a mon vin, 
Jeprouve la martyre 
D'en demander en vain. 

Pour souffrir qu'a mon age 
Les coups me soient comptes, 
Ai-je compte, volage, 
Tes infidelites ? 

Chceur, Lisette, ma Lisette, 

Tu m'as trompe toujours, 
Mais vive la grisette 
Je veux, Lisette, 
Boire a nos amours. 


[c) Lasst tanzen uns und springen, 
Hier, wo die Blumen stehn; 
Und frohe Lieder singen, 
Im Freien klingt es schon. 
Chor. Und frohe Lieder, &c. 




(7) The name given to the mixture and 
compound stops in an organ. 

Christe eleison (Gk.) A portion of the 
Kyrie in the Mass. [Mass.] . 

Christmas Carol. [Carol.] 

Christmas Music, (i) Cantatas, the words 
of which are suitable to Christmas-tide. (2) 
Music played by waits. [Waits.] 

Chroma {Gk. xp^^f^^' colour or complexion). 
The name of one of the modifications of the 
Greek musical scale. The principal chroma- 
tic scale of the Greeks was called xf^M" 
rovaiov ', its chief characteristic is the omis- 
sion of the 4th and 7th. [Greek Music] 

Chroma duplex {Lat.) (i) A semiquaver. 
(2) A double sharp. 

Chromatic. That which includes notes 
not belonging to a diatonic scale. 

(i) A chromatic chord is that which con- 
tains a note or notes foreign to diatonic 
progression, e.g. : 





r r 


(2) Chromatic harmony is that which is 
made up of chromatic chords. 

(3) A chromatic interval is that which is 
augmented or diminished, e.g. : 






(^4) Chromatic modulation is a passing into 
an extreme key, by means of chromatic 

(5) A chromatic scale is one which consists 
of a succession of semitones. 

Chromatique {Fr.) | chromatic 

Chromatisch {Ger.) j ^^ro^atic. 

Chrotta. [Crowd.] 

Church modes. [Plain Song.] 

Ciaccona {It.) [Chaconne.] 

Cicogna (7^.) The mouth piece of a wind 
instrument ; lit. a stork. 

Cicuta {Lat.) A flute or pan-pipes, made 
from the stalks of the hemlock plant. 

Cimbalo(/^.) (i) Harpsichord. {2) chnbali, 
cymbals. (3) A tambourine. 

Cimbel {Ger.) A mixture-stop in German 

Cimbelstern {Ger.) Lit. cymbal-star. A 
mechanical contrivance in some German 
organs, consisting of star-shaped cymbals 
attached to a wheel set in motion by a pedal. 

Cink {Ger.), Cinq {Fr.) A reed organ stop. 

Cinque (7^) A fifth part in concerted music. 

Cinyra. An old term for a harp. 

Cipher. The sounding of a note on an 
organ caused by mechanical derangement. 

Circular Canon. A canon so constructed 
that it closes in the key one semitone above 

that in which it commences. As, at each 
repeat, it begins, not at the original pitch, but 
at the pitch at which it closed, it is evident 
that twelve repetitions would take it through 
all the known keys. 

Circulus {Lat.) A circle. One of the 
time signatures of early music. It was only 
applied to tetnpus ■perfectuni and tempus im- 
perfectum, that is to the division of a breve 
into semibreves. When the breve was divi- 
ded into three semibreves (tempus perfectum) 
a complete circle was placed at the signature 
" quia forma rotunda perfecta est." When the 
breve was divided into two semibreves (tempus 
imperfectum) a broken circle or semicircle 
was used. This last sign is now corrupted 
into a C which is erroneously said to stand 
for common time. [Time.] 

Cis {Ger.) The note C sharp. 

Cis-cis {Ger.) The note C double sharp. 

Cis dur {Ger.) The key of C sharp major. 

Cis moll {Ger.) The key of C sharp minor. 

Cistella {Lat.) A dulcimer, lit. a little 
box. [Citole.] 

Cistre {Fr.) [Cittern.] 

Cistrum. [Sistrum.] 

Citara (7^.) A cittern, guitar, cither. 

Cithara {Gk. Kidaoa). The ancient lute. 
It probably differed from the lyre in having 
something behind the upper part of the strings, 
whereas the lyre-strings were open on both 
sides. [Guitar.] 

Cithara bijuga. A guitar or lute having a 
double neck. Some of the strings passed along 
the side of the finger-board and could not 
therefore be stopped, and some of the higher 
strings were tuned in pairs in unison. Some- 
times it was strung with wire and played with 
a plectrum like a cithara ; at others, it was 
strung with cat-gut and played like a lute. 

Citharoedus. Onewho sings whilst playing 
the cithara, whereas a citharista only played. 

Citole. An instrument similar in form to 
the dulcimer. The name is supposed by some 
to be derived from cistella a little box ; by 
others, from cithara, a guitar. It is frequently 
mentioned by early poets, apparently with 

William Guiart (1248) 

various m^eanmgs. 

says : — 

" Qui le roi de France a celle cree 
Enveloppa si de paroiles 
Plus douces que son de citoles." 

Chaucer's allusion to it would imply that it 
was a kind of guitar : — "A citole in hir right 
hand had sche." 

Cittern. An old English name for a guitar 
strung with wire instead of with gut. It had 
eight strings tuned to four notes g, b, d, and 
e, or corresponding intervals. The instru- 
ment was at one time very popular, a cittern 
being part of the furniture of a barber's shop, 
the customers amusing themselves with it 

i 95 ) 


while waiting. The music for the cittern was 
written in Tablature. There were several 
instruction books for the instrument issued, 
while it was still in use. The title of the 
earliest known is " The Cittharn Schoole, by 
Antony Holborne, Gentleman, and servant to 
Her Most Excellent Maiestie. Hereunto are 
added six short Airs, Neapolitan like to three 
voyces without the Instrument : done by his 
brother William Holborne. London, 1597." 

Civetteria, con (It.) In a coquettish 

Clairon (Fr.) [Clarin.] 

Clang. (i) Timbre (Fr.) Klang (Ger.) 
Quality of tone. (2) The peculiar "ringing" 
noise or din produced by the clash of metals, 
or the blast of loud wind instruments. Lat. 
clangor. The Gk. KXayyi] is also applied to the 
whiz or twang caused by the discharge of an 
arrow, &c. 

Clapper. [Bells.] [Bones.] 

Claque (Fr.) A body of hired applause- 
makers, openly employed in France and some- 
times secretly resorted to in England. The 
" claque " in France is divided into several 
ranks; rieurs,pleiireurs,chatouilleurs, hisseurs, 
and so forth. These officers distributed in 
several parts of the theatre, laugh, weep, 
gossip with their neighbours, cry encore, &c., 
under the direction of a fugle-man whose 
business it is to study the work produced, 
and after consultation with the author, the 
performers, and the stage manager, to direct 
and regulate the reception of certain portions 
of the entertainment. 

Claque-bois [Fr.) A gigelira. [Ligneum 

Clarabella. An organ stop consisting of 
open wood pipes, invented by Bishop. It is of 
a soft and sweet quality of tone. It is gene- 
rally merged into a stopped diapason below 
middle C, as the larger pipes do not produce 
a clear tone. It is usually of 8 ft. pitch. 

Clara voce {It.) A clear voice. 

Claribel Flute. An organ stop of similar 
construction to the clarabella, but generally 
of 4 ft. pitch. 

Clarichord. A stringed instrument of 
mediaeval times, by some writers presumed to 
be identical with the clavichord, the precursor 
of the spinet, harpsichord and pianoforte. 

The earliest stringed instrument with a key- 
board for the fingers, is said to have been 
invented about the year 1300, in Italy, and 
to have been called Clavycytherium, the 
cithara or harp with keys. In the Musurgia 
of Luscinius, printed in 1536, a picture of 
this early instrument is given, but as there is 
no statement that it had been drawn from 
an existing example, and moreover, as it 
appeared nearly two centuries and a half after 

the supposed invention, its likeness is at the 
least rather doubtful. Trustworthy represen- 
tations of keyed instruments are very rare 
before the latter of the above dates, and a 
consequent amount of confusion exists, as 
well with regard to forms as to names. In 
the few early English glossaries extant, no 
clear or lucid description of the majority 
of instruments in existence can be obtained, 
and many modern writers, misled by varied 
spelling, and the number of different names 
for the same thing, have exercised their wits 
in finding a variety of forms, shapes, and 
uses for that which was after all but of one 
character, and probably the same thing des- 
cribed variously. To speak of the older 
names of instruments of the kind now under 
consideration, the words clavichord, mono- 
chord, manichord, clavycymbal, cembalo, 
clavecin, all have the same meaning, a 
stringed instrument with keys played by hand. 
Some writers explain the words clavichord to 
be so called, because the strings were wrested 
in tune with a key (clavis) ; — this description 
would also apply to the clarichord, called also 
claricols, clarigold, &c., for that was kept in 
tune by a wrest, as William Cornishe in his 
poem, " A treatise betwene Trouthe and 
Enformacion." 1500, tells us. He says: 

" The clarichorde hath a tunely kinde 
As the wyre is wrested hye and lowe 
So it tuneth to the players mynde. 
For as it wrested so must it nede showe. 
Any instrument mj'Stuned shall hurt a trewe song, 
Yet blame not the clarichord the wrester doth 

By this it would appear that the clarichord 
was a kind of harp, tuned as it was required 
to be used, and it is somewhat singular that 
as the words clarichord, clarigols, clarigold, 
&c., are only used in ancient English writings, 
no form of them being found in old French or 
Latin, the derivation of the word from an 
ancient British etymon, such as clar, to grip 
or bend, would be applicable to the harp as 
an instrument whose strings were plucked or 
gripped, the modern Irish word for playing 
on harps is cld]\ex5)l*e|\ (clarediser), and the 
harp itself is called cld|\i*Cd'c(clarscat), gripped 
or clawed string. The word ')*C4'C might be 
compared with the German Saite. 

Dr. Rimbault, after quoting the definitions 
of the word clarichord given by a few of the 
lexicographers of the 17th century, observes 
that they make " no distinction between the 
terms clarichord and clavichord, but the one 
can hardly be a corruption of the other." He 
adds that the " words suggest a totally 
different etymology," and he then proposes 
that it might be from the French word claire, 
denoting a transparent tone; but in th& earliest 
musical dictionaries clarichord is said to be 

( 96 ) 


«' called also the Dumb spinnet, on account of 
the cords being covered with pieces of cloth." 
The Clavechord or clavecimbalo is said to 
signify a harpsichord. In every instance in 
which the word clarichord is employed before 
the i6th century it might fairly be translated 

At the marriage of James of Scotland with 
the Princess Margaret, in the year 1503, "the 
king began before hyr to play of the clary- 
chordes and after of the lute. And upon the 
said clarychorde Sir Edward Stanley played a 
ballade and sange therewith." (Warton, 
" History of English Poetry.") It is quite 
possible that the similarity of the two letters 
V and r in ancient MSS. might have led the 
transcribers to mistake one for the other, and 
by writing clarichord or clavichord indiscrimi- 
nately they might innocently cause contro- 
versy. All modern authorities on the subject 
declare that the words are of separate and 
distinct origin. [Pianoforte.] 

Clarin (Ger.) A species of trumpet, a 
clarion, also an organ reed stop of 4 ft. pitch. 
Clarin-hlasen, the sound of a trumpet. Some- 
times the word is applied to the soft tones 
produced on this instrument. 

Clarinet ] An important wind in- 

Clarinette {Fr.) \ strument said to have 
Clarinetto {It.) J been invented by John 
Christopher Denner, who was born in Leipsic, 
in 1654, but it was in reality only a modification 
and improvement of the more ancient shawm 
or chalunieau. Most authors relate that Denner 
invented the instrument in 1659, at which date 
he was four years old ; but it was made by 
him after his residence in Nuremberg, in 1690. 
The name clarinet, or clarionet was probably 
attached to it on account of its pure and brilliant 
tone, not unlike that of the clarion or trumpet. 
In modern instruments of this class, the tone 
has been rendered far purer and sweeter 
than that originally produced. The difference 
between the tone of the hautboy and that of 
the clarinet, is due to the circumstance that 
the one has a double, and the other a single 
reed. The difference in the nature of the 
scale arises from the fact that the hautboy is 
conical, while the clarinet is a cylinder, the 
series of harmonics in the hautboy following 
each other in the ratio 1,2, 3, 4, &c., those 
of the clarinet i, 3, 5, 7, &c., hence, that 
whereas the first overtone of the former is its 
octave, the first overtone of the latter is its 
twelfth. On this fact depends the difficulty 
of making shakes and of playing rapid pas- 
sages on certain parts of the clarinet. All 
sudden changes from the end of the first range 
of twelve notes to the commencement of the 
."econd series, are difficult, some impossible. 

The compass of the instrument is about 
three octaves and a half from tenor E, including 

all the intermediate semitones. The clarinet 
being of the nature of a stopped pipe, as to 
its harmonics, can be played from its lowest 
note E up to twelve notes higher without a 
break by means of its keys. At this point the 
player has to increase the pressure of wind, 
and commence a new series of sounds, the 
transition between these two registers forming 
the chief difficulty in " clarinet blowing." 
The registers are four in number, and are as 
follows : 

I. The low includes all notes between 


2. The second between 


3. The third between 



4. The fourth comprises all remaining notes 


The first two registers are called the " chala- 
meau part," and when this is employed for any 
continued time it is written an octave higher, 
with the direction " chal, or chalameau " to 
the player. There are three lengths of tubing 
employed for the clarinet, by which means 
the instrument may be made to sound three 
different scales according as the tube is 
short or long. The longer tube is used for 
the A clarinet, a medium for the B flat, and 
the shorter for the C. 

As the fingering is in each case the same 
in each instrument it has been found con- 
venient to adopt C as the normal scale, so 
that a piece of music apparently the same to 
the eye is different to the ear, according to 
the clarinet employed. Thus the passage 
written as follows : 

When played upon a C clarinet would sound 
as it stands, upon an A clarinet would sound: 

And upon a B flat clarinet, as ; 




It is, however, easy to make each instru- 



ment give out the same notes by employing 
a change in the signature, thus the passage 
for the A clarinet should be written : 

And for the B flat clarinet : 

when they will each give the sounds as written 
in No. I. 

The kind of clarinet required is usually stated 
at the commencement, as clarinet in A, B flat, 
or C, and whenever a change is needed during 
the progress of a piece, the same is indicated 
duringa period of rest for the instrument, by the 
words change to A, B, or C, as the case maybe. 

The advantage of a 


of clarinet is 

that complicated scales upon one instrument 
become easy upon another. For instance the 
scale of F sharp major which is very difficult 
on a C clarinet, when played upon an A 
clarinet is fingered as A major, the real sounds 
produced being those of the scale of F sharp 
major. Similarly the scale of D flat major 
would become the scale of E flat major on a 
B flat clarinet. This accounts for the fact 
that the clarinet part in a full score is some- 
times in a flat key while the rr^ovement is 
in a sharp key. For example a piece in the 
key of E minor (one sharp) not uncommonly 
has a part for an A clarinet written, of course, 
in G minor with two flats. 

The favourite (because easy) keys of the 
clarinet are the keys of C, F, and G, B flat, 
E flat, A flat and D with their relative minors. 
Hence the sjcill of the composer is shown in 
writing for that clarinet capable of producing 
the best effects in certain keys. 

Clarinets are usually employed in pairs, 
and the parts are ordinarily written on one 
stave. They, in conjunction with the two 
bassoons similarly written, form a grand basis 
or support for all the other wind instruments. 
The small E flat clarinet (playing a minor 
third above the notes actually written) is used 
in military bands. Its tone is shrill and 
piercing. The introduction of the clarinet as 
a regular instrument in the orchestra of the 
opera is due to J. Christian Bach, who wrote 
special parts for a pair of clarinets in his opera 
" Orione, ossia Diana vendicata," which was 
produced in London in 1763. 

Clarinettista (It.) Clarinettiste (Fr.) A 
performer on the clarinet. 

Clarinetto (It.) [Clarinet.] 

Clarino (It.) (i) A trumpet. (2) An organ 
stop, consisting of reed pipes, generally of 
4-ft. pitch. 

Clausula [Lat.) A close or cadence, e.g. : 

clausida falsa, a false cadence ; clausula finalis, 
a final cadence, &c. 

Clavecin (Fr.) (i) A harpsichord. (2) The 
keys by means of which the carilloneur plays 
upon the bells. [Pianoforte.] 

Claviatur [Ger.) (i) The key board of an 
organ or pianoforte. (2) Fingering. 

Clavi-cembalum {Lat.) Clavicembalo {It.) 

Clavichord. [Clarichord.] 

Clavicylinder. An instrument in the form 
of tubes or cylinders of glass, invented by 
Chladni, There was another instrument with 
the same name made of plates of glass of gradu- 
ated lengths, the tone of which was produced 
by hammers set in motion by a key-board. 

Clavicytherium. [Clarichord.] 

Claviglissando. An instrument with a 
key-board, invented by C. W. Le Jeune, which 
is intended to combine the properties of the 
violin and harmonium — of the violin in ob- 
taining a slide or portamento, and the harmo- 
nium in the capability of imitating the tones 
of various wind instruments. 

Clavier {Ger.)\ (i) The pianoforte. (2) A 

Clavier {Fr.) j row of keys on an organ. 

Clavierauszug {Ger.) A pianoforte score, 
as opposed to Partitur, a full score. 

Clef {Lat. clavis.) The sign placed at the 
commencement of a staff" or stave, showing 
the absolute pitch, the lines without it showing 
only the relative distances of sounds. When 
it was found that neumes could be better 
interpreted by the use of lines, a red and a 
yellow line were used, it being understood 
that the former bore the note F, the latter C. 
It is easy to see, that the fact having been 
once established that lines could represent 
notes, it would be found much easier to attach 
the letter itself to the commencement of the 
lines, than to colour the line. The coloured 
lines were invented by Guido, but Walter 
Odington (13th century) used one of the letters 
of the musical notes as a clef to his stave of 
four lines. At this period, it was not usual 
to employ leger lines, but if the voice ex- 
ceeded in compass the limit of the stave, the 
position of the clef was altered; a practice 
still retained in plain-song books. [Notation.] 
The letters C and F were most commonly 
used in all ecclesiastical music up to the time 
of Palestrina, after which other clefs were 

There were five sorts of clefs in use in the 
1 6th century, namely, the gamut r, from the 
Greek gamma, the F, C, g and d clefs. These 
were ultimately reduced to three, the gamut 
and the d clefs being found to be unneces- 
sary. The position of the clefs was held to 
represent a certain pitch, and as it was 
supposed that the scale was incapable of ex- 
tension beyond the notes indicated by the 



clefs gamut and d, their places marked the 
boundary of ecclesiastical compass. The other 
clefs might be made moveable if needed, for 
reasons already intimated, but whatever the 
number of lines above or below the clefs, 
each clef represented a particular sound. Thus, 
fhe F clefs indicated F finale, the C clef, 
acutum, and the G clef, G siiperacutum, &c. 
Many of the musical treatises of the i6th 
century contain a chapter "De Clavibus sig- 
natis," which is interesting as showing the 
form of the clefs as then employed. 

All the writers of these tracts distinguish 
between the clefs proper to plain-song, and 
those employed for figurate or mensurable 
music. In the following copies of these ar- 
rangements of clefs, those for plain-song are 
on the left, and those for figurate music on 
the right. No. i, from Finck's " Practica 
Musica," 1556 : 



in utroque 
cantu. -M? 




■ Et ponuntur omnes in lineali situ, 
quaedam tamen sunt magis fami- 
liares, utpote F et C, g rariuscule. 
r vero et dd rarissime utimur. 
Unde, Linea signatas sustentat 
scilicet omnes. Et distant inter 
se mutuo per diapentem. F tamen 
yafifia distinguat septima quamvis. 

No. 2, from " Erotemata Musices Practicas," 
by Ambrosius Wilphlingsederus, 1563 : 












In chorali cantu simpliciter 
prescribuntur ita. 

In mensurali vero hoc modo. 

No. 3, from " Erotemata Musicae," by 
Lucas Lossius, 1570 : 




^ ^ dS - 




In cantu chorali. In cantu fignrali. 

In later times three clefs F, C and G were 

found sufficient for all purposes. The C clef 
appears upon all lines but the fifth. 



The first is called the Soprano, and is most 
frequently found in ecclesiastical music, though 
it not uncommonly indicates the treble voice 
part in modern full scores. The second is 
called the Mezzo Soprano, and is assigned 
to second treble, and sometimes alto voices, 
and in music of the early part of the i8th 
century is often used for the tenor violin. The 
third is the Alto, and the fourth the Tenor 
clef; the former being used for alto voices, 
violas, and the highest trombone, the latter 
by tenor voices, trombones and the upper 
register of the bassoon and violoncello. The 
F clef is placed upon the fourth line of the 
stave and is used for all bass voices and in- 
struments. When it is found upon the third 
line as in some old music it is called the 
baritone clef: 


The following quotations from music books 
of various dates will show the forms through 
which the several clefs have passed. The 
"Compendium Musicae," by Lampadius, 1537, 
is supposed to be the earliest printed book ir: 
which the G clef is used in a shape nearly 
similar to that now employed: 



In Lully's and other French scores it is some- 
times placed upon the first line: 

In this position it was called the " French 
violin clef;" and in an earlier work by 
Christopher Demantius, " Isagoge Artis 
Musicse," 1656, it appears upon the third 


In "Ayres and Dialogues for one, two, and 
three voyces," by Henry Lawes, 1653, the 
forms of the clefs are as follows : 




In Christopher Simpson's " Compendium of 



Practical Musick," 1678, the clefs are in this 
shape : 



Playford's Psalms, third 
following are the forms : 

edition, 1697, the 



Wilkins's " Book of Psalmody," 

Dr. Croft's " Thirty Select Anthems," 1724: 




Godfrey Keller's "Rules for playing a thorow- 



I . 

Emanuel Bach's 
Sonaten," 1766 : 

" Sechs leichte Clavier 


Malcolm, " A Treatise of Music," 1779 


Shield's " Introduction to Harmony," 1800 




In many modern French music books the F 
clef is written thus : 


In this a resemblance to the letter F, the 
ancient clef sign for this pitch, may be 
traced. Many writers have maintained that 
clefs create difficulties in the way of a "right 
understanding of music," and have therefore 
suggested their removal or the substitution of 
simpler signs. 

Thomas Salmon, 1676, proposed the use of 
the letter T, for the treble clef, M for the 
mean or C clef, and B for the bass clef. His 
proposal led him into a controversy with 
Matthew Locke, which was maintained on 
both sides in language not very creditable 
to either. Francis Delafond, in 1725, sug- 
gested the use of one clef only, the F, or 
bass clef. A century later. Miss Glover, in 
a pamphlet explaining her views on what she 
called the Tetrachordal System, proposed to 
abolish all clefs, a proposition which has 
since been carried out in the Tonic-Sol-fa 
method of teaching singing. The use of the 
treble clef for all purposes has also been 
recently advocated, but with little success. 

Clivus (JLat.) [Neumes.] 

Clocca {Med. Lat.) A bell. Irish, c/o^, a 
small bell. Fr. cloche. Ger.Glocke. 

Cloche (Fr.) A bell. 

Clochettes (Fr.) Hand-bells. 

Clock, to. To set a bell in vibration, by 
attaching a rope to the clapper, and swinging 
it to and fro till it strikes the side of the bell 
which remains stationary. It is an undesi- 
rable practice, as many valuable bells have in 
this manner been cracked. 

Clokerre {Old Eng.) Clocherre {Old Fr.) 
A belfry. In low Latin, clochermm. 

Close harmony. Harmony produced by 
drawing the parts which form it closely to- 

Close play. A direction in lute playing. 
The following explanation of the term is from 
Barley's Lute book : " Thou shalt not neede 
but to remoove those fingers which thou shalt 
be forced, which manner of handling we call 
close or covert play." It would appear to 
correspond to the smooth 




keyed in- 

adopted on 

Clynke-bell. [Chime.] 

C moll {Ger.) C minor. 

Coalottino. [Concertino.] 

Co6.Si{It.) (i) The tail of a note. (2) The 
bars occasionally added to a contrapuntal 
movement after the close or finish of the 
canto fermo. (3) The few chords or bars 
attached to an infinite canon in order to 
render it finite ; or a few chords not in canon, 
added to a finite canon for the sake of ob- 
taining a more harmonious conclusion. (4) 
An adjunct to the ordinary close of a sonata, 
or symphony, &c., for the purpose of enforcing 
the final character of the movement. 

Codetta (It.) dim. of coda. A short coda. 

Codon {Gk.Kbj^uv.) (i) A small bell, such as 

those attached to the trappings of horses. (2) 

A crier's bell. (3) The bell of a trumpet (Fr. 

pavilion). (4) A trumpet with a bell-mouth. 

Cogli stromenti {It.) With the instru- 

( 100 ) 



Coi bassi (It.) With the basses. 
Coi violini. With the violins. 
Col (It.) With ; e.g. : 

Col arco, with the bow. 

Col basso, with the bass. 

Col canto, with the melody. 

Colla destra, with the right hand. 

Coir arco, with the bow. 

Colla parte, with the principal part. 

Colla punta dell' arco, with the point of the bow. 

Colla sinistra, with the left hand. 

Colla voce, with the voice. 

College of Organists. A modern insti- 
tution estabUshed in London, for the purpose 
of improving the position of organ players, 
granting diplomas, and of providing suitable 
performers for the service of the church. 

College Youths. A Society of bell ringers 
established in 1637, at the church connected 
with the college of St. Spirit and Mary, 
Upper Thames Street, London. 

Col legno [It.) With the wood. A direction 
to strike the strings of a violin with the back 
or wood of the bow. 

Collet de violon (Fr.) Neck of a violin. 

CoUinet. (Fr.) A flageolet, so called after 
a celebrated player of that name. 

Colophony. Colofonia (It.) Colophonium 
(Lat.) Colophonie (Fr.) Resin. The gum 
used for making the hair of bows rough, so 
as to set the strings freely into vibration. So 
called from Colophon in Greece {KoXofupia, 
and 'pririvrj, gum.) 

Color (Lat.) Colour. A term variously 
employed in mediaeval treatises on music to 
represent : a repetition of a sound in part 
music (repititio ejusdem vocis); purity of tone 
(pulchritudo soni) ; a movement of the voice 
from the part (florificatio vocis) ; an altera- 
tion of rhythm by different voices (idem sonus 
repetitus in tempore diverso a diversis voci- 
bus) ; a discord purposely introduced for the 
sake of variety (aliquando unus eorum ponitur 
in discordantiam propter colorem musicas). 
Some have gathered from the definition — 
'* Repetitio diversae vocis est idem sonus re- 
petitus in tempore diverso a diversis vocibus," 
that a musical canon is meant to be described. 
(2) The coloured lines first used for the pur- 
pose of rendering neiimes more intelligible. 
" Quamvis perfecta sit positura neumarum, 
caeca omnino est et nihil valet sine adjunctione 
literarum vel colorum " (Guido). [See Clef 
and Notation.] 

Coloratura (7^) Divisions, runs, trills, 
cadenzas, and other florid passages in vocal 

Coloscione or Colachon. A species of 
guitar, called also Bichordon or Trichordon, 
according as it was strung. 

Come (7^.) As, like; e.g.: Come prima, as 
at first; Come sta, as it stands; Cotne sopra, 
as above. 

Comes (Lat.) The answer to the Dux or 
subject. [Fugue.] 

Comic opera. An opera in which the in- 
cidents are of a humorous description. The 
comic opera is of Italian origin and French 
development, each subject treated by musicians 
of other nations owing its rise either to some 
one or other theme already taken by French 
composers of comic operas, or from the 
vaudevilles which preceded, and formed the 
pattern of, the comic operas. Boieldieu, 
Herold, Auber, Adam, Thomas, Offenbach, 
Lecocq,are the most successful representatives 
of the modern school of comic opera writers. 
[Vaudeville, Opera, &c.] 

Comic song. A songdevelopingin humo- 
rous verse some ludicrous idea or incident 
set to a tune already popular, or with a melody 
easy to be caught up by the hearers, in order 
that they may be ready when called upon to 
join in the chorus which usually accompanies 
such songs. Songs of a humorous description 
are of high antiquity, but as their humour 
is generally of a bad character, specimens of 
this class of literature are not fitted either for 
general or for particular readers. The ballads, 
and stories which would please an audience of 
a past age and which have found their way 
into many collections of ancient songs, are 
scarcely respectable even for their antiquity. 

Comma. The small interval between a 
major and a minor tone, that is between a 
tone whose ratio is 8 : g and one whose ratio 
is 9 : 10. The ratio of a comma is therefore 
80:81. A Pythagorean comma is the differ- 
ence between the note produced by taking 
7 octaves upwards and 12 fifths. 

Common chord. A note accompanied 
by its major or minor 3rd and perfect 5th. 
[Harmony.] In thorough bass, the figure 3, 
a sharp, i!at or natural, as the case may be, 
or the absence of any letter, character, or 
figure, denotes the common chord of the bass 
note. When there is more than one chord 
on the same bass note, the common chord is 
figured ■§■. 

Common or Duple time. Time with two 
beats in a bar, or any multiple of two beats 
in a bar. The beats may be of the value of 
any note or rest or compound of notes and 
rests, providing the sum required by the 
time sign be exactly contained in each 
bar. Common time is of two kinds, simple 
and compound. Simple common time is 
that which includes four beats in a bar, 
or any division of that number, or square 
of the number or its divisions. The signs 
used to express simple common time are 
the following: f , |, ;, |, |, and the charac- 
ters Q and (|j. In these signs the upper figure 
denotes the quantity of notes required in the 
bar, and the lower figure the quality of the 

( loi ) 


notes, I signifying a semibreve, 2 a minim, 4 
a crotchet, 8 a quaver, and so on, each figure 
showing the relative proportionate value to 
the semibreve which is now reckoned as the 
time-standard. The sign (Q) is called the 

sign of alia cappella time, and is usually 
followed by four minims in a bar, played or sung 

in slow time ; the sign ( (p ) is called the sign 
of alia breve time, and has also four or eight 
minims in a bar played or sung in a shorter 
time, as its title implies. The use of words 
directing the pace in which pieces of music 
are intended to be taken, has created a certain 
amount of confusion in the use and meaning 
of all the time signs descriptive of form in a 
bar [Expression, Time], Compound common- 
time is expressed by the signs I, |, ^g^, such 
signs meaning two or four beats of three 
crotchets or quavers to each beat. 

In medijeval music a circle O was used 
to indicate what was called perfect time 
(tempus perfectum), a portion of the circle 

being omitted C showed that the time was im- 
perfect, a line through the latter sign (p meant 
a more rapid pace than that required when the 

C alone was used. When these signs were 
reversed they implied that the music was to 
be taken faster than if they were in their 
ordinary places. Thus the degree of rapidity 
would be shown by the time signs arranged 

as follows : O C 

Comodamente (It.) Lit. in a convenient 
manner. Easily, quietly. 

Comodo {It.) Easily, at will, without 

Compagnia del gonfalone (It.) An 
ancient society of mystery or miracle play 
actors established at Rome, in 1264, who 
illustrated their dramatic performances of 
sacred subjects with music. They took their 
name from the banner (gonfalone) which they 
bore. Their performances are supposed by 
some writers to have suggested the Oratorio. 

Company of Musicians. The Musicians' 
Company of the City of London was estab- 
lished by letters patent under the great seal 
of England, on April 24, in the ninth year of 
the reign of Edward IV. (1472-3). The com- 
pany was instituted as a perpetual Guild, or 
Fraternity and Sisterhood of Minstrels — a 
minstrel being a musician qualified to sing or 
play in public. A new charter was granted 
by James I., on July 8, 1604. The Musicians' 
is the only city company for the exercise of a 

Compass. The whole range of sounds 
capable of being produced by a voice or 

Compiacevole (It.) Pleasant, agreeable, 

Complement. The interval which must 
be added to any other interval, so that the 
whole shall be equal to an octave; ^.^., the 
complement of a 3rd is a 6th; that of a 4th, 
a 5th; of a 5th, a 4th ; and so on. It will be 
seen that the intervals are always considered 
as overlapping. 

Compline (from the Lat. completorium). 
The short evening service which completes 
the day-hours. 

Composer, (i) An author of music. One 
who " finds out musical tunes." (2) An in- 
ventor and arranger of a series of changes in 
bell ringing. 

Composition, (i) A piece of music, for 
voices or instruments, or a combination of 
both effects, constructed according to the 
rules of art. (2) The art of composing music, 
guided by scientific rules. (3) In an organ, 
the particular combination of sounds which 
form a compound stop. (4) A mechanical 
arrangement on the organ by which certain 
combinations of stops may be employed or 
not, at the wish of the performer, upon his 
opening or closing a valve, or by using a 
pedal which acts upon the sliders. 

Composizione (It.) A composition. 

Composizione di Tavolino (It.) Table 
music. Convivial compositions, c.f. Ger. 
Lieder-tafel. [Chamber music] 

Compound intervals. Intervals greater 
than an octave, as opposed to simple intervals 
which are less than an octave. 

Compound Stops. Organ stops having 
more than one rank of pipes. 

Compound Times. Times in which the 
bar is divided into two or more groups of 
notes, e.g., |- which consists of two groups 
of three notes ; f which consists of three 
groups of three, &c. Compound Times are 
classified as duple or triple, according to the 
number of groups in each bar, not according 
to the number of notes in each group ; e.g., 
-| is a duple time ; f a triple time ; '^^ (four 
groups of three) a duple time, &c. The prin- 
cipal accent falls on the first note in each bar, 
and a subordinate accent on the first note of 
each group. 

Comus (Gk. Kwfioo). A revel, carousal, 
merry making with music and dancing. The 
revellers paraded the street crowned, carrying 
torches, and sang verses in praise of the gods 
or the victors in the games. 

Comus. (Gk. KOfifiog). A mournful song 
sung in alternate verses by an actor and a 
chorus in the Attic drama. 

Con (It.) With ; e.g. con amore, with affec- 
tion ; coil moto, with spirited movement; con 
sordini, with the mutes on, &c. (See the 
words to which it is prefixed.) 

Concento (It.) Harmony. 

Concentus (Lat.) (concinno). Musical 

( 102 ) 


harmony. Part music ; e.g., concentus vocis 
Lyroeque. Consonance ; e.g., concentus tuba- 
rum ac cornuum. 

Concert, (i) A performance of music in 
which several executants are employed. Con- 
certs of music, to which the general public 
is admitted by payment, are of comparatively 
recent origin in the history of music. Public 
musical performances, more or less connected 
with state or religion, were anciently given 
from time to time, on occasions of importance. 
Kings, nobles, and civic officials, employed 
musicians in their trains, but their perfor- 
mances could scarcely be considered in the 
light of concerts. Organized bands of musi- 
cians who performed in the houses of the 
great and wealthy; "waits" and "noises" 
are frequently mentioned in old records, but 
concerts of music in hired houses, assembly 
rooms of taverns, &c., apart and distinct 
from the "entertainment" ordinarily provided 
at hostelries are rare before the time of 
Charles II. Pepys, in his Diary, speaks of 

" musick 


and " concerts," but 

they were private affairs, and therefore not 
within the meaning of the term as now under- 
stood. The first public concert in England 
was given at Oxford, in the year 1670, the 
first in London two years later. After which 
a periodical concert was established in Ayles- 
bury Street, Clerkenwell, over the shop of 
Thomas Britton, the musical small-coalman. 
Before this time musicians roved from tavern 
to tavern, instruments in hand, waiting the 
pleasure of the guests "if they were willing 
to heare any musick." These bands of 
fiddlers played by the hour together such pop- 
ular tunes as were best calculated to delight 
audiences gathered impromptu. But from all 
that can be learned, their performance was 
not scientific ; " for the most part it was that 
of violins, hautboys, and trumpets, without 
any diversity of parts, and consequently in 
the unison." 

The advertisement of the first London con- 
cert is still extant, and runs as follows : — 

" These are to give notice, that at Mr. 
John Banister's house (now called the Musick 
School) over against the George Tavern, in 
White Fryers, this present Monday, will be 
music performed by excellent masters, begin- 
ning precisely at 4 of the clock in the after- 
noon, and every afternoon for the future, 
precisely at the same hour. London Gazette, 
Dec. 30th, 1672." From this time forward 
concerts of all kinds, vocal and instrumental, 
given not only "by excellent masters" but 
also by those who cannot with justice be called 
either " masters " or " excellent," become com- 
mon enough. It would be both tedious and 
unnecessary to trace the history of concerts 
step by step, neither is it to the present pur- 

pose to describe in detail the several sorts of 
concerts which have taken place since that 
given " over against the George Tavern." 
It may not, however, be uninteresting to state 
that the word has been applied to the per- 
formance of oratorios in church as the follow- 
ing quotation will show: 

" The Oratorios for the opening of the 
elegant Organ now erected in the Minster, at 
Beverley, will be on the 20th, 21st, and 22nd of 
September, 1769, viz : 

" On Wednesday the 20th, the Sacred 
Oratorio of the Messiah. 

"On Thursday, the 21st, the Oratorio of 
Judas Maccabaeus. 

" On Friday the 22nd, the Oratorio of 
Samson ; and that being the Anniversary of 
the King's Coronation, the Performance will 
conclude with Mr. Handel's grand Coronation 

"The first violin by Mr. Giardini. The 
principal voices by Mrs. Hudson, of York, 
Miss Radcliffe, Mr. Norris, and Mr. Matthews, 
both of Oxford. The remainder of the band 
will be numerous, and will consist of the best 
performers, vocal and instrumental, that can 
be procured. 

" Tickets for the Great Aisle at 5s. each. 
Galleries at 2s. 6d. each, to be had of Mr. 
Hawdon, organist, of Mr. Norris, at the Bell 
and of Mrs. Todd, at the Tyger, in Beverley ; 
of Mr. Forster, carver, in Salthouse Lane, a- id 
of Mr. Ferraby, Bookseller, in the Butch' ry, 
in Hull. Of whom may be had Books of the 
Oratorios, with Mr. Handell's Alterations and 
Additions, as they will be performed at Beverley. 
Price 4d. each. The North doors will be 
open'd at Ten in the Morning, and the Con- 
cert to begin at Eleven. The Great Aisle 
will be fill'd with Benches. And to add to 
the solemnity of the performance, the singers 
will be dress'd in surplices. 

" All tickets transferable. No Money taken 
at the Door. 

" A Concerto upon the Organ each Day. 
And Mr. Giardini will oblige the company 
with a Solo. 

JS'" An Assembly on Wednesday and 


(2) {Ger.) A concerto. 

Concertante (It.) (i) A composition 
suitable for performance at a concert. (2) A 
composition in which several of the parts are 
in turn brought into prominence. 

Concerted Music. Music for two or more 
performers, either vocal or instrumental, as op- 
posed to vocal or instrumental solo, with or 
without accompaniment by a single instrument. 

Concertina {Eng.) A portable musical 
instrument of hexagonal form, invented by 
Professor Wheatstone, consisting of a series 
of vibrating metal reeds acted upon and bet 

( 103 ) 


m motion by the current of air, caused by a 
bellows placed in the body of the instrument 
connecting the two ends in which the metal 
tongues or springs are fixed and worked by 
the player, both hands being in such a position 
that the wrists move the bellows while the 
fingers are free to press the stops or keys 
which cause it to sound. The compass of the 
concertina is of three and a half octaves with 
intermediate semitones from fiddle G : 



Each note in this scale is double, that is to 
say, is capable of being produced by the in- 
spiration or respiration of the bellows. [Ac- 

Concertina (Ger.) An instrument of shape 
similar to the English concertina, but of less 
finished appearance and more limited com- 
pass. The bellows excites the vibration of 
the free metallic reeds as in the English 
concertina, but the scale instead of being 
double is single, that is, the respiratory note is 
different to the inspiratory note, and has only 
those chromatic notes necessary for the modu- 
lation of melody into the tonic or dominant 
of the scale in which the instrument is tuned. 
There is also an escape valve to allow the 
passage of superfluous air, a contrivance not 
necessary on the English concertina, where 
the notes are of double sound. The German 
concertina is capableof being performed only in 
the one key in which it is tuned, the English 
concertina can be played in any key. 

Concertino (It.) (i) The principal in- 
strument in a concerto, as violmo concertino . 
(2) The diminutive of concerto. 

Concerto [It.) (i) A concert. (2) A com- 
position for the display of the qualities of 
some especial instrument, accompanied by 
others of a similar or dissimilar character. A 
concerto may be for a solo violin, or violon- 
cello with an accompaniment for strings, or 
wind; or it may be for a pianoforte, violin, or 
any wind instrument, and a full band. Those 
for pianoforte, violin, or organ, are generally 
made of more classical character than those 
for any wind instrument, as in many cases the 
last named are constructed by the performers 
themselves with the object of exhibiting their 
own accomplishments, and their artistic taste. 
In a work by Scipio Bargaglia, published in 
Venice, 1587, "Trattimenti ossia divertimenti 
da Sonare," the word concerto is applied to a 
piece for a solo instrument with accompani- 
ment, probably for the first time. The con- 
certo is usually constructed in symphonic 
form, but without a minuet or scherzo. Though 
the early concertos show some deviation from 
the plan now accepted, they were, however. 

designed according to rules or plans, accepted 
or allowed from time to time. The concertos 
of Corelli, Torelli, Bach, Tartini, and writers 
of the periods in which those masters lived 
are only different from their suites in that a 
solo instrument has the accompaniment of 
other instruments. 

Torelli (1683- 1708) was the first writer who 
suggested an extension of the number of in- 
struments employed in a concerto, and by 
this means pointed the way to the symphony. 
Ke called this sort of composition " Concerto 
Grosso." In his plan he gives certain phrases 
to one or more solo instruments which are 
repeated by the full band employed. Handel 
constructed his "Concert! Grossi " on the 
same model. Vivaldi (1690-1743) further de- 
veloped the idea; Gossec, Haydn, and Mozart 
settled the form as it stands at present, and 
Beethoven, Weber, and Mendelssohn have 
left noble examples of their musical powers 
in their works of this class. 

Concerto spirituale(/^.) Concert spirituel 
{Fr.) A concert formed of a miscellaneous 
selection of vocal and instrumental pieces 
with words of a sacred character. The con- 
certs spirituels in Paris were founded in the 
year 1725. 

Concertmeister [Ger.) The leader of the 
band, the conductor. 

Concert-spieler {Ger.) A performer ; a 
solo-player ; the player of a concerto. 

Concert-stuck [Ger.) A concert piece, a 

Concha [Lat.) A trumpet in the conven- 
tional form of a shell fish ; Triton's horn ; a 

Concitato [It.) Moved, disturbed, agitated. 

Concord. [Harmony.] 

Conductor, (i) A director or leader of an 
orchestra or chorus. It is supposed that a 
leader or a fugleman was employed by the 
Assyrians, to regulate the rhythm of the songs 
or dances ; he was armed with two sticks, 
one of which he beat against the other, and 
so marked the time or accent. 

Among the Greeks the Coryphoeus or exar- 
chus led the dance, and in everything requiring 
united action, a leader or conductor by his 
voice or certain understood gestures secured 
the desired result. The word in connection 
with music has several applications. It signi- 
fies one who directs with a baton the perfor- 
mance of a band of players. It is also applied 
to one who accompanies vocal or instrumental 
pieces on the pianoforte. A conductor, as an 
independent time beater, was not known until 
the end of the last century. The player who 
sat at the harpsichord gave the time to the 
leader of the band, who, directing his subor- 
dinates, was called conductor. [Orchestra. ] 

(2) The inventor or leader of a chime, or 

( 104 ) 


change in bell ringing, is also known as the 
conductor or composer. 

Conductus (Lat.) The name given to a 
certain vocal composition in parts, in the 13th 
and 14th centuries. It has been variously 
described as a composition having descant 
on an original melody (qui vult facere con- 
ductum, primum cantum debet invenire pul- 
chriorem quam potest, &c., Franco of Cologne) ; 
on an original or borrowed theme (conducti 
sunt compositi explicabilibus canticis decoris 
cognitis vel inventis, &c., Walter Odington). 
The definition of John of Garland points to an 
elaborate construction: "conductus autem est 
super unum metrum, multiplex consonans 
cantus qui etiam secundarias recipit conso- 
nantias." . . . " In florificatione vocis fit color 
ut commixtio in conductis simplicibus." Con- 
ducti were sometimes sung without words. 
They were called simple, double, triple, or 
quadruple, but the real distinction between 
the different kinds cannot be clearly learnt 
from the old treatises. All the information 
which can be brought together will be found 
in Coussemaker's L'Art harmonique aux XI I^ 
et XI IP siecles. 

Cone Gamba. [Bell Gamba.] 
Confrerie de St. Julien. A Society of 
Musicians in France, at one period possessing 
great power. At the end of the 13th century, 
the troubadours ceased to exist, the " courts 
of love " were closed, the sentiment of the 
troubadour poetry was no longer enjoyed, and 
the excesses of the singers and poets were the 
things for which they were best or worst re- 
membered. Their followers, no longer having 
poetry as a veil and excuse for their peculiari- 
ties, became disreputable, and led a wander- 
ing, careless, and shifty life ; the sins of their 
masters were visited upon their devoted heads, 
and they became Ishmaelites against whom 
every man's hand was raised, and who had 
inclination but not power to lift hand against 
every man. They were no longer welcome 
for their skill at all times as heretofore. They 
were no longer free to enter the houses of the 
great and wealthy " without leave and license 
previously had and obtained," as they had 
been when in attendance upon some poet 
prince or troubadour sovereign. It was, how- 
ever, necessary that they should live, and 
those that did not become openly dishonest, 
" robbers on the king's highway with a gallows 
at the end of it," sought the means of liveli- 
hood in another sphere than that to which 
they had previously been always welcomed in. 
The love for music still existed among a lower 
class of people, and these gladly received the 
musicians and performers "whose strains had 
made many a gentle heart beat quickly," as a 
proof of their own elevation of taste in matters 
of courtesy and refinement. Gathering cour- 

age by the patronage bestowed upon them, 
and deeming it needful to "sort their humours" 
to those of the people for whose amusement 
they exercised their calling, they made a 
change in their programme and spoke out 
openly that which had hitherto been conveyed 
only through a delicate innuendo. Their suc- 
cess was complete, and to save the effect of 
troubles which might arise from an ungodly 
enterprise, they became apparently religious, 
placed themselves under the protection of a 
patron saint, Julien, Archbishop of Toledo, 
who after having led a life of vicissitude and 
vagabondage, died in 662, and became the 
tutelar protector of all vagabonds except- 
thieves — who were committed to the care of 
St. Nicholas. There was also another Saint 
who divided the honours of their devotions, 
Genesius, a comedian, who was martyred lor 
his Christianity at the end of the 4th century. 
Under the care of these two patrons, the musi- 
cians flourished, and in the year 1330, settled 
themselves in the good city of Paris, and 
formed themselves into a guild for mutual 
protection and support. The title by which 
they were enrolled was that of the "Com- 
pagnons, jongleurs, menestreux or menes- 
triers," and this title sufficiently indicated their 
position of companions, yokefellows, and ser- 
vants to the former troubadours. They had 
sufficient interest left with the friends and 
connexions of their old masters to obtain 
in November 27th, 1331, 
position ; and they lived 
together in one street, hence, called 5^. Julien 
des menitriers. To this quarter all had to 
come who desired their services, and as the 
minstrels became further encouraged, and in- 
creased in numbers they assumed a line of 
conduct which caused William de Germont, 
Prefect of Paris, to place various restrictions 
upon them, which were continued with ad- 
ditions and modifications by his successors. 

By a decree issued in the year 1393, the pain 
of imprisonment was visited upon all mem- 
bers of the guild who offended by reciting 
scurrilous and scandalous verses either in the 
streets or in the houses of those who hired 
them. This check caused a division of the 
society, the one part devoting itself to the 
practice of tumbling and rope-dancing — these 
were called baceleurs — the other carrying on 
the music-entertaining business — took to viol 
playing, and marked a certain progress in their 
art, by the introduction of bass instruments 
hitherto not used by them. They distinguished 
themselves by the title of " Menestrels joueurs 
d'instrumens tant haul que bas.'' By this 
name they were recognised by Charles VI., 
who gave them letters patent dated April 14th, 
1401. Armed with this document they elected 
a chief called " Roi des menestrels," and they 

"sealed letters" 
recognising their 

( 105 ) 


built and endowed a chapel in the Rue St. 
Martin, as much to conciliate the ecclesiastical 
powers, as to mark their attachment to religi- 
ous forms. They had a monopoly of all 
music in France, especially in Paris ; no one 
could learn an instrument without employing 
a member of the confraternity, no one could 
give a banquet of music without the leave and 
license of the Confrerie de St. Julien. Even 
the king, not to speak of the mayor of Paris, 
was compelled to be indebted to them for 
the after dinner amusement of his guests, 
as well as for the means of giving brilliancy to 
pageants, processions, and other state busi- 
nesses. The Confrerie were all -important in 
the matter of vocal and instrumental music; 
they had the monopoly of the court and mu- 
nicipal music of Paris until the reign of Louis 
XIV., who in 1658 was weak enough to confirm 
tJieir charter and privileges. These privileges 
must have been great, for they allowed the 
title of musician to be possessed by those 
who had funds sufficient to purchase fellow- 
ship in the guild: musical skill was of no 
import, for neither city or court cared for the 
performances of the Confrerie, though they 
were compelled to pay handsomely for that 
which they would rather have dispensed with. 
If the cultivation of true musical science had 
been the object in the maintenance of the 
guild, musical composition from the 14th to 
the 17th centuries would have been less of a 
puzzle and annoyance than it is ; but unfortu- 
nately for the body, in course of time, pressure 
from without was brought to bear, and the 
whole thing collapsed, though not without a 
struggle. From the date when attention was 
drawn to it for its inefficiency and incompe- 
tency, to the day when it finally ceased to exist, 
no less a period than 100 years elapsed. Louis 
XIV. in 1660 happened to hear a piece of 
music by a rising composer called Jean Bap- 
tiste Lully, and thinking that it was exactly 
the sort of lullaby or reveil he should like to 
hear performed in his own palace, desired to 
have it executed by his own court band, but, 
alas ! they were musicians only in name, and 
this little request gave them trouble. But 
they plucked up courage ; the king was in- 
formed that they held their places by prescrip- 
tive right, and as it had not been the custom 
for the " Musiciens du Roi," to exercise the 
art which they professed and were paid for, 
for many generations, the king's request was 
unreasonable and unconstitutional. The con- 
fraternity would still enjoy their privileges and 
emoluments and the king must go without his 
music. This he was not inclined to do ; he 
was therefore pleased to command and ordain 
that Lully should organise a band, himself at 
the head, and in order to avoid collision with 
the patent place-holders and privileged ineffi- 

cients, this new band of practical musicians, 
these four and twenty were to be called 
" Petits violons du Roi," the king's little 
fiddlers, instead of the king's musicians, a 
very nice and comforting distinction. By 
degrees the income arising from the property 
possessed by the confraternity of St. Julien 
was applied to a proper purpose, the king's 
chamber music was executed by legitimate 
performers, and the perverted association was 
finally suppressed in 1761, after four hundred 
years of profitable but comparatively useless 

Congregational music. Music in which 
the people or congregation take part, as op- 
posed to that which is sung by the trained 
choir alone. The plain-song of the Responses, 
Creeds, and of the Lord's Prayer ; and the 
melody of psalm and hymn tunes are con- 
gregational music, but services and anthems 
are specially set aside for performance by the 
choir, acting as it were as the skilled represen- 
tatives of the listening and meditating people. 

Conjunct, (i) One of the Greek systems 
of music. [Greek Music] (2) Conjunct motion, 
a succession of sounds proceeding by single 

Consecutives. A forbidden progression of 
parallel fifths or octaves, e.g. : 

Ex. I. I , , , 11 Ex. 2. 

Consecutive fifths. 

Consecutive octaves. 

Consecutives are considered to be saved, if 
they do not occur between the same two parts, 
as shown in the following (Ex. 3), which em- 
bodies the harmonic progressions of Ex. i : 








That consecutive fifths are often productive of 
an ugly and distressing effect, is not to be 
denied ; but their use when not objectionable 
seems to have been somewhat thoughtlessly 
forbidden by musical law-givers. The great 
masters not unfrequently use them with good 
results, as will be seen by the following ex- 
amples. (Stainer's " Treatise on Harmony.") 

Handel's " Solomon." 
Bach. " Motett," No. 2. "Almighty power." 

-^-u 1, 11 J-J-^ -/^-h — rrrn J J 

( 106 ) 


Mendelssohn's " St. Paul." Mendelssohn's '• St. Paul.'- 

" To God on high." " To Thee, O Lord." 


^- #-j J J J r^ 

Spohr's " The Last Judgment." 

Introduction to Part III. Haydn's Symphony, No. 4. 

-&ktir r r I p 




Mozart 's Symphony, No 4. 

Beethoven's Pianoforte Sonata, No. i. Op. 29. 

& — ^ ' r r-r-r— r * -'^^r -gz ^ r r ' 


It having been found by experience that the 
early attempts at harmony known as rfia/'Aonj' 
and organum, which consisted entirely of 
consecutive quarts, quints, and octaves, 
were remarkably unpleasant and barbarous, 
it is probable a reaction took place which led 
to the indiscriminate condemnation of con- 
secutive fifths. 

No satisfactory reason has yet been brought 
forward for the unpleasant effect of con- 
secutive fifths, but it is easy to see why 
consecutive octaves should not be allowed in 
pure part-writing. If in a duet, or trio, for 
instance, one part occasionally movesin unison 
or octaves with another, such a part is for the 
time wasted, and loses its power of forming a 
distinct melody or adding a real contribution 
to the harmony. But, on the other hand, 
any phrase, however short, may be legiti- 
mately enforced or strengthened by doubling 
at the unison or octave. Thus, the bass may 
be doubled by the left hand or the melody by 
the right hand, in pianoforte or organ music, 
and voices may join in unison whenever it is 
thought desirable. So, too, in writing for a 
full band, a theme or motive may be enforced 
by the combination of any instruments, at the 
unison, octave, or double octave; but, instru- 
ments playing in parts are not allowed to 
combine in such a manner unless for such a 

Consecutives are said to be hidden when 
the progression of two parts gives the im- 
pression that they have occurred, although 
they have not actually been written, e.g. : 


Ex. 4. 



Hidden fifths. Hidden octaves. 

They are to be discovered by filling up the 
interval of one of the parts with the interme- 
diate scale-series, e.g. : 



d^ * -"■ 

The law against hidden fifths and octaves has 
never been directed against the movement of 
inner parts, but only against that of extreme 
parts. But even this has been greatly relaxed 
in modern music, e.g. : 


F3 =g 


I I 

f^ V ' 


a ■ ^_ 



^- 1 




Consecutives are said to be "by contrary 
motion " when the parts forming them pro- 
ceed in opposite directions, e.g. : 

Schumann's " Luck of Edenhall." 

Consequent. Consequenza {It.) The 
answer to a fugue-subject or any subject 
proposed for imitation. [Dux.] [Guida.] _ 

Conservatorium {Lat.) Conservatorio 
(7^.) Conservatoire de musique {^Fr.) A 
public music school. 

The Italian academies or conservatories are 
the most ancient, and were formerly attached 
to hospitals and other benevolent institutions, 
and were intended for the education of the 
poor and fatherless, or orphans. Education, 
board and clothing, were dispensed without 
cost to both male and female pupils. The 
conservatorio at Milan was founded in 1808, 
and the advantages of the instruction of the 
professors is sought and obtained by many 
who are not eligible for the foundation, but 
who can obtain the benefit of a superior 
musical education at a small cost. 

( 107 ) 


The first school of the kind was estabhshed 
in France, in 1784, with the title of " L'ecole 
royalede chant etde declamation," A national 
institute was started during the period of 
the Revolution, to supply the want of musi- 
cians in the army; this institute became the 
present Conservatoire de musique, for the sup- 
port of which the government is charged with 
an annual sum of 140,000 francs. Many of 
the masters have been, and still are, men famed 
throughout the world for their practical skill 
and their success in teaching, and the text 
books used at the conservatoire are among 
the standard works of reference in their depart- 
ment. There are also establishments of a 
similar character at Brussels, Cologne, Prague, 
Warsaw, Vienna and Leipsic, the last named, 
established under the direction of Mendels- 
sohn, is held to be one of the best in Germany. 

Consolante (7;^.) In a consoling, comfort- 

mg manner. 

Consonance. Consonanz (Ger.) [Har- 

Consonant. Concordant. 
Consonant interval. [Interval.] 
Con sordini (It.) (i) With the mutes on. 
(2) With the soft pedal at the pianoforte held 

Consort, (i) A consort of viols was a 
complete set, the number contained in a chest, 
usually six. [Chest of Viols.] (2) The sounds 
produced by the union of instrumental tone. 

Consort, (i) To sound together, to form 
agreeable sounds by combination. (2) To 
form a concord. 

Con stromenti (7^.) With the instru- 

Continued Bass. [Figured Bass.] 
Continuo (It.) [Figured Bass.] 
Contours. Conteurs(7^r.) [Trouveur.] 
Contra (7^.) Against. In compound words 
this signifies an octave below, ^.o".; Contra- 
gamba, a 16 ft. gamba ; Contra-basso, a double 
bass ; Contra-fagotto, a double bassoon. 
Contra-bassist. A double-bass player. 
Contra-basso (7;^.) [Double-bass.] 
Contra-danza (7;^.) [Country-dance.] 
Contra-fagotto (7^) [Double bassoon.] 
Contralto voice. The voice of deepest 
tone in females. It is of a quality allied to 
the tenor voice in men, and the usual compass 
is within two octaves. The best notes of the 
range are between G or A flat below, and C 
or D above : 




The notes above these are of a somewhat harsh 
and forced character, those below of little musi- 
cal value. In most contralto voices there is a 
break varying between C sharp and A flat in 

the lower part of the register, and the careful 
adjustment of the two qualities of tone above 
or below this break is one of the chief qualities 
of good contralto singing. [Alto Voice.] 

Contraposaune. An organ stop of 16 ft. 
and 32 ft. pitch. 

Contrappuntista (7/.) A writer on, or a 
composer of counterpoint. 

Contrappunto (7^) [Counterpoint.] 

Contrappunto alia mente {It.) Im- 
promptu counterpoint. [Alia Mente.] [Chant 
sur le livre.] 

Contrappunto doppio (Jt.) Double coun- 
terpoint. [Counterpoint.] 

Contrapuntal. Belonging to counterpoint. 

Contrapuntist. A writer on, or a com- 
poser of counterpoint. 

Contr'arco (7^.) False or incorrect bowing 
on the violin, &c. 

Contrary motion. Melodies or chords 
proceeding in opposite directions. [Motion.] 

Contrassoggetto (7^.) [Counter subject.] 

Contra tempo (7^.) Against time, (i) The 
part progressing slowly while another is 
moving rapidly: 

(2) Syncopation. 

Contra-tenor. [Alto.] 

Contratone [Ger.) Deep tones of the 
bass voice. 

Contra-violone (7^.) Double-bass. 

Contre-basse [Fr.) Double-bass. 

Contre-danse {Fr.) [Country dance.] 

Contrepartie {Fr.) Counterpart, opposite. 
The entry of a second voice with a different 
melody, making harmony with the first. 

Contrepoint {Fr.) Counterpoint. 

Contrepointiste {Fr.) Contrapuntist. 

Contre-sujet {Fr.) [Counter subject.] 

Contre-temps {Fr.) Against time. Syn- 

Conversio {Lat.) Inversion. 

Convict of music. An institution for 
musical instruction in Leipsic ; from Lat. 
convictus (convivere), living together, social 
intercourse. [Conservatorio.] 

Coperto {It.) Covered, concealed. Tim- 
pani coperti, muffled drums; qttinti coperti, 
concealed fifths, hidden fifths. 

Copula {Lat.) In mediaeval music a free 
use of slurred running notes in descant. 

Copyright is the exclusive right or privi- 
lege of printing, or reprinting, publishing, oi 
selling his original work which is allowed by 
the law to an author. It is doubtful whether 
this is a right at common law, or whether 
(which seems the better opinion) it is merely 
the creature of legislative enactment. (See 
on this point the cases of Southey v. Sherwood, 

( 108 ) 


2 Mer. 435; Tonson v. Collins, i W. Bl. 301 ; 
Miller v. Taylor, 4 Burr 2303 ; Jeffreys v. 
Boosey, 4 H. L. C. 815.) By Statute 8 Anne, 
c. 19, § I, a copyright was given to books then 
printed for 21 years, and to authors and their 
assignees, an exclusive copyright for 14 years. 
By § 9 of the same statute, another similar 
period was given, at the expiration of 14 years, 
if the author was then living. This Act 
was extended to the United Kingdon/ by 41 
Geo. Ill, c. 107. By 54 Geo. III. c. 156, § 4, 
authors and their assignees had exclusive 
copyright for 28 years from the day of publi- 
cation ; and, if the authors were living at the 
expiration of that period, for the residue of 
their lives. The present law of copyright is 
to be found in 5 and 6 Vict. c. 45, which 
amends the general law on the subject, re- 
peals the above - mentioned statutes, and 
extends the privileged period to the author's 
life and for 7 years after his death ; but if that 
period falls short of 42 years, then for 42 
years from the first day of publication. So that 
if an author outlives the 42 years after publi- 
cation, the whole term of the duration of the 
copyright will extend for that period of 42 
years, to which term may be added the years 
of the remainder of his life, and 7 years after 
his death. Thus the song " She wore a 
wreath of roses," published in 1828, will be 
copyright until the year 1894, because the 
author died in 1887, having outlived the 
ordinary term ; and the right will not expire 
till the 7 years after his death have elapsed. 

Copies of a publication may be used by the 
purchaser, but he maynot, without permission, 
multiply them either for private or public use. 
Copyright may be acquired in the adaptation 
or arrangement of old airs, or it may be 
assigned by written document. Original 
ownership of the right may be registered at 
Stationers' Hall. Copies of the registration 
are prima facie evidence of the right of repre- 

The owner of the right to publish is not 
always the owner of the right to perform the 
work published. This is one of the anomalies 
of the law which has led to much vexation. 
Formerly it was necessary to obtain the con- 
sent in writing of the owners of the acting 
right to avoid the penalties arising from un- 
authorised performance. 

By the Copyright (musical compositions) 
Act, 1882, no action for the recovery of 
penalties for unauthorised performances 
would lie unless it was expressly stated on 
the title page of the publication that all 
rights were reserved, and the name of the 
person is given to whom application should 
be made for permission to perform. 

In order to prevent misunderstanding, it is 
required to be stated that the work may be 

performed in public without fee or license ; 
that is to say, without payment or penalty, 
and without the consent of the owner, first 
obtained. This greatly mitigates the annoy- 
ance arising from unwitting infringement 
of performing rights ; and further, as many 
rights still exist, and the public generally 
does not always know to whom they belong, 
the Act of 1888, 51 and 52 Vict. c. 17, was 
passed. This states that " Notwithstanding 
the provisions of the Act of the session held 
in the third and fourth years of His Majesty 
Kmg William the Fourth, chapter fifteen, to 
amend the laws relating to dramatic literary 
property, or any other Act in which those 
provisions are incorporated, the penalty or 
damages to be awarded upon any action or 
proceedings in respect of each and every un- 
authorised representation or performance of 
any musical composition, whether published 
before or after the passing of this Act, shall 
be such a sum or sums as shall, in the dis- 
cretion of the court or judge before whom 
such action or proceedings shall be tried, be 
reasonable, and the court or judge before 
whom such action or proceedings shall be 
tried may award a less sum than forty shillings 
in respect of each and every such unauthorised 
representation or performance as aforesaid, or 
a nominal penalty or nominal damages as the 
justice of the case may require. The costs 
also shall be in the absolute discretion of the 
judge. The proprietor, tenant, or occupier 
of any place of dramatic entertainment, or 
other place at which any unauthorised repre- 
sentation or performance of any musical 
composition shall take place, shall not be 
liable to any penalty or damages in respect 
thereof, unless he shall wilfully cause or 
permit such representation or performance, 
knowing it to be unauthorised. 

" The provisions of this Act shall not apply 
to any action or proceedings in respect of a 
representation or performance of any opera 
or stage play in any theatre or other place of 
public entertainment duly licensed in that 

Cor (Fr.) A horn. 

Corale (It.) Chorale, hymn or psalm tune. 
[Hymn Tunes.] 

Cor Anglais [Fr.) Cotno Inghse {It.) 
English horn. A reed instrument of the 
hautboy character, possessing a compass of 
like extent but of lower pitch. Its scale is two 
octaves and a fifth from tenor E with the in- 
termediate semitones : 

E i =; g=i 

these being the actual sounds produced. The 
music for the cor Anglais is written in the 

( 109 ) 


treble clef, and the instrument transposes the 
sound a fifth below. Gluck introduced the 
instrument in his " Orfeo," Meyerbeer has 
made freouent use of it, and Rossini produces 
a fine effect in the overture to "William 
Tell "by means of its tone, but Beethoven only 
once employed it, — Mozart and Weber never. 

Coranach, Coranich, Coronach, Cronach 
(Gaelic.) The word for a funeral song among 
the Scotch Highlanders ; it is said to be de- 
rived from corahrainach a crying together. 

Coranto {It.) Courante (Fr.) Current tra- 
verse (OW £«^.) (i) An Italian form of the 
country dance. (2) A movement in a suite 
or sonata of the early writers. The following 
is given as an early specimen : 




J UJ^JjLL d-^ 

T r^rr 

^ r . J r 










4 ^ J. 










^' — ^I^^Ljfjzi i i 

4— i. 











i f=h^^^ir'g 




'■ I- ' 

f= r ^ 



Corda, sopra una (/^.) Swr U7ie corde (Fr.) 
A direction that the passage is to be played 
on one string. [A una corda.] 

Cordatura (It.) [Accordatura.] 

Cordax [Lai.) Knplal (Gk.) An ancient 
Greek dance of a wanton character, in the 
old comedy ; but sometimes danced off the 
stage by drunkards. 

Corde a jour) /t- n a 

Corde a vide} (^^•) An open strmg. 

Cor de chasse (Fr.) A hunting horn. 

Corde fausse (Fr.) A false string, [String.] 

Cor de signal (Fr.) A bugle. 

Cor de vache (Fr.) Cow-horn, used in 
many places abroad to call the cattle home, 
and formerly employed in England to rouse 
the labourers to their w^ork. 

" No more shall the horn 
Call me up in the morn." 

Corifeo (It.) [Corj^ph^us (i).] 

Cormuse. [Bagpipe.] 

Cornamusa (It.) Cornemuse (Fr.) [Bag- 

Cornare (It.) Corner (Fr.) To sound a horn. 

Cornet. Cornetto (It.) Zinken (Ger.) An 
obsolete reed wind-instrument not unlike a 
hautboy, but larger and of a coarser quality 
of tone. In this country they were of three 
kinds, treble, tenor, and bass. The tubes 
gradually increased in ■ diameter from the 
mouthpiece to the end, and their outline was 
gently curved, hence the Italian name cornetto 
ciirvo. In Germany, as in England, they 
were once in common use for sacred and 
secular purposes. They were often made 
of wood neatly covered with dark leather. 

2. A reed stop on the pedals of some Ger- 
man organs, of 4 or 2 feet in length. 

3. Mounted cornet. A solo stop on old 
organs, so called because it was placed on a 
separate sound board, and raised a few feet 
above the surrounding pipes, for the purpose of 
giving its tone special prominence. It con- 
sisted of several ranks of pipes, generally of 
five, namely, an open or stopped diapason 
(usually the latter), a principal, 12th, 15th, 
and tierce. Thus, if the stop were drawn, and 

( no) 


the finger held on middle C, the following 
-sounds would be heard simultaneously : 



Although these would of course combine 
into one, and not be audible as separate and 
distinct sounds, yet it may be supposed that 
such a combination of loud harmonics with 
a comparatively soft ground-note would pro- 
duce a most disagreeable and nasal tone. But, 
notwithstanding its unpleasant tiinbre it was 
a favourite stop in the last and in the early 
part of this century, and its general intro- 
duction into the best organs gave rise to a 
vicious and trumpery literature of " cornet 
voluntaries." The characteristic of these was, 
that while the left hand held down a soft 
chord on the choir organ, the right was en- 
gaged in passages, turns, shakes, and other 
musical capers, on the comet stop of the great 
organ. The usual compass of the stop was 
from middle C upwards, but sometimes it 
commenced at tenor C. A large number of 
cornet stops were removed to make way for 
the clarabella when first invented by Bishop, 
and better taste has so far ejected them that 
a specimen in good playable condition may 
be looked upon as a curiosity. 

4. Echo cornet. A stop often found in 
swell organs. Originally it consisted of the 
same series of ranks of pipes as the mounted 
cornet, but was always of a very small scale. 
But the name is now often applied to any small- 
scale sesquialtera or mixture enclosed in the 
swell box. 

5. Cornet-a-pistons. A modem brass instru- 
ment of the trumpet family, but having valves 
or pistons by means of which a complete 
chromatic scale can be produced. In propor- 
tion to the number of valves introduced into 
tube-instruments, the quality of their tone is 
deteriorated, but notwithstanding this loss of 
purity and brilliancy, the cornet is most useful 
and valuable for many purposes. It has been 
brought into discredit by being unwisely used 
in some orchestras as a substitute for its parent, 
the trumpet, with the grandeur of which it 
cannot compete. [Metal Wind-instruments.] 

Cornetto {It.) [Cornet.] 

Corno (It.) [Horn.] 

Corno alto (It.) High horn in B. 

Corno basso (It.) Low horn in B. 

Corno di bassetto (It.) [Basset-horn.] 

Corno di caccia {It.) [Caccia.] 

Corno Inglese {It.) [Cor Anglais.] 

Cornopean. [Cornet, § 5.] 

Coro {It.) [Chorus.] 

Cor omnitonique {Fr.) A horn on which, 
by the use of valves, a chromatic scale could 
be played. 

Corona (7^.) A pause. 

Coronach. [Coranach.] 

Corps de voix {Fr.) The quality or the 
fulness of the voice. 

Corrente (7^.) [Coranto.] 

Correpetiteur {Fr.) Correpetitore {It.) The 
instructor of the chorus ; one who teaches the 
choral body to sing their several parts by ear. 

Corti's organ. [Ear.] 

Coryphaeus {Lat.) Kofjv<paioQ {Gk.) (i) 
A leader or conductor of the dances or chorus. 
(2) An officer in the University of Oxford, 
whose duty it is to give instruction in music. 

Coryphee {Fr.) (i) A leader of the groups 
of dancers. (2) A female dancer. 

Cotillon {Fr.) lit. under-petticoat. A lively, 
spirited dance, originally performed by a male 
and a female, in which the latter alternately 
attracted and repulsed her partner. It was 
first called cotillon in the reign of Louis XIV. 
was expanded in its design by the French in 
the last century, and arranged for eight per- 
sons. It is now danced with any step by an 
unlimited number of dancers. When it is 
possible, chairs are placed round the room for 
the performers. " Each gentleman places his 
partner on his right hand. There is no rule 
that any particular figure shall be danced. 
The selection is left to the determination of 
the leading couple who commence the figure, 
which the other couples repeat in succession. 
In large parties of twenty-four or thirty 
couples, it is customary for two or more 
couples to perform the same figure at the same 
time. The constant variety of the figures 
enables each gentleman to dance with almost 
every lady." The figures from which a selec- 
tion is made are called the pyramid ; the two 
flowers ; the great bound and pass-under ; 
the cushion ; the round ; the basket, ring, 
and flower; the two lines of six; the coquette; 
la gracieuse ; the mirror ; the handker- 
chief; the star ; the cards ; the double 
moulinet ; the deceived lady ; the quadrille ; 
the two chairs ; the rounds multiplied ; the 
lancers ; the three chairs, &c. : the whole 
being more or less allied to the old-fashioned 
country dance. It is not at all improbable 
that the tune " Petticoat loose " given in the 
article, " Country dance," furnished the title 
to the Cotillon. 

Couac (7^.) An onomatopoeic word for the 
sound made by bad blowing on the clarinet, 
oboe, or bassoon. The quacking sound, the 
goose note. 

Couched harp. [Spinet.] 

Coule {Fr.) A glide, (i) Slurred notes. (2) 
A slide in dancing. (3) An ornament in 
harpsichord music; e.g.: 

Written. =z^$ 



( III ) 


Counterpoint. The term " counterpoint " 
in its broadest sense may be defined as " the 
art of adding one or more parts to a given 
melody ; " in its more limited sense as, " the 
art of harmonising a theme by adding parts 
which shall be in themselves melodious." The 
terms subject, melody, canto fermo, and theme, 
are synonymous. The comrnon definition of 
counterpoint as the " art of combining melo- 
dies " is not strictly logical, unless the word 
" melody " has a definition not generally ac- 
cepted ; because, distinct melodies are never 
given to the student to be combined by him 
unless they have been previously proved 
capable of combination ; and if a composer 
should attempt to combine two distinct 
melodies in accordance with the laws of 
strict counterpoint he will probably find it 
necessary to eliminate so much of one or 
both of his subjects that little real musical 
melody is left. The contrapuntist's notion of a 
melody is — a succession of sounds which 
does not infringe certain theoretical laws. No 
wonder then that authors who have bound 
themselves by the commands of counterpoint 
seem to have trodden in one almost identical 
path and to have added little that is valu- 
able to the literature of counterpoint. Those 
masters who have exceptionally combined great 
genius with a deep study of the art of counter- 
point, such as Bach, Cherubini, and Mozart, 
exhibit in their works more than any other 
authors do, with what beneficial results the 
laws of counterpoint may be purposely broken, 
for it cannot be denied that the first fact which 
startles, and shakes the faith of the student 
of counterpoint, is that the preaching and 
practice of contrapuntists are so thoroughly 
inconsistent. Their books consist of rules, 
their compositions of exceptions. But it would 
be dishonest to blink the fact that much good 
was for a time done by counterpoint, by elimi- 
nating crudities in harmony, by introducing 
an interesting rhythmical correlation of parts, 
and by opening to ingenious writers a large 
field for imitative construction of music at a 
time when the resources of key, modulation, 
form, and variety of tone in instruments, 
were greatly limited. Whether a course of 
study in counterpoint is not more interesting 
to the lover of musical history than beneficial 
to the gifted yoang composer, the reader may 
perhaps be able to judge for himself after 
reading the rules of the art and seeing the 
examples of its scope given below. 

Counterpoint is simple or double. There 
are five species of simple counterpoint. 

I, when the added part is note against 
note of the subject; 2, when the added part 
is two notes to one of the subject ; 3, when 
the added part is four notes to one of the 
subject ; 4, when the added part is in syncopa- 

tion to each note of the subject; 5, when 
the added part is free, or has a florid accom- 
paniment to each note of the subject. 

In the first species, note against note, in 
two parts, the following rules and regulations 
are to be observed : 

1. No discords are allowed. 

2. More than three consecutive 3rds or 6ths 

are forbidden. 

3. Consecutive 5ths and 8ths are forbidden. 

4. The fourth is to be considered a discord. 

5. No augmented or diminished intervals 

are to be used in the progression of the 
subject or counterpoint. The major 6th, 
major 7th, and minor 7th are similarly 

6. A tritone (or augmented 4th) should be | 

avoided, between the component notes ' 
of a chord and that which immediately 
follows it. 

7. False relations are forbidden. 

8. Of the three kinds of motion — similar, 

oblique, and contrary — contrary motion 

is to be preferred, 
g. Hidden fifths and octaves are forbidden. 
10. Unison between subject and counterpoint 

is forbidden. 
The first rule requires no explanation. The 
second is given to insure the independence of 
the counterpoint, as it is evident that if one part 
constantly follows another at the interval of 
the 3rd or 6th, it cannot possibly be said to 
form a separate melody. The third and 
fourth rules need no explanation. The fifth 
rule is saddled with many exceptions, as 
might be expected ; the major 6th and aug- 
mented 4th in ascending, and the diminished 
7th in descending, are tolerated. The origin 
of the sixth rule is to be traced in the difficulty 
of making dominant and subdominant har- 
mony succeed each other with good effect, 



is certainly unpleasant to the ear, whereas 


is certainly not so unpleasant, though equally 
forbidden by strict contrapuntists. The rule 
against false relations (7) is necessary in two- 
part writing, as it is impossible to introduce 
them with good effect. Such progressions as 
the following are palpably inadmissible : 






Rule 8 may be proved necessary on the same 
grounds as given in explanation of rule 2. 
Two parts cannot be forming separate melodies 

112 ) 


when moving in similar motion, much less 
can they be doing so in oblique motion, in 
which, one part stands still : therefore, contrary 
motion is preferable as probably leading to 
more variety. The law against the use of 
hidden fifths and octaves, includes under it the 
well-known contrapuntal rule : " do not proceed 
from an imperfect to a perfect interval by 
similar motion," the fifth and octave being 
the only perfect intervals admissible in two- 
part counterpoint of the first species. The 
presence of hidden fifths or octaves is dis- 
covered by filling up the intervals between 
the consecutive notes of each part with the 
intermediate degrees of the scale, thus : 








Hidden fifths. Hidden octaves. 

or where both parts move by a skip : 






The examples given throughout this article 
are taken from Fux, "Gradus ad Parnassum," 
1725, a work from which all later authors 
have borrowed largely, Cherubini and Ouseley 
not excepted : it is fair therefore to suppose 
that these specimens of counterpoint meet 
with the approval, if not the admiration, of 
modern expositors of the art. 





Canto fermo. 



-<s >^ 

The above is said to be " contrappunto sopra 
il soggetto." The following example has the 
same subject in the upper part, " contrappunto 
sotto il soggetto." 

Canto fermo. 

The second species of simple counterpoint 
is subject to the following rules and regula- 
tions : 

I. Of the two notes in the counterpoint, the 
first must be a concord, the second may 
be a concord or passing discord. 

2. Consecutive fifths or octaves on successive 

down-beats are forbidden. Some authors 
however admit the latter of these pro- 
gressions if the skip to the second note 
is greater than a third. 

3. Scale passages are preferable to broken 


4. The counterpoint may commence on the 

up-beat of the first bar. 

5. The cadence of the subject should be bar 

monised by contrary motion. 

6. The interval of a fourth may occasionally 

be used on the down-beat. 

7. A false relation is not avoided by the 

introduction of a passing note or passing 
A passing discord is a discord having a 
degree of the scale on each side of it, e.g. : 



The first rule therefore forbids a discord to be 
a skip. The second rule is to prevent the use 
of such progressions as the following : 

^ ^^^m 

The third rule strives to enforce independence 
of motion in the counterpoint, e.g. : 


In this example, the upper part is practically 
harmonised by the lower one, the first bar 
representing the chord of C, the next two bars 
a chord of G. Rules 4, 5, and 6, require no 
explanation. Rule 7 is to prevent the admis- 
sion of such passages as the following : 





The following are specimens of this species 








Canto fermo. 






Canto fermo. 














( 113 ) 



If counterpoint in triple time is used, the first 
minim must be a concord, the other two may 
be concords or passing discords as may be 
found desirable. 

The third species of counterpoint in two 
parts in which there are four notes to each 
note of the canto fermo, is subject to the 
following rules and regulations : 

1. The first note must be a concord, the 

second and fourth may be passingdiscords. 

2. The third note may sometimes be a pass- 

ing discord, but should be generally a 

3. The first bar may commence with a crotchet 

rest, if the note immediately after the rest 

is a concord. 
The cadence should be by contrary motion. 
There may be unison between counterpoint 

and subject, provided it does not occur on 

the first note of the bar. 

6. The tritone is to be avoided between any 

four notes of the counterpoint, unless 
they occur as an integral part of the scale, 
that is, having the next note of the scale 
on each side of them. 

7. Octaves and fifths between counterpoint and 

subject should not occur on successive 
down beats ; or between the third crotchet 
of one bar, and the first crotchet of the 
following bar. 
The cases in which the third note may be 
a discord (see 2) are of the following kind : 




The sixth rule is to prevent the use of such 
passages as the following : 



&:tz rrf-rf 

It will, however, be noticed that a passage 
almost similar to the above, occurs in the 
second of the two models given below from 
Fux. Rule 7 is constantly broken. Fux him- 
self gives the following as a specimen of a 
cadence in this species: 




gz^^zMJ^ EE^ ^Tf^p^^qp?? 













ffff . f p-f^gy^ 



The fourth species of counterpoint in two 
parts, is that in which the counterpoint though 
containing practically note against note of 
the subject, has each note bound into the 
following bar, or, syncopated. 

The following rules and regulations are to 
be observed : 

1. That which is incorrect " sine ligatura " is 

incorrect when " cum ligatura." 

2. It is necessary to begin on the up-beat. 

3. Syncopations may be concordant or dis- 

cordant, a concordant syncopation being 
one that is heard in both bars (half of 
each) as a concord : a discordant synco- 
pation one that is a concord on the up- 
beat, but forms a discord on the down- 

4. If necessar}', the syncopations may be 

relinquished for the space of two minims. 

5. The best cadence is formed by the suspen- 
sion 7 6 on the supertonic. 

Rule I is directed against such progressions 

as the following : 





For, tested by the omission of the ligatures, 
it appears thus : 


According to this rule the following passage 
is correct : 




122= =2 


-^■^^- r 

Although it seems to infringe rule 2 of the 
second species, and rule 7 of the third species, 
but without ligatures it becomes merely a 
succession of 6ths: 




The following are specimens of counterpoint 
of this species : 



( 114 ) 







V>: ^^ 







T — H — 


: =! s> 

When this species is used in triple time the 
second note of the bar may be a concord or 
passing discord, the third must be a concord 
bound into the next bar and forming a synco- 
pated concord or suspended discord. 

The fifth species of counterpoint, florid or 
figurate counterpoint, consists of a mixture 
of the various kinds just given, and so far as 
it proceeds in any one species, is subject to 
the laws and regulations of that species. 
Shorter notes may occasionally be used. The 
follo^ving are examples : 

^i--)j_^Jj .ij-H ?7J i jjrirr"^ 















I r I 


1 — ^^ 

— ^ 


(»v r ^ 

-; — ' — 1 




p^g j^^ 1 



W ' 



— ' — 

Counterpoint in three parts is, generally 
speaking, bound by the rules of its correspond- 
ing species in two parts. The additional part, 
however, makes the following rules necessary 
in the first species, note against note. 

1. Every chord should be a common chord, 

if possible. When not possible the chord 
% may be used. 

2. The third of the common chord should not 

be doubled. 

3. The term "chord |" includes under it the 
chord % on the supertonic, that is, the 
second inversion of the chord of the minor 
seventh, the root being omitted. As the 
old masters did not consider this chord a 
discord, the seventh of the root (third of 
the chord) is frequently resolved upwards 
by them. It will not be necessary to give 
specimens of counterpoint in every form 
of which it is capable, one example of 
each species will suffice, if the reader 
will remember that the canto fermo may 
appear in upper, lower, or middle parts. 
The student of counterpoint should refer 
toFux, " Gradus ad Parnassum" Vienna, 
1725, or to an English translation called 
" Practical rules forlearningcomposition," 
printed by Welcker, Gerrard Street, Soho 
(at the end of the last century), or to 
Cherubini's work (Novello, London). 
The second species of counterpoint in three 

parts contains one part having two notes 

to each note of the subject. 

1. A syncopation is allowed to take place 

immediately before the cadence. 

2. The third of the common chord should not 

be doubled. 
The following is a specimen of counterpoint 
of this species : 






Canto fermo. 







' I , J 




The third species of counterpoint in three 
parts contains one part having four notes to 
each note of the subject. A syncopation before 
the cadence is not permitted in this species : 



— M-J. 




Canto fermo 

— Gi 


A mixed kind of counterpoint, containing one 
part having two notes to each note of the 

( "5 ) 


subject, and another having four notes to each 
note of the subject, may be classified under 
this species : 




Canto fermo 

The fourth species of counterpoint in three 
parts contains one syncopated part : 



1-^ I 



^^Y ^-^ T^ 


Canto fermo. 


r-^r n 




The fifth species of counterpoint in three 
parts contains one figurate or florid part. It 
is unnecessary to give an example of this 

In counterpoint of four parts, the rules of 
two-part and three-part counterpoint are 
necessarily relaxed to some extent in the case 
of the inner parts, unless the inner parts consist 
of the canto fermo and the counterpoint spe- 
cially characteristic of the particular species 
to which the example belongs. 

The following rules and regulations apply 
to four-part counterpoint generally : 

1. In the first species, only common chords 

should be used, but the chord \ may oc- 
casionally be used. 

2. In every species, the different parts should 

be as much as possible equidistant. 

3. Two parts may occasionally cross each 


4. The laws against hidden fifths and octaves 

do not bind inner parts, and consecutive 
fifths by contrary motion are sometimes 
It will be sufficient if two examples of four- 
part counterpoint are given : 

(Second Species.) 






^ -4-. 











(Fourth Species.) 




^. I. 






,^ -^A-j_jr:j ^^44 ^-dA-A 


Counterpoint may be in 5, 6, 7, 8 or even 
16 parts, but enough has been said to give the 
reader an insight into its principles. 

Counterpoint (Double) has been well de- 
scribed as a " kind of artificial composition 
where the parts are inverted in such a manner 
that the uppermost becomes the lowermost, 
and vice versa." Or, in other words " the 
art of making melodies grammatically conver- 
tible at certain intervals." 

If the melodies are interchanged at the in- 
terval of an octave, the double counterpoint is 
said to be " at the octave," but if the inverted 
melody is transposed one note, the other 
melody remaining untransposed, the double 
counterpoint is said to be at the gth. Simi- 
larly, the double counterpoint may be at the 
loth, nth, i2th, 13th or 14th. But double 
counterpoint at some of these intervals im- 
poses such difficulties in the construction of the 
component melodies, that it is rarely met with. 
Double counterpoint at the 8th, loth and 
1 2th, are the kinds most commonly used, 
and shall be explained in order. It will be 
seen if the following passage : 


be inverted by playing the lowest line an octave 
higher, and the highest an octave lower, thus: 

■ ^ g? ;-^ 

fci^rziz z:^ 

that the intervals between the two parts have 
undergone an entire change, with the excep- 
tion of the octave which has become a unison. 
Thus the 2nd has become a 7th. 
,, 3rd „ 6th. 



We have above, then, a complete scheme of 

( 1^6) 


the changes intervals undergo by inversion at 
the octave. It is evident that the following 
rules must be observed : 

1. As the 5th becomes a 4th, and the 4th is a 

discord, the 5th must be treated as a 
discord, if used at all. As a discord, it 
may be prepared, or treated as a passing 
' discord. 

2. The octave must be approached by a single 

degree, not a skip, in strict style. 

3. As it is usual to place the upper melody an 

octavelower, leavingthe lower unchanged, 
the interval of an octave between the two 
parts must not be exceeded, otherwise the 
object of inversion will be lost, e.g. : 

Ex. I. 




will become 






In the first and third bars of Ex. 2, no 
inversion has taken place. If melodies are 
framed with the intention of altering the pitch 
of both when inverting them, this rule does 
not of course hold good, e.g.: 





4. The melodies should be different in style, 
and one should commence on the up-beat. 
The following is an example of double 
counterpoint at the octave, from Fux : 



-r * * 




* * 



g,- I rO 

-f-— f^ 




Inversion (transposed). 












-^^— st 



If we wish to discover the changes inter- 
vals undergo by double counterpoint at the 
loth, we can, as before, write them out thus : 




c >^ - 


I. Consecutive loths become consecutive 
unisons, e.g. : 



Will become 
when inverted 


and consecutive 3rds become consecutive 
octaves ; e.g. : 


■^n S- 


Will become 
when inverted 



V r 

Both consecutive loths and 3rds must there- 
fore be avoided. 

2. Consecutive sixths become consecutive 
fifths ; they therefore must be avoided, e.g.: 




W^ijl become 
when inverted 



3. The suspension 4 3 becomes a 7th 
resolved wrongly ; e.g. : 



Will become 
when inverted 



4. The interval of a tenth between the 
upper and lower melodies should not be 
exceeded, for the reason given in rule 3 of 
double counterpoint at the octave. 

The following example is from Cherubini : 




— "^ — ^-^ 







( 117 ) 
















The subject of the above may also be 
written in the third above and the counter- 
point in the octave below, throughout ; or 
again, the counterpoint may be written in the 
third below, and the subject in the octave below. 
The following example, from Fux, shows how 
the same counterpoint may be used at the 
same time, at the octave and the tenth, each 
counterpoint being correct when taken se- 
parately : 


^ ^^^ ^^ 



-J*— • 

1 — ^ 



Counterpoint at the tenth. 


' ^tT^J ^ 



'gr- af- 

^-^H-J ^ 




Double counterpoint at the I2th is much 
less hampered by the change of intervals than 
many other species. 

I. The 6th becomes the 7th, if therefore 
introduced, it must be as a discord in 
the lowest part, e g. : 


J 1 

y — •^ 

/() -- - ^ 

^j SI V 

W — r-r r H 

will become when i 


nverted : 


A — 

1 1 1 

\S\) ^. .<^ * _ 

\ ■-J -rj J 1 


■a^- ^^ 

1 '- - 

1 1^ 

^— ^ 

or, a sequence of prepared sevenths. 
2. The final cadence will require special care 
in its treatment. 
The following is an example of this species: 



^ j r^ 



i I 






Counterpoint at the Twelfth. 





Interesting examples of combinations of 
counterpoints at the loth and 12th are to 
be found in Fux. 

Counterpoints, Triple and Quadruple, 
as their names show, are the due construction 
of three or four melodies respectively, in such 
a manner that thev can be interchangeable 
without involving the infringement of the 
laws of musical grammar. It will be evident, 
on consideration, that the octave is the only 
feasible interval at which counterpoints of 
this class can be made, unless indeed one or 
more free parts, that is, parts not forming 
interchangeable melodies, are added. The 
following is an example of triple counterpoint, 
written out in full. Of course three sentences 
at least will be required for the exposition of 
triple counterpoint ; four sentences for that 
of quadruple : 



^ Sfg- 

jS (=2- 



::g i J: e »^ i£gte g^ 












W. — — - 




■a — f:^ 


The following example of quadruple coun- 
terpoint is from Zimmerman : 

-^ • TTT 

I g 

J , A 



( 118) 







p-3 — D 



-i ; 

T±^ 1 





^ ^^ 






— K . — ^ ^-*: ^^.^ ^ 1 •■■<: 


^ - ^ ^ 


1 \ 1^_, [__L|_^_^ ' _ " 

It is perhaps necessary to warn the lay 
reader against the confusion hkely to arise 
between the terms two-part, three-part, four- 
part, counterpoint ; and double, triple, and 
quadruple counterpoint. The former refers 
only to the number of parts added to a given 
subject, and such parts need not necessarily 
be interchangeable ; whereas, the essence of 
the latter is that in each case all the parts 
must be capable of substitution one for the 

Occasionally, specimens of quintuple coun- 
terpoint are to be met with, but they may 
be looked upon more as curiosities than as 
substantial additions to the musical art. 

Counter subject. [Fugue.] 

Counter tenor clef. The C clef placed 
upon the third line of the stave for the use of 
counter tenor or alto voices, the viola, &c. : 

Counter tenor voice. The old name for 
the alto voice. [Alto voice.] 

Country Dance. Contre-danse (Fr.) Con- 
tradanza [It.) A rustic dance, of English 
origin, in which performers were arranged 
face to face, " one set against another," and 
performed certain prescribed figures. The old 
method of dancing the " country dance " was 
to place the ladies and the gentlemen in two 
parallel lines, the former on the left, the latter 
on the right, facing their partners. All advance, 
then retreat, during the fiist four bars of the 
music, then cross to opposite places, then 
advance and retreat, and then re-cross to 
original places. Each of these movements 
should occupy the time of four bars of music. 
The lady who stands at the top, and the 
gentleman whose place is at the bottom, 
advance towards each other, courtesy and 
bow, and return to their places. The gentle- 

man at the top and the lady at the bottom do 
the same. Then the first named couple ad- 
vance once more, give right hands and swing 
quickly round each other back to places. This 
figure is repeated by the other couple. The 
lady at the top then advances, gives her right 
hand to her opposite partner, and passes be- 
hind the two gentlemen standing in the places 
next to him : then, through the line and 
across it, giving her left hand this time to her 
partner, who meets her half way between the 
two lines, having passed behind the two ladies 
next to his partner's place. The lady then 
passes behindthe two ladies nextin the line, the 
gentleman moving in the like figure behind the 
two gentlemen next lowest, and so on, all 
down the line. At the bottom the lady gives 
her left hand to her partner, and they pro- 
menade back to their former places. Then 
the top couple come forward, courtesy and 
bow, the lady turns to the right, the gentle- 
man to the left, each followed by the rest of 
her or his line. Top couple meeting at the 
bottom join hands and raise their arms to 
form an arch for the other couples to pass 
under, until all have reached their places ex 
cept the top couple ; these having become the. 
bottom couple, repeat the figure from the 
beginning until they have worked back to then- 
original places at the top of the lines, and 
then the dance is ended. Such is a general 
description of a dance which under various 
titles has been popular in England for centu- 
ries, has been adopted by other nations, and 
revived from time to time with a few modifi- 
cations under the several titles applied to it by 
the people from whom it was last taken. Thus 
it has been called " contre-danse " and is 
erroneously said to be French ; and when it 
has been named " coranto " it has been sup- 
posed to be Italian. 

John Stafford Smith, in his Musica Antiqua, 
quotes a dance tune which he copied from a 
MS., now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, 
the date of which is probably about the year 
1300. The tune is in | time, in three sec- 
tions of nine bars each, and notwithstanding 
the fact that it has one more bar in each 
section than the majority of tunes employed 
as country-dance melodies, can be danced to 
without difficulty or sense of inconvenience. 

Country Dance Tune, about 1300. 








( "9) 




w-t-w-j , * - v 


T^^-^ m' "» 










^ • *- — -w—- — w- 






It is unnecessary here to enlarge upon the 
popularity of dancing, throughout all ages; a 
reference to Strutt's " Sports and Pastimes," 
and to Chappell's " Popular Music in the 
Olden Time," will satisfy those who are curious 
as to details. It may be here stated that the 
old poets and dramatists, from the time of 
Chaucer and later, have frequent allusions to 
the custom, and make mention of many 
dances by name without giving descriptions, 
so that it may be inferred that their allusions 
point to practices in their time so popular 
that particular description was not deemed 

One of the old English names for rustic 
dances was hey digyes or rounds. 

" While some the rings of bells and some the bagpipes 
Dance many a merry round, and many a hy degy." 

Drayton's " Polyolbion," Song xxv. 

The " Hay," or " Raye" as it is also called, 
is probably the same as the " hey digyes." It 
was danced by many, forming a line or a 
circle, and the direction was to "wind round 
handing in passing until you come to your 

" The Have," a Countrie Dance, 1678. 








I . 














i— ?— ^: 









I^TTffff ^^^ ^^'itJ..N ' l j^ 

..4- A 





r r J 
















"Dargason" was another name given to 
the country dance years before the time of the 
Reformation. Ritson in his Ancient Songs 
classes it as belonging to a very early period. 
Mr. Chappell quotes the tune in his " Popular 
Music," p. 65, and it is of the rhythm common 
to many country dance tunes : 


-g^-i"— *- 
















The same character of tune which suited 
the country dance was also used for the reel, 
the round, the morris-dance, the jig, and 
hornpipe, all of which are offshoots from the 
one original stem. Those among these dances 
now performed by one or at most two dancers, 
were not always so done, the reel was often 
"four or eight handed or even general," 
the jig and hornpipe were also dances for 
many. • The two last named probably derived 
their title from the instruments employed as 
accompaniments, the usual accompaniment 
to most country dances was anciently the 
fiddle, in German Gcf^^; or, pipe and tabour. 
There were many other names given to the 
country dance in successive ages, and the 
variety of the titles has led many writers into 
the belief that there were as many dances as 
names. The allusions found in the writings of 
the poets and dramatists have, to a certain ex- 
tent, increased the confusion in the minds of 
readers, and commentators not deeming the 
subject worthy of the consideration it deserves, 
have often by wrongly directed notes and 
glosses, made matters in a worse condition 
than that arising from original error. Sir John 
Davies (i570-i626)in his poem "Orchestra" is 
clearer than other authors on the subject. He 
identifies rounds, corantos, measures, &c., 
with country dances. His description of a 

( 120 ) 


country dance, to be found under "Brawl," 
is almost the same as that given above, which 
is the process of performing the country dance 
to this day. He calls a " measure" " a round 
dance for ever wheeling," and implies that " as 
men more civill grew, they did more grave 
and solemn measures frame" out of the primi- 
tive country dance. The " galliard " " a swift 
and wandering dance with passages uncertain 
to and fro, yet with a certain answer and 
consent." Thecoranto or "current traverses" 
in which he says of the dancer : 

" Everywhere he wantonly must range 
And turn with unexpected change " 

All these forms are but slight variations of the 
simple original, and as it is admitted that "no 
rules have ever been laid down for the com- 
position of a country dance, nor is it indeed 
confined to any particular measure ; so that 
any common song, or tune, if sufficiently 
rhythmical may by adoption be made a country 
dance," the diversities oi tempo in the several 
melodies, of the coranto, rondo, galliard, and 
measure ought not to be taken as a proof of 
a distinct character of dance. 

In the rustic dances the motion was rapid, 
but when people of less humble condition 
deigned to adopt them, they varied the figures, 
made the motion more dignified, and giving 
a new title to the old diversion, created a 
certain amount of confusion in the minds of 
interested posterity. The "stately measure, 
the graceful minuet, and the courtly quadrille" 
are each and all country dances, and people 
of all conditions have indulged in the pastime 
they offer. Mr. William Chappell ("Popular 
Music in the Olden Time," p. 626) shows 
that country dances were popular at court in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and succeeding 
reigns. The custom of dancing the ancient 
English country dance was kept up at court 
during the reign of George III, as many news- 
papers and other records show. Thus, in the 
" Universal Magazine," for June, 1784, we 
read : "June 4th, the anniversary of the King's 
birth-day, the drawing-room broke up about 
half-past five, when their majesties returned 
to the Queen's palace to dinner ; and at about 
nine in the evening there was a grand ball, 
which was opened by the Prince of Wales, 
who walked the first minuets with the Princess 
Augusta .... The country dances began a 
little before twelve, and continued till past 

It has been mentioned above that the 
rhythm of country dance tunes is various, 
some are in triple and some in duple mea- 
sure. Among the most popular airs employed 
for the dance, those called " Sir Roger de 
Coverley," the "Tank," the "Triumph," 
"Gee ho, Dobbin," "Merrily danced the 
Quaker's Wife," "Petticoat Loose," "Gossip 

Joan," " The Devil among the Tailors," " Moll 
in the Wad," and the "Wind that shakes the 
Barley," are still popular : these are all dif- 
ferent in accent and measure, yet all serve the 
purpose of the dance. It matters not whether 
the time be |, V' !» or | ; all that is necessary 
is that the strains should be in four or eight bar 
phrases to accompany the several movements, 
and every need is satisfied. 

" Roger de Coverley." 

' — 1 — \ — t T ' 




"The Tank." 




'The Triumph." 

53^-1^ ^ ^^ =^ 





I 121 ) 




" Geb ho, Dobbin." 

~* J 9 

j-^— k- 











^ - ^- ,1^-^-:^ 






* f * 



V . J. 





m m W 


J.. V . J- 

^ f ^' 


^ I N I 

-5- -•- -•• -^- 

" Merrily danced the Quaker's Wife." 

z ^ ^ ^ r -*- 4 r r~r-^^ h>- *-f-f i r • r 

^=^^|^^| 5 = ^ =§E^ 







TT-i — y 

4 •.,-*- • b^ 



'l t-^»- 


1 ^ 

" Petticoat Loose." (Macfarren's Harmony.) 

P# ^^4'3 ^g ^y5 ^^^ 







J5]j >i 

^» j:t p '^-g_^ 



^• g^'^ pE^ 

ir^'m m U- 


" Gossip Joan." 


^- ^--L [f^J - J4-| 



ji ' [^ 

^'i.('- ^ |^"i^"^=H.g-^j>Y^^fr^ ^ 

f ^ h 



T^ r 



, !^Vf- T'TT ?^ 

^'* V IP^ 



I' , 1 1 



J^J J J J|j ^ 

Si g 




r r 





r>ii I 

T ' 

T — T 



" The Devil among the Tailors." 



g^^^ rzTJffl^ fi:^-^^^^ 


-^^ ^=^^= %=i=j'^ 



r r '- ^ 11 ^ ['i f^h 

^J J i J i f^^-^f ^ ^^Tj; 

f 122 ) 


f^=^^^fz rl ^^ ^^^ 



W^- T^ ^'^=^^^=^^=^=^ 






"Moll in the Wad." 

^=,a= ^- -^-A^=^^f^=^=j=^ 






J^^J N 

i^ r=T^F^ 







" Rolling in the Dew." 


r.-» — a - 


Jg , ^ 




Country dances when imported into othei 
nations have become as popular as at home. 
The Italians, in 1740, were said to be "fond 
to a degree " of them, and about the same 
period in Paris, "no kind of dance was re- 
ceived with so much favour as they." Dancing 
masters vied with each other in devising new 
combinations of figures, and musicians of the 
common order provided original or borrowed 
tunes for the dance, many of which were pub- 
lished in single sheets with such titles as "La 

Neiie.ChartreSjCountredanseparMr. , M*''^- 

de Danse, prix 4 s. la feuille ; a Paris, ches M. 
de la Chevardiere, M'^- de Musique, rue du 
Roule a la Croix d'or ; M'^^- Castagniere, rue 
des Prouvaires, avec privilege du Roy." 

These publications consisted of four pages. 

the first occupied with the title, as above; the 
second containing a description " des figures 
de la contre danse; " the third diagram-plans 
of the said figures, and the fourth the music, 
which in the instance quoted above, is as 
follows : 

fS^^^^ ^ i^^3^3n7Q^ 

















Sfe Syg fn^FLiai^ fUljlJ 




- Jill J i JJ- W_*. Ill 

F=?=^?= ^ 

p ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ 

wfj^^^^ ^^^m^^^m 

V V r 

^ ^^fl ^fgEr fe ^a ^ ^f 













The following diagram from the above work, 
shows the various figures of another dance, 
the black marks representing the position of 
the men ; the white marks, that of the women ; 
the arrow-heads, the direction in which they 

( 123 ) 


Description des Figures de la Contredanse. 

1. La grande cliaine, nn denii tour. 

2, 3. La poussette dcssiis, et dcssons, et la pirouette d 
chaqne bout. 

4. Autre J tour de chaine, la poussette, et la pirouette 
au bout. 

5, 6, 7, 8. Gager d'une place sur le cote; deux se 
tenant les tnains passcnt en dedans et les deux autres en 
dehors, continuant d passer de cette maniere ^fois,jusqu''d 
scs places, faisant deux balance d chaqne place, 

9. La chaine des dames sur les cotes. 

10. Un tour allemande en pirouettant. 

11. Refaire la chaine des dames. 

12. Un tour d'allemande. La Main. 



Des Figures de la Contredanfe 

4^.^=^ A^^==^ 

^ y. 



^ , 



^ xa 


The subjoined is the melody to which it 
was danced : 

"La Nouvelle Societe," Contre-danse Allemande. 

|-^^v^-j j ?^|g^^^ ^^ ^ | 








2 fois la rep. du majeur en rondeau, et deu.\ fois chaque rep. du 

Coup d'archet {Fr.) Stroke of a bow. 

Couper le sujet {Fr.) To abbreviate or 
curtail a musical subject or theme. 

Coupler. The mechanism which connects 
pedals with the manuals; or, different manuals 
together. [Organ.] 

Couplet, (i) Two lines in rhyme, which 
contain a complete sentence. (2) A verse of 
a song. (3) Two notes occupying the time of 
three, e.g. : 

■ ^^j=f^= 


Courante {Fr.) [Coranto.] 
Couronne {Fr.) The name for the sign 
of a pause /^ . 

Courtaut, Cortaud, Corthal. An ancient 
instrument of the bassoon kind. [Bassoon.] 

Covered consecutives. Hidden consecu- 
tives. [Consecutives.] 

Covered strings. Strings of silk, wire, or 
gut, covered with a fine wire by means of 
a machine, by a process technically termed 
string-spinning. Covered strings are used for 
pianofortes, violins, violoncellos, guitars, &c., 
the wire covering,by adding weight and strength 
to the string, makes it slower of vibration, 
while, on the other hand, it is more elastic 
than an uncovered string of the same diameter. 

Cownterynge yn songe {Old Bug.) In 
Lat. concentus or accentus, singing an accom- 
paniment to a tune. [Descant.] 

Cracovienne. [Polacca.] 

Crackle. A direction in lute playing, thus 
explained by " Maister " Thomas Mace, 
1676: "To crackle such three part stops is 
only to divide each stop, with your thumb and 
two fingers, so as not to loose time, but give 
each crotchet its due quantity." [Arpeggio.] 

Credo {Lat.) One of the movements in 
a mass. [Mass.] 

Crembalum. [Jew's Harp.] 

Cremona, (i) A violin made in the town 
of Cremona. (2) A reed stop in the organ 
A corruption of the word Krummhorn. 

( 124 ) 


Cremorne (Fi^.) [Krummhorn.] 

Crepitaculum or Crepundia (Lat.) An 
ancient instrument of a character like the casta- 
nets, but with sound produced more by friction 
than striking. [Castanets, Bones, Knicky- 

Crescendo (It.) Increasing, a gradual 
increase in the force of sound expressed by 
the sign — =miI3!) or the abbreviation cres. 
The sign was first employed in England by 
Matthew Locke, in 1676. 

Crescendo Zug (Ger.) The swell box in 
the organ. [Organ.] 

Creticus {Lat.) A metrical foot consisting 
of one short syllable between two long - - — 

Croche [Fr.) A quaver J*", the hooked 
note. [Nomenclature.] 

Croma (It.) A quaver J* 

Cromatico (7^.) Chromatic; as, /w^a cro- 
matica, a chromatic fugue ;/rt«^asm cromatica, 
a chromatic fantasia, &c. 

Crom horn. [Krummhorn.] 

Crooks. Short tubes, either straight or 
curved, adapted for insertion between the 
mouthpiece and the body of the horn, trumpet, 
or cornet-a-pistons, for the purpose of altering 
the key. [Metal wind instruments.] 

Crotalum {Lat.) KporaXov {Gk.) A rattle, 
or clapper, used sometimes to mark the 
rhythm of dancing, in the worship of Cybele. 
They were generally made of wood, having a 
loose piece hinged about midway, so that, 
when shaken in the hand a clattering noise 
was produced, called by the Greeks TrXarayr]. 

Instruments of this kind were in use among 
the ancient Egyptians, as the following illus- 
tration shows: 

Crotchet. A note lone-fourth of the value 
of a semibreve. [Nomenclature.] 

( 12.5 ) 

Croupeza, KpoviveCo., KpovwaCo., Kpovwnva, 
KpoxiTTETa {Gk. from Kpovu), to knock, strike). 
High wooden shoes worn by flute-players or 
others, with which the time was marked by 
striking with the foot ; c.f. Lat. scrupedas, 
women who wore high-heeled boots. 

Crowd, Crwth. An ancient instrument, 
like a viohn, with six strings, four of which 
were played upon by a bow, and the other 
two played, or plucked with the thumb, as an 
accompaniment. The neck had a hole, through 
which the player thrust his hand, so that he 
could only command the notes lying under his 
fingers. [Violin.] 

Crowle. An early form of the word corolla 
[Lat.) a crowd, q.v. 

C Schliissel [Ger.) The C clef. 

Cum sancto {Lat.) A portion of the Gloria 
in the mass. [Mass.] 

Cue. A catch word or phrase. The last 
notes or words of other parts inserted as a 
guide to singers or players who have to make 
an entry after rests : 

Tenor. I I I I I 






upright on an heap. 

And the depths were con 

Cupo {It.) Darkly, mysteriously. 

Currende {Ger.) Children carol-singers. 

Cushion-dance. An old English round 
dance, in which each woman selected her 
partner by placing a cushion before him. 
Taylor, the Water Poet, calls it a " pretty 
little provocatory dance," for that reason. 
There was a dialogue carried on, according 
to the description given in the " Dancing 
Master" of 1686; and the note appended to 
the same description points — perhaps unwit- 
tingly — to the probable origin of the dance : 
" Note. The women are kissed by all the 
men in the ring at their coming and going 
out, and likewise the men by all the women." 
Therefore, it is not at all unlikely that the 
Cushion-dance was the *' Kissing dance." 
One of the tunes to which it was danced is 
subjoined, and another melody is printed in 
Mr. Chappell's " Popular Music," where it 
is shown that the dance was also called a Gal- 
liard. [Cotillon.] [Country Dance.] 

Cushion Dance. 















g * 




Custos {Lat.) (i) The chief of a college 
of minor canons. (2) A direct, the sign ^ or 
V> placed at the end of a line or page to show 



the position of the first note of the line or 
page following. 

Cyclische Formen. Rondo forms. [Form.] 
Cymbalista. A cymbal player. 
Cymbals. Cymbahim (Lat,)Kv^ifia\ov (Gk). 
Musical instruments of percussion, consisting 
of two metallic basins, which are set in vibra- 
tion by being clashed together. The shape of 
cymbals varies, from that of the actual form 
of a cup or basin to an almost flat plate. The 
following illustration shows those used by the 
Assyrians. It will be remarked that the lower 
basin is held in a stationary position, while the 
upper one is dashed on it. 

Fig. I. 

The Hebrews had two kinds of cymbals 
mentioned by name in Psalm cl. 5, " Praise 
Him upon the loud cymbals ; praise Him 
upon the high-sounding cymbals." The Ara- 
bians have two sorts at the present time, 
the larger they use in their religious cere- 
monies, but the smaller are rarely used but 
for the purpose of accompanying the dance. 
In India cymbals are used called talan, and a 
smaller sort called kintal. An illustration of 
Indian cymbals is given : 

Fig. 2. 

The Burmese instruments of this class are 
of the true basin shape, as shewn in the 
following : 

Fig- 3- 

A pair of ancient Egyptian cymbals are in 
existence; they are about five inches in 
diameter, and are made of a mixture of 

copper and silver, and in outline are identical 
with those now used by modern Egyptians. 

As has been the case with other musical 
instruments, the name cymbal has been ap- 
plied in various ways. At one period the 
Italians called a tambourine by this name, 
and at another a dulcimer. As the harpsi- 
chord was the actual outgrowth of the dulci- 
mer, the harpsichord came to be called 
cembalo, a word still to be found occasionally 
affixed to the pianoforte part of full scores. It 
is probable that the peculiar clang produced 
by striking the wire strings of a dulcimer with 
a wooden hammer gave rise to the associa- 
tion of the name cymbal with dulcimer. 

In modern military bands cymbals are used 
in the ancient manner. One plate is held in 
each hand of the performer, and the sound 
is produced by clashing the plates together. 
In the orchestra of the concert-room, one 
plate of a cymbal is attached to the upper 
side of the rim of the big (upright) drum, and 
the other held in the left hand of the drummer. 
The tone produced by the beating of these is 
largely increased in power and depth by the 
connection with the drum. Very small cym- 
bals were introduced by Berlioz, tuned a fifth 
apart, as an orchestral instrument, but have 
not come into common use. Small cymbals 
are sometimes attached to the fingers and 
are hence called finger-cymbals : 

Fig, 4. 

These naturally became associated with 
castanets; and they have also found their 
way into the rim of the tambourine, of which 
instrument they form an important element. 

It should be stated that cymbals are not 
struck together, actually face to face, for by 
so doing not only would the free vibration of 
the plates be very much arrested, but they 
would in all probability be split by the blow. 
Turkey is still celebrated for its manufacture 
of cymbals and other instruments of percus- 
sion, and exports them in large quantities to 
all parts of the world. The exact composi- 
tion of the metal used in Turkey is not known 
to the manufacturers in other countries. 

Cypher-system. [Notation.] 

Czakan. A flute made of cane or- bamboo. 

Czardasch (Hnng.) [Chica.] 

Czimken (Polish). A dance similar to the 
country dance. 

( 126 ) 




D. (i) The first note of the Phrygian, 
afterwards called Dorian, mode. 
.(2) The second note of the normal scale C. 

(3) The scale having two sharps in its sig- 

(4) The name given to a string tuned to D, 
e.g., the third string of the violin, the second 
of the viola and of the violoncello. 

(5) The name of a clef in old mensurable 
music, D excellens. [Clef.] 

(6) Abb. for Discantus, Desstis, Destra, &c. 
Da ballo (It.) In dance style. 

Da camera (It.) For chamber use. In 
the style of chamber music. 

Da cappella (It.) In the church style. 

Da capo (It.) From the beginning. An 
expression first used by Scarlatti in his "Theo- 
dora." signifying that the performer must re- 
commence the piece, and conclude at the 
double bar marked " Fine." 

Da capo al fine (It.) From the beginning 
to the sign Fine. 

Da capo al segno (It.) Repeat from the 
sign (K) at the beginning. 

D'accord (Fr.) In tune. 

Dach (Ger.) Sounding-board. Resonance- 
body of an instrument. 

Da chiesa (It.) For the church. In the 
church style. 

Dachschweller (Qer.) Swell-box. 

Dactyl. A metrical foot, consisting of a 
long syllable followed by two short syllables. 

Dactylion (Gk.) An instrument invented 
by Henri Herz, for strengthening the fingers 
for pianoforte playing, [c./. Chiroplast.] 

Daina or Dainos. A term given to some 
little Lithuanian love-songs. 

Daire [Turkish). A tambourine. 

Da lontano (It.) In the distance, e. g., 
conii da lontano, horns heard in the distance. 

Dal segno (It.) To the sign (K). [Da capo.] 

Damenisation. The syllables da, me,ni, 
po, tu, la, be, which Graun employed for the 
notes of the scale in his vocal exercises. [Sol- 

Damp, to. (i) On instruments played 
by plucking the strings, as the harp, guitar, 
&c., to check the vibrations by placing the 
hand lightly on the strings. (2) To apply 
mechanical dampers. 

Damper, (i) Certain moveable pieces of 
mechanism in a pianoforte, made of wood 
covered with cloth, which, after the finger has 
struck the key and left it, immediately check 
the vibrations of the strings, and prevent that 
confusion of sound which would result if they 
were allowed to continue in vibration. (2) 
The mute of a horn, and other brass wind- 

Dampfer (Ger.)(i)Damper.(2)Violin-mute. 

Dancing. A graceful movement of the 
feet or body, intended as an expression of 
various emotions ; with or without the ac- 
companiment of music to regulate its rhythm. 

Dancing is mentioned by the earliest writers, 
both sacred and profane, as a constituent part 
of religious ceremonies. There are many in- 
stances named in the Bible, needless here to 
particularize, and the ancient Greek poets 
have abundant allusions to the practice in 
their writings. Homer mentions dancing and 
music at social entertainments; Aristotle tells 
of dancers who were able to express manners, 
passions, and deeds in rhythmical gestures ; 
Herodotus, Pindar, Athenaeus, and others of 
later date refer to the practice. Donaldson says 
that all ancient dancing was " either gymnastic 
or mimetic; it was gymnastic when intended 
merely as an exercise, it was mimetic when it 
was designed to express some mental feeling, 
or to represent by corresponding gestures the 
words of the accompanying chorus sung." 

Athenasus speaks of three divisions of the 
Greek dance : the Emmeleia (e^^iAtia), the 
Sicinnis (akivrig), and the Cordax (icop^a^); 
the first named from the melody played to it, 
the second from its inventor Sicinnos, and the 
third probably for the reason hereinafter ex- 
plained. The Emmeleia, the tragic dance, 
was a kind of slow dignified movement or 
ballet. The Sicinnis was of a grotesque 
character, and was performed with a peculiar 
shaking of the body and violent motion of the 
limbs. The Cordax was less decent in style 
than the last named. It was introduced into 
comedies, and was performed by actors assum- 
ing to be under the influence of wine. In 
addition to these there were the Pyrrhic or 
war dances, expressive of the pursuit and 
encounter of an enemy. 

{ J27 ) 


The Roman dances, at first connected with 
religious observances, became by degrees sepa- 
rated from them, and perhaps degenerated, as 
it was considered disgraceful for a free citizen 
to dance, excepting during devotional exer- 

The Almee, or dancing and singing girls 
of Egypt, the Nautch girls of India, perform, 
at feasts and solemn occasions, certain dances 
akin to those which formed part of the ancient 

There is ground for the belief that dancing 
was not discouraged among the early Chris- 
tians, and there are records showing continu- 
ance of the custom among the less orthodox 
sects at different periods of the history of the 

Dancing and pantomimic actions formed 
part of the amusements sometimes offered by 
the jongleurs, a body of the minstrel class ; 
their dancing often included acrobatic per- 
formances. The common dances, popular 
among the people in various European coun- 
tries, vary more in name than in character ; 
and as they are unquestionable legacies of 
heathen days, have been condemned from 
time to time by the more serious-minded. 

The force and original meaning of dancing 
is now lost sight of. It is not now regarded 
in the light of an act of worship, but is en- 
couraged only as a means of social enjoyment. 
The rude forms of dancing have been softened 
and polished during successive generations, 
their character changed, and their identity or 
connection with their origin disguised under 
modified motions. Each country in which 
dancing is practised has considered itself free 
to change the steps, arrangement, and signifi- 
cance of the dance, or to give preference to 
one portion of a complicated whole ; and such 
alterations have been accepted as new dances, 
when they are not really so. The German 
waltz, the French cancan, the English country- 
dance, the Spanish bolero, the South American 
chica, the Italian saltarello, the Hungarian 
czardasch, are all forms traceable to one 
source. The allemande, the brawl, the co- 
ranto, the fandango, the forlana, the gavotte, 
the hornpipe, the jota, the kalamaika, the 
loure, the measure, the minuet, the passecaille, 
the quadrille, the ringeltanz, the saraband, the 
tarantella, trenchmore, zapateado, &c., are 
only different names of the several motions of 
that called in England the country-dance, 
with such variations in melody and rhythm 
as would arise from the use of accompanying 
musical instruments more or less perfect in 
their construction, or on account of the speed 
at which they were danced, by which means 
a rapid triple measure may be made to seem 
duple measure. The advancing and retreat- 
ing in the various figures ; the embracing and 

unloosing, the stamping, shrieking, and sing- 
ing in some dances ; the " grand chain," or 
the galopade which generally marks the con- 
cluding figure of a quadrille, are merely mild 
versions of some of the several peculiarities 
of the ancient prototype. 

The Italians of the i6th century are cre- 
dited with the distinction of having invented 
that form of dancing known by the general 
term of ballet : they arranged the motions 
and gestures of the body in an expressive 
pantomime, and reduced the various actions 
to a series of well-defined and understood 
rules, so that the performers were able to 
impart to the spectators a perfect story with- 
out the aid of words ; but their claim cannot 
be upheld, as the like thing had been done 
by th^ Greeks ages before. 

The rhythm of the more important dances 
will be found described under their respective 

Darabooka or Darabukkeh. An Arabian 
drum ; the body, to which is attached a handle, 
is of hollowed wood. There are various kinds 
of this instrument. 

Darmsaiten {Ger.) Strings of catgut. 

Dash, (i) A line drawn through a figure 
in thorough-bass, showing that the interval 
must be raised one semitone, e.g. : 

(2) A line drawn through the duple time- 
sign, e.g., ^, implying a division either of 
measurement or of pace. 

(3) A short stroke placed above notes or 
chords, directing that they are to be played 

(4) In harpsichord music, a dash passing 
between two notes, called a slur, or coule : 



was thus played ; /(. ^^ 3^ 


Da teatro [It.) In the theatrical style. 

Dauer [Ger.) Duration or continuance of 
notes or sound. 

Daumen (Ger) The thumb. 

D dur {Ger.) D major. 

Debut {Fr.) A first appearance. 

Debutant, e [Fr.) A performer who ap- 
pears for the first time. 

Dec, abb. of Decani. 

Dec, abb. of Decrescendo. 

Decachcrdon {Gk.) An instrument with 
ten strings. 

Decani (Lat.) A term- used in cathedral 
music, to signify that the part so distinguished 
is to be sung by the singers on the dean's, or 
south side of the choir, in contradistinction 

( t2S ) 


to " cantoris " the cantor's or praecentor's 
side. [Cathedral Music] 

Deceptive cadence. [Cadence.] 

Decide (Fr.) Firmly, with decision. 

Decima {Lat.) A loth, an interval of a 
loth ; decima plena de tojtis, a major loth ; 
decima non plena de tonis, a minor loth ; 
decima quarta, a 14th or octave of the 7th ; 
decima quinta, a 15th or double octave; 
decima tertia, a 13th or octave of the 6th. 

Decimole. [Decuplet.] 

Decisio. [Apotome.] 

Deciso [It.) Determined, decided, with 

Decke (Ger.) (i) Cover, an upper or lower 
plate of a resonance boj^. (2) The cover of 
stopped metal organ pipes ; e.g.,liehlich gedeckt 
(or gedackt), the sweet toned stopped-diapason. 

Declamando (It.) In a declamatory 

Declamation. The proper rhetorical ren- 
dering of words set to music. [Recitative.] 

Decompose (Fr.) Unconnected, incohe- 

Decoration (Fr.) Signature of a piece of 

Decres., abb. of Decrescendo. 

Decrescendo (It.) Decreasing gradually 
the volume of tone. In.dicated in music by 
the abbreviations Dec, Decres., or the sign 

Decuplet. A group of ten notes played in 
the time of eight or four. 

Dedication. An address or inscription to 
a patron or friend, prefixed to a work. 

Dedications frequently form a valuable 
guide to the historian, as by them it can be 
ascertained whether the author designed to 
honour any special individual, or, in the case 
of early works, whether a production was 
issued at the " cost and charges " of any 
particular patron. 

Before the time when an author could 
command a large sale amongst the general 
public, it was not an uncommon practice to 
dedicate a book to one who had borne the 
chief expense in the production, and the 
ingenuity of the author was exercised in 
finding expressions sufficiently flattering in 
return for money expended or presented. 
The character of these addresses became at 
one time somewhat fulsome, as may be seen 
by the following, prefixed to Clifford's " Divine 
Services and Anthems:" London, 1663; the 
first book of its kind printed in England: 

" To the Reverend Walter Jones, Doctor in 
Divinity and Sub-Dean of his Majesties 
Chappel-Royal, &c. : 

" Sir, — Under your able patronage I have 
presumed to shelter this my weak endeavor, 
which if for no other reason than the wel- 
meaning devotion thereof, I was sure would 

not be unacceptable or troublesome to you. 
Be pleased therefore to intermit awhile those 
seraphical raptures, in the excellency whereof, 
and your thereto tuned piety, you are so 
famously happy. And vouchsafe an eare to 
the mean addresse of these rudiments (as it 
were) of Church Musick, which, like other 
perfections, hath suffer'd meerly through the 
peoples ignorance. To you therefore more 
especially doe I dedicate this essay, whose 
alone competent skill and judgement in the 
highest mysteries of this divine science, if it 
shall please you to descend and deign a 
favourable approbation thereunto, cannot but 
comand reception from others : since my 
knowledge at Oxford (improved further at 
London) of your eminency this way, cannot 
so far disoblige the world as not to believe 
you have the supreme mastery in religious 
musick ; by which, as you charm the soul, 
and all its affections, no doubt you can prevail 
upon and perswade publick acceptance. 

" I submit this piece in this (howsoever rude) 
manner to your judgement, having attempted, 
I hope something of tendency to the churches 
peace and harmony, whereof though I am a 
smal and an unworthy member, yet a mite 
even from such is justly expected : For 
higher works God hath fitted and prepared 
your most artfuU hand, and hath placed you 
in an orb from whence your melody (as of the 
spheres) of holiness and constant goodness in 
and for the church is universally heard with 
joy and delight. In which happiness, God 
Almighty long continue you here and late 
translate you to the angelical choire : So 
prayes, Reverend Sir, your most devoted and 
obedient Servant, James Clifford." 

Master Thomas Mace, in a more manly 
mood, dedicated his famous book called 
" Musick's Monument" (1676) to a higher 
power than a sub-dean, on the principle that 
a man's work should be " dedicated " to God, 
and only " inscribed " to a fellow-man. His 
" Epistle Dedicatory " runs as follows : — 

" To Thee, One-Only-Oneness, I direct my 
weak desires, and works ; please to protect 
both them and me ; for Thou alone art able 
(and none but Thee) to make us acceptable 
unto the world. 
"I am not of that Catholic belief 
(I mean the Roman's faith) who seek relief 
(At th' second hand) from saints ; but I thus take 
My freedom, and (sans complement) thus make 
My seeming bold address : not judging it 
A crime with Thee ; but rather count it fit ; 
Part of my duty call'd for, which I owe 
Unto Thy goodness ; therefore thus it show. 
I've wondered much to see what great ado 
Men make, to dedicate their works, unto 
High mortals, who themselves can no way save 
From the sland'rous tongues of every envious knave. 
Thou (only) art the able-true protector : 
Oh be my shield, defender and director, 
Then sure we shall be safe. 

( 129 ) 


Thou know'st (O searcher of all hearts) how I, 
With right-downright-sincere-sincerity, 
Have longed long to do some little good 
(According to the best I understood), 
With Thy rich talent, though by me made poor ; 
For which I grieve, and will do so no more, 
By Thy good grace assisting, which I do 
Most humbly beg for : Oh adjoyn it to 
My longing ardent soul ; and have respect 
To this my weak endeavour ; and accept 
(In Thy great mercy) both of it, and me, 
Ev'n as we dedicate ourselves to Thee." 

This is followed by " An epistle to all 
divine readers, especially those of the discent- 
ing ministry, or clergy, who want not only 
skill, but good-will to this most excelling-part 
of divine service, viz., singing of psalms, 
hymns, and spiritual songs, to the praise of 
the Almighty, in the publick assemblies of 
His saints ; and yet more particularly to all 
great and high persons, supervisors, masters, 
or governors of the Church (if any such 
should be) wanting skill, or good-will there- 

In 1713 Mattheson published a sonata 
" dedicated to the person who will best per- 
form it," and if it were necessary, many 
curious instances of remarkable dedications 
might be quoted to swell the list, but one only 
must suffice. There is extant a composition 
by Samuel Wesley, containing a series of 
intended violations of musical grammar, all 
of which are duly pointed out, and the whole 
is dedicated " without permission to William 
Horsley, Esqre., Mus. Bac, fifth and eighth 
catcher in ordinary and extraordinary to the 
Royal Society of Musicians." 

Deductio {Lat.) The succession of notes 
as they appear in their proper places in the 
hexachords, which are in consequence called 
prima deductio, secunda, &c., up to septima. 

Deficiendo (7^.) Gradually dying away. 

Degre (Fr.) Degree of a scale. 

Degree of a scale. A step in the tone- 
ladder; it may consist of a semitone, a tone, 
or (in the minor scale) of an augmented tone. 

Degree in music. The rank or title con- 
ferred by an University on a candidate who 
has matriculated, and passed through the 
necessary examinations. They are of two 
kinds. Bachelor in (or of) Music, and Doctor 
of Music. The latter is generally taken by 
bachelors of several years standing, but in 
special cases candidates are allowed (by a 
grace) to accumulate, that is, take both 
degrees at the same time. 

Dehnung (Ger.) Expansion, extension. 

Dehnungstriche (Ger.) A long stroke 
with the bow. 

Delassement (Fr.) A light trifling enter- 

Deliberatamente (7^.) Deliberately. 

Deliberato (7^.) Deliberate. 

Del, della, delle, dello {It.) Of the; e.g., 
sopra il soggetto della fuga seguente, on the 
subject of the fugue which follows. 

Delicato, delicatamente {It.) Delicately; 
delicatissimo, very delicately ; con delicatezza, 
with delicacy. 

Delicatesse {Fr.) Delicacy of performance. 

Delirio, con (7^.) With excitement, with 

Delyn {Welsh.) The harp. 

Demancher {Fr.) To cross hands, in 
pianoforte playing. To shift, in violin playing. 

Demande {Fr.) The subject, dux, or pro- 
position of a fugue. 

Demi-baton {Fr.) A semi-breve rest. 

Demi-cadence {Fr.) A half cadence, or 
the cadence on the dominant. [Cadence.] 

Demi-jeu (7^;'.) Half power. Mezzo forte, 
applied to organ or harmonium playing. 

Demi - mesure, demi-pause {Fr.) A 
minim rest. 

Demi-quart de soupir {Fr.) A demi- 
semiquaver rest. 

Demi-semiquaver. A note of the value 

of one-fourth of a quaver ^ 

Demi-soupir {Fr.) A quaver rest. 

Demi-ton {Fr.) A semitone. 

Demoiselle {Fr.) A coupler in the organ. 

Denis d'or. An instrument having a 
finger board like a piano, and pedals like an 
organ, capable of producing a vast number of 
different qualities of sound. It was invented 
in 1762 by Procopius Divis, in Moravia. 

Derivative, (i) The actual or supposed 
root or generator, from the harmonics of 
which a chord is derived. (2) A chord de- 
rived from another, that is, in an inverted 
state. An inversion. 

Des {Ger.) D flat. 

Descant, Discantus {Lat.) The addition 
of a part or parts to a tenor or subject. This 
art, the forerunner of modern counterpoint 
and harmony, grew out of the still earlier 
art of diaphony or the organum, of which it 
is necessary to give a slight sketch. 

Diaphony {diacpwria) signified in Greek music 
discordant sounds or dissonance (voces dis- 
crepantes vel dissonae), as opposed to sym- 
phony {(TvfKpm'la) consonance. But the term 
came afterwards to be applied to those first 
attempts at the harmonic combination of 
voices, and polyphony, which may be looked 
upon as the first life-pulse of modern har- 
mony. It is indeed strange that the term 
diaphony should have been selected for these 
early efforts, for, crude and painful as they 
are to our ears, they gave undoubted pleasure 
to those who first listened to them, who speak 
of their "melodise suavitas " and " dulcis 
concentus ; " moreover, diaphony was well 
known to signify dissonance, intervals beinj 

I 130 ) 


divided into symphonic and diaphonic, the 
former including 4ths, 5ths, and octaves (and 
their compounds); the latter 2nds, 3rds, 6ths, 
and yths. That they should not have called 
it " harmony" would not surprise us if they 
were only cognizant of the exact force of the 
Greek apfiovia, but it happens that Isidorus 
of Seville (in the 6th century), gives the 
following definition of harmony, " consonantia 
plurimorum sonorum et coaptatio," a defini- 
tion which so far diverges from that of the 
Greek, that it might have included all the 
efforts of the diaphonists, and indeed might 
almost pass muster as a definition of jnodern 
harmony. Why diaphony or the diaphonia 
cantilena was also called organum it is diffi- 
cult to say. A later explanation, namely, that 
it was because of a supposed similarity to the 
music of the instrument "organ" is plainly 
untenable (apte similitudinem exprimat instru- 
menti, quod organum vocatur) — ^J. Cotton in 
Gerbertus Script. II. 263. In time of Charle- 
magne the art of diaphony must have reached 
some degree of perfection, as it is certain that 
Roman cantors were called upon to teach 
certain French chanters the ars organandi, 
and pueri symphoniaci were part of the musi- 
cal staff of Vitalian at the end of the 7th 
century. The earliest forms of diaphony were 
of four kinds ; when the organum was added 
to the "principal" or subject throughout at 
the interval (i) of an octave, (2) of a fifth 
(3) of a fourth, (4) at an octave above and 

These species were combined in three or 
four-part music, thus presenting to the ear 
a simple succession of consecutives. It is 
unnecessary to give examples of each of the 
above : the following (from Gerbertus) will 
suffice as illustrations : — 



tris sempiturnus / \ 


PaX \ Fi 


y es \li 


Tu / tris sempiturnus / \ \ us. 


Pa/' \Fi 


/ \li 


Tu// \us. 

In the above S stands for semitone, T for 
tone. It is thus rendered by Gerbertus (De 
Cantu, &c., I. 112.) : 

Ex. 1. 

Tu Pa - tris sem - pi - turn - us es Fi - li - us. 

He also gives the following, but in old 
notes and clefs : 

Ex. 2. 


■G> (S =^^ 

Tu Pa - tris sem - pi - turn-us 

f? - — — — — 




^ — G> — es- 

-^ SP- 

Fi -li 

ITS <:i 

^ ^ 

The next example is from Kiesewetter 
(Hist, of Modern Music) : 


Ex 3. 


A ■ — 



^^ ^^ 



Sit glo - 

•^ -s>- 
ri - a 


- mi - ni in 

sae - 

cu - 


^- ^ 

r ^ ^ ^ 


— <&■ o ^f^r- 

-~r^ — 


i- ...... 

3 — — u 


lae - ta - bi - 

r.^ r.^ ^ 

-^ -Gf- -G>- 

tur Do-mi 


in - per - i 

■ bus 


• is, 


^ j^ ^ 

-^ — £? — ^^ ig> 

^ ^ 

<=• 1 


^- '-^ ^^ 



In another kind of organum, one voice held 
on a note like a drone while a second sang 
the tune. 

But the first step towards harmony was to 
allow the organizing voices to have a choice 
of intervals, instead of compelling them, as 
seen in the examples above, to move in 
parallel quarts, quints, and octaves. The 
following example (No. 4) is from Gerbertus : 

Ex. 4. 

ve - ne - ran - do pi - is. 


In the above it will be observed that several 
yrds are introduced ; the admission of this 
interval (both minor and major) into the list 
of consonances represents another forward 
movement in the art of music. But 3rds 
(and afterwards 6ths) were not allowed to be 
perfect, but classified as imperfect consonances, 
a title which to this day adheres to these 
beautiful intervals, although their superiority 
to 4ths and 5ths has compelled modern writers 
to call a 4th a discord, and to forbid consecu- 
tive 5ths as an abomination. Franco and 
Garland have a division of intervals which 
is interesting as marking the transition from 
the treatment of 3rds and 6ths as discords. 

( 131 ) 


and their present position in music. These 
authors (see Coussemaker, p. 49) classify the 
unison and octave as perfect consonances ; 
the 4th and 5th as middle consonances ; the 
major and minor third as impertect conso- 

The next important step in the progress of 
harmony seems to have been the giving due 
consideration to what we now term the rela- 
tive motion of the parts. In the early examples 
(i to 3) it must have been observed that there 
is nothing but similar motion ; in Ex. 4, 
oblique motion is mixed with similar; and 
next we find authors boldly laying down the 
law that when the principal (or melody) 
ascends, the added organum should descend, 
and vice versa (ubi in recta modulatione est 
elevatio, ibi in organica fiat depositio et e 
converso). This acknowledgment of the 
beauty and value of contrary motion must 
have given a new impulse to the art. Thus 
step by step did it grope its way, till in 
the nth century important treatises on it 
were produced, and there can be also traced 
that sure sign of a healthy circulation of 
thought, a marked partisanship of different 
and opposed systems. After this period, in- 
stead of the " principal " and its " organum," 
we begin to read of a " tenor " and its 
"descant," and by almost imperceptible de- 
grees the old system dies away as the new is 
grafted and feeds on it. It must not, however, 
be supposed that the successive changes in 
diaphony, above sketched, occurred in the 
exact order in which they are presented to the 
reader. Systems of art are never of sudden 
growth, they overlap each other; they perhaps 
grow side by side for years, perhaps for cen- 
turies, until those which have in them the 
smallest power of development decay, and 
leave the less-matured but better-constituted 
systems to survive, with fresh opportunities 
of thriving. 

Descant, Discantus (Lat.), may be said to 
have come into existence at the end of the 
nth or beginning of the 12th century. The 
word itself is thought by some to be merely 
a latinized synonym of diaphony ; others, 
among them Franco, considered it to be con- 
nected with de cantu, something framed on or 
growing out of a melody. Originally, as had 
been previously the case with diaphony, it 
consisted of two parts only, but later in its 
life developed into motetts and various other 
forms of composition. The real difference 
between diaphony and descant seems to have 
been that the former was rarely, if ever, more 
complicated than note against note, whereas 
descant made use of the various proportionate 
value of notes — " Discantus est aliquorum 
diversorum cantuum consonantia, in quo illi 
diversi cantus per voces longas, breves, vel 

semibreves proportionaliter adaequantur, et in 
scripto per debitas figuras proportionari ad 
invicem designantur " (Johan. de Moravia). 
It also included notes altered semitonally by 
accidentals, under which circumstances it was 
called musica ficta vel falsa, feigned or false 
music. This fact adds interest to a discus- 
sion which took place between M. Fetis and 
M. Coussemaker. The former taxed the latter 
with having misinterpreted his published 
specimens of diaphony, because, in it were 
introduced the tritone and the lesser 5th. 
M. Coussemaker's answer seems conclusive — 
it is to the effect that if the parallel motion 
of diaphony were consistently preserved, 
either such intervals must occur, or acciden- 
tally altered notes, outside the scale, must 
have been introduced : and such has not been 
proved to have taken place. 

The rules of descant are numerous, and 
they provided for the regular addition of one 
part to any other part according to the move- 
ment of the tenor. The particular interval 
by which the tetior proceeded, dictated to the 
descant its own progression. It would be 
useless to give the rules here, as they can 
only be mastered by the student who carefully 
reads the many treatises on the subject, so 
elegantly reprinted by the indefatigable M. 
Coussemaker (Script, de Musica Medii iEvi). 
The scope of these rules was from time to 
time expanded, and in a treatise of the 
14th century by Theinred, reprinted by 
W. Chappell (in the "Choir" newspaper of 
April g, 1870), the divergences of the later 
from the earlier systems are apparent. 

At this time, or even earlier, such expres- 
sions as cantus Jinmis and contrapunctus begin 
from time to time to be used, giving the first 
intimation of the art of adding counterpoint 
to a canto fermo, which was soon to supersede 
descant, as descant had superseded diaphony. 

Opinions have been divided as to whether 
descant was merely a form of regulated im- 
provisation, or whether it was a written art. 
In all probability, it grew from one state into 
the other. At first, without doubt, its rules 
were intended to direct a musician how to 
add "contrappunto alia mente ;" afterwards, 
when an interesting and successful descant 
had been framed, and perhaps often repeated, 
it would indeed be strange if the author had 
made no attempt to lengthen its existence by 
committing it to paper ; indeed, one sentence 
from Johannes de Muris substantiates the fact 
beyond dispute. He says, " Nihil enim pro- 
hibet in duobus cantibus simul esse cantantes 
plures, tam in tenore quam in discantu." It 
is inconceivable that a number of voices could 
be found to add descants impromptu without 
serious discrepancies. Descants were some- 
times sung without words. 

( 132 ) 


Descending. Passing from a higher de- 
gree of pitch to a lower. 

Des dur. (Ger.) The key of Dl7 major. 

Des moll (Ger.) The key of Dl? minor. 

Dessin (Fr.) The design or plan of a 

Dessus (Fr.) One of the old names for 
the treble or upper part in vocal music. 

Desto {It.) Sprightly. 

Destra [It.) The right, as mano destra, 
the right hand. 

Detache (Fr.) Detached, or staccato notes. 

Determinate {It.) Resolutely, definitely. 

Detonation {Fr.) False intonation. 

Detonner {Fr.) To sing out of tune : to 
sing harshly or coarsely. 

Detto (/^.) The same ; as, il detto voce, 
the same voice. 

Deutsche Flote {Ger.) The German flute. 

Deutscher Bass {Ger.) An instrument of 
the viol kind, with five or six gut-strings, 
midway in size between a violoncello and a 

Deuxi^me position {Fr.) (i) The second 
position or half- shift on the violin. [Shift.] 
(2) The second fret on a guitar. 

Development of a subject. The elabo- 
ration of a given theme according to the rules 
of art. [Sonata.] 

Devoto, Devozione, con (7^.) With de- 
votion, affection. 

Dextra {Lat.) The right, e.g., dextra 
manu, with the right hand. 

Dextrse tibiae {Lat.) Pipes held in the 
right hand ; generally, the shorter of the tibice 
impares. Hence, tibice dextrce seems to imply 
a pair of treble pipes ; tibice sinistrce, a pair 
of lower-toned or bass pipes. [Aulos.] 

Di (7^.) By, of, for, with. Di grado, by 
degrees; stromenti di fiato, wind instruments ; 
di chiesa, for the church ; di bravura, with 
bravura passages. 

Diagonal Bellows. An old form of organ 
bellows, the construction of which may be 
thus explained. 

When the bellows are empty, the top {a), 
which is moveable (being hinged at d), lies 

close to the bottom {c) which is a fixture, and 
the handle {b) with its levers are in the posi- 
tion described by the dotted lines. Starting 
thus, if the handle be pressed down, as it 
leaves the dotted line, the top (a) will ascend, 
and air will enter the bellows through the 
apertures e, e, e. When the handle, having 
reached its maximum depression, is released, 
the surface weights {f,f,f) exercise their in- 
fluence to restore the top {a) to its horizontal 
position ; but in the mean time, the valves 
{S^ Sf g) inside the bellows have fallen over 
the apertures {e, e, e), and prevented the egress 
of the air through them ; the air, therefore, is 
necessarily forced through z, the only exit left, 
into the sound boards below the pipes. It is 
evident from this, that during the time the 
handle is being pushed down, no air is being 
forced into the sound boards, because, the 
handle while being depressed negatives the 
effect of the surface weights. Hence, two 
diagonal bellows, at least, were absolutely 
necessary in every organ, whilst some had as 
many as 10, 12, or 14. The organ in St. 
Paul's Cathedral had originally 4 large dia- 
gonal bellows, measuring 8 feet by 4 ; and 
that in St. Sulpice, Paris, 14 diagonal bellows. 
This large number of bellows was sometimes 
arranged in a row, side by side, sometimes in 
two rows, one of which was placed over the 
other. In the latter case, ropes attached to 
the handles of those in the upper row allowed 
them to be blown from the same level as 
those below. Sometimes diagonal bellows 
were inflated by treadles, so arranged that the 
blower could easily step from one to another, 
whence the Ger. "Balgentreter," " Calcant." 
One of the chief defects in the diagonal bellows 
was its inability to supply wind of an uniform 
pressure. This arose from two causes : the 
first, because the sides of the folds as they 
turned inwards, changing from an obtuse to 
an acute angle, gave more pressure as the top 
of the bellows gradually fell ; the second, be- 
cause the surface weights would exercise more 
and more pressure as the top, starting from 
an inclined plane, approached the horizontal. 
i This defect was in time remedied by attach- 
ing to the rod {h) or end of the handle (6) a 
spring, whose tension was greatest when the 
top (a) was highest, and when therefore, as 
explained above, the air was least compressed. 
[For an account of Horizontal Bellows, see 
Organ, § 2.] 

Dialogue. A duet. 

Diana {It.), Diane {Fr.) An aubade, 

Diapason {Gk.) (i) An octave. [Greek 
music] (2) The name given in this country 
to the most important foundation stops of an 
organ, termed in other countries more properly 
Principal. There are two kinds of diapasons, 

( ^33 ) 


the open and stopped. Open diapasons on 
the manuals are nearly always of metal, but 
on the pedals are often of wood. Stopped 
diapasons were formerly, in most cases, of 
wood, but now are frequently made of metal. 
When two or more open diapasons are on the 
same manual, they are of different scales. 
(3) Fixed pitch ; normal diapason, a recog- 
nised standard of pitch. [Pitch.] 

Diapason cum diapente. The interval 
of a I2th. 

Diapason cum diatessaron. The inter- 
val of an nth. 

Diapente {Gk.) The interval of a 5th. 

Diapentissare [med. Lat.) To descant at 
the interval of a 5th. 

Diaphony. [See under Descant.] 

Diaschisma [Gk.),i(^f^a. An approxi- 
mate half of a limma. 

Diastema (Gk.) diaar-qfja. An interval. 

Diatessaron (Gk.) The interval of a fourth. 

Diatonic, (i) One of the three genera 
of music among the Greeks, the other two 
being the chromatic and enharmonic. [Greek 
Music] (2) The modern major and minor 
scales. (3) Chords, intervals, and melodic 
progressions, &c., belonging to one key-scale. 
A diatonic chord is one having no note chro- 
matically altered. A diatonic interval is one 
formed by two notes of a diatonic scale un- 
altered by accidentals. A diatonic melody is 
one not including notes belonging to more 
than one scale. A diatonic modulation is one 
by which a key is changed to another closely 
related to it. 

Diaulion (Gk.) ^lavXwy. An air played 
upon the aulos or flute during an interval in 
the choral song. 

Diazeuxis (Gk.) diai^ev^iQ. The separation 
of two tetrachords by a tone : opposed to 
synaphe {(7vra(l>y]), or the overlapping of tetra- 
chords. [Greek Music] 

Dichord. (i) An instrument having two 
strings. (2) An instrument having two strings 
to each note. [Bichord.] 

Di colpo (7^.) Suddenly, at once. 

Diecetto (It.) A composition for ten in- 

Diesare (7^.), Dieser (Fr.) To sharpen. 

Diese (Fr.) A sharp, ft 

Diesis (Gk.) ^leaic. Originally the name 
of a semitone, called afterwards a limma. In 
later writings, applied to a third or quarter of 
a tone in the enharmonic and chromatic scales. 
The modern enharmonic diesis is the interval 
represented by 125 : 128 ; that is, the difference 
between three true majorthirds and one octave. 

Dieze (Fr.) A sharp, ft 

Diezeugmenon. [Greek Music] 

Difficile (7^.) Difficult. 

Di gala (7^.) Merrily, cheerfully. 

Digitorium. The name of a small por- 

table dumb instrument, invented by M. Marks, 
for the purpose of strengthening and giving 
flexibility to the fingers for pianoforte playing. 
It consists of a key-board with five keys, kept 
in their places by springs of metal. 

Di grado (7^.) By conjunct intervals. 

Dilettante (It.) [Amateur.] 

Diludium. An interlude. 

Diluendo (7^.) Wasting away, diminish- 
ing ; decrescendo. 

Diminished. Made less, (i) Diminished 
intervals are those made less than minor, e.g. : 
Gft to Ft! is a diminished 7th, because 
G to F being a minor 7th, Gft to F contains 
one semitone less than the minor interval. 
Somie authors, however, apply this term in a 
manner liable to lead to much confusion, 
namely, to a perfect interval when made 
smaller by one semitone, and to an imperfect 
interval when made less by two semitones ; 
thus, according to them, C to G b is a dimi- 
nished 5th, but C to E bb or C ft to E b a 
diminished 3rd. [Interval.] (2) Diminished 
subjects or counter-subjects are subjects or 
counter-subjects introduced with notes half 
the value of those in which they were first 
enunciated. (3) A diminished triad is the 
chord consisting of two thirds on the sub- 
tonic, e.g., B, D, F in the key of C. 

Diminue {Fr.), Diminuito {It.) Dimin- 

Diminuendo (7^.) Decreasing in power 
of sound. 

Diminution. [Canon.] 

Di molto {It.) Very much ; as, allegro 
di molto, very fast. 

Din-din. An Indian instrument of the 
cymbal class. 

Di nuovo (7^.) Anew, again. 

Dioxia {Gk.) The interval of a 5th. This 
term was afterwards superseded hy diapente. 

Direct. A sign (av) placed at the end of a 
line or of a page of music, to indicate the 
note next to be sung or played : 





Directeur {Fr.), Direttore {It.) Director. 
Manager, guide, conductor of an orchestra. 

Direct motion. [Motion.] 

Dirge. A solemn piece of music, of a 
funereal or memorial character, so called from 
the first word of the Antiphon, " Dirige, 
Domine Deus meus, in conspectu tuo, viam 
meam." The office of burial of the dead was 
called in the Primer (cir. 1400) Placebo and 
Dirige, and in the Primer of Henry VIII. 
(1545) is called The Dirige. 

Diretta, alia (7^) In direct motion. 

Dis {Ger.) D sharp. 

Di salto (7^.) By a leap, spoken of melody 
progressing by skips. 

( 134) 


Discant. [Descant.] 

Discant-Geige (Ger.) An old term for the 

Discant-Schlussel (Ger.) The soprano 
clef. Descant clef. [Clef.] 

Discord. A chord which when struck or 
sung requires to be resolved into a concord. 

Discrete, con discrezione (7^.) Pru- 
dently, discreetly, with judgment. 

Disdiapason (Gk.) An interval of two 
octaves ; a 15th. 

Disinvolto (It.) Free, unfettered, natur- 

Disjunct motion. [Motion.] 

Dis moll (Ger.) D sharp minor. 

Disperato, con disperazione (7^.) De- 
spairing, with desperation. 

Dispersed harmony. Harmony in which 
the notes composing the chord are at wide 
intervals from each other : 





Fq =r=r 

Disposition. Arrangement (i) of the parts 
of a chord, with regard to the intervals between 
them ; (2) of the parts of a score, with regard 
to their relative order ; (3) of voices and instru- 
ments with a view to their greatest efficiency 
or to the convenience of their positions ; (4) 
of the groups of pipes in an organ, or of the 
registers or stops bringing them under control. 

Dissonance. Discord. [Harmony.] 

Dissonare (7^) To jar, to make discord. 

Distanza (7^.) Distance, an interval. 

Distinto (7^.) Clear, distinct. 

Dithyrambus (Gk.) A song in honour of 
Bacchus, from which arose the first dramatic 
representations in Athens. The choruses to 
the early tragedies were in dithyrambic form. 

Dito (7^.) A finger. 

Dito grosso (It.) The thumb. 

Ditone. An interval of two major tones. 
This interval exceeds the major third, which 
consists of a major and minor tone, and is 

Ditonus (Lat.) [Ditone.] 

Ditty. A short, simple air, implying or 
containing a moral application. The word 
is said to be derived from the Latin word 
dictum, and signified a saying or sentence, 
not always connected with rhythm or music. 

Divertimento (7^.) (i) An instrumental 
composition in several movements (six or 
seven) like a serenade or cassation. (2) A 

Divertissement (Fr.) [Divertimento.] 

Divisi (7^.) Divided. A direction that 
instruments playing from one line of music 
are to separate and play in two parts. The 
reunion of the parts into unison is directed 
by the words a due, e.g. : 

Viole. divisi. I | 

J *- 





Clarinetti a due 



Division. An elaborate variation for voices 
or instruments upon a simple theme ; a course 
of notes so connected that they form one 
series. Divisions for the voice are intended 
to be sung in one breath to one syllable. The 
performance of this style of music is called 
running a division : 



t^-T-t r'> r^r^rjf-rr 




Division viol. A violin with frets upon 
the finger-board. [Violin.] 

Divotamente, divoto (7^.) Divozione, 
con {It.) Devoutly, devotedly, with devotion. 

Dixieme {Fr.) The interval of a loth. 

D moll {Ger.) The key of D minor. 

Do. The first of the syllables used for 
the solfeggio of the scale. The note c, to 
which it is applied, was originally called Ut 
[Aretinian syllables], and is still called so in 
France. Its introduction dates from the 17th 
century. Lorenzo Penna in his " Albori 
Musicale," 1672, uses do for ut, and speaks 
of it as a recent practice. [Solfeggio.] [Nota- 

Doctor of, or in, music. [Bachelor.] 

Dodecachordon {Gk.) An instrument 
with twelve strings. 

Dodecuplet. A collection or group of 
twelve notes to be played in the time of eight. 

Doigte (Fr.) (from Doigter, to finger). 
Marking by signs or numerals the manner in 
which a piece of music should be played by 
the fingers. [Fingering.] 

Dolcan. [Dulciana.] 

Dolce. A soft-toned 8-ft. organ stop. 

Dolce {It.) Sweet ; dolce maniera, in a 
sweet style. 

Dolcemente, Dolcezza, con (7^) With 
softness and sweetness. 

Dolciano, Dolcino (7^.), Dulcan (Ger.), 
Dulzaginas {Sp.) [Dulciana.] 

( 135 ) 



Dolcissimo (It.) With the utmost degree 
of sweetness. 

Dolente, dolentemente, dolentissimo, 
con dolore, con duolo, doloroso (It.) In 
a plaintive, sorrowful style ; with sadness. 

Dolzflote (Ger.) The old German flute, 
with seven ventages and one key. 

Domchor (Ger.) The choir or body of 
singers in a cathedral church, usually consist- 
mg of boys and men. 

Dominant, (i) The fifth degree of the 
scale. [Harmony.] (2) The reciting note of 
Gregorian chants. [Chant.] 

Dominante (Fr.) Dominant. 

Donna, prima {It.) The principal female 
singer in an opera. 

Doppelbe {Ger.) A double flat, *?!?. 

Doppelflote {Ger.) An organ stop, con- 
sisting of wood pipes having each two mouths. 

Doppelfuge {Ger.) A double fugue ; a 
fugue with two subjects. [Fugue.] 

Doppelgeige {Ger.) One of the names by 
which the viol d'amour, q.v., is known in Ger- 

Doppelgriffe {Ger.) Double-stopping on 

A double sharp x.. 
A double beat or 

doppio niovi- 
doppio pedale, the 


a violin ; playing on two strings at once. 

Doppelkreuz {Ger.) 

Doppelschlag {Ger.) 
grace note. [Beat.] 

Doppio {It.) Double, 
mento, at double the pace 
pedal part in octaves. 

Dopo {It.) After. 

Dorian mode. [Greek Music] [Plain 

Dorien {Fr.) Dorian. 

Dot. (i) A point added to a note, or rest, 
which lengthens its value by one-half, e.g. : 
<^ . is equal to e:i ^ sis ; - . is equal to 

' ' ' 
•] 1 1 When a second dot follows the first 

(when the note or rest is doubly dotted), the 

second dot adds one-half of the value of the 

is equal to "^ s^i ^ ; 
A dot was called the 

previous dot e.g. : <ci . , 

» . . is equal to [* *^ q 

point of addition (punctus), hence a dotted 
note was called formerly a pricked note ; this 
expression must not, however, be connected 
with prick-song, which signifies written music, 
as opposed to music sung by ear. 

(2) When placed over a note, the dot is a 
direction that the note is to be played or sung 

(3) When two or four dots are placed in the 
spaces of the stave, on either side of two 
double bars, they are a direction to repeat so 
much of the music as is enclosed between them. 

(4) When placed under a slur, dots are a 
direction to play spiccato, that is, in violin 
playing, played by the same bow, but the bow 
must remain stationar}' between each sound. 
From violin music the term has been trans- 

ferred to that for the pianoforte, and sometimes 
for the voice. 

(5) A system of Tablature for wind instru- 
ments, the dot system. [Tablature.] 

(6) Dots were formerly placed over a note to 
show its subdivision into lesser repeated notes, 


would be equal to m ^ m 
— . ill) 

Double {Fr.) A turn : 





Double, (i) An old term for a variation. 
In some of Handel's harpsichord lessons, the 
variations of a theme are marked Double i, 
Double 2, &c. A variation on a dance tune 
is called a double. (2) The repetition of words 
in singing was also called the "doubles or in- 
geminations thereof." (3) An artist who 
understudies a part in an opera, that is, who 
prepares a part on the chance of the accidenta 
absence of the principal. (4) That which is 
an octave below the unison in pitch, e.g., 
double-bass , an instrument whose sounds are 
an octave below those of the violoncello ; 
double-bassoon, an instrument similarly sound- 
ing an octave below the bassoon ; double- 
diapason, an organ stop of i6-ft. pitch. 

Double action. [Harp.] 

Double backfall. An ornament in old 
music, e.g. : 


"• ^) J J 


Double bar. A sign formed of two single 
bars showing (i) the end of a piece, (2) the 
end of a movement of a work, (3) the end of 
a portion to be repeated, (4) the commence- 
ment of a change of key, (5) the commence- 
ment of a change of time, (6) the end of a 
line of words set to music, as in a hymn tune 

Double-bass. Violone {It.) Contre-basss 
{Fr.) The largest of the stringed instruments 
played with a bow. The strings are usually 
tuned a fourth apart to the following notes 
when three strings are employed : 


with the addition of the lower E : 

when there are four strings. The compass 
generally written for the instrument extends 
to the upper F : 

with every intermediate semitone from its 
lowest note. The actual sounds produced are 
an octave lower than written, hence the double 

( ^36 ) 


bass is sometimes called a transposing in- 
strument. The four-stringed double bass is 
more common abroad than in England, so it 
is not unusual to find passages written below 
the lower A, which a three-stringed bass per- 
forms on the octave above. Double notes are 
possible upon the instrument, but are rarely 
employed as they are ineffective. Continuous 
rapid passages are best divided between two 
instruments, but short quick runs are very 
telling especially when in unison or at the 
octave with the violoncello. Beethoven in 
the Pastoral Symphony takes his double bass 
down to C, an octave below the violoncello : 




a passage which is impracticable upon the in- 
strument as now generally constructed. 

Beethoven also wrote passages for the in- 
strument which, in his time, were considered 
too difficult for performance, and it was the 
custom for the players to " simplify" whenever 
his works were performed. But the improved 
skill of the players of the present time has 
justified the composer's foresight, and all the 
so-called difficult passages are given with 
ease and distinctness, even by the least dis- 
tinguished double-bass player in the orchestra. 
The bow employed is the only representative 
now in use of one of the primitive forms, and 
although it has the advantage of producing a 
thick, heavy quality of sound in slow move- 
ments, it is not always successful in eliciting 
an even tone in quick passages. 

The harmonics on the double bass are of a 
beautiful flute-like character, and have been 
made available by solo players in exciting 
wonder and admiration. 

The mute is rarely, if ever, employed, but 
the pizzicato on the instrument has a very 
fine effect, as in the overture to " Der Frei- 
schiitz," and elsewhere. 

The invention of the double bass is attri- 
buted to Gaspar di Salo, 1580; but as the 
members of the Confrerie de St. Julien were 
distinguished as players upon "high and low" 
instruments, it is probable that the reputed 
invention was after all only an improvement. 
The introduction of the instrument into the 
orchestra is due to Michael Monteclare, about 
the year i6g6. Before this time the Bass- 
viol or Viola da Gamba was the deepest-toned 
stringed instrument employed. The "Contra 
Basso di Viola," mentioned in the score of 
Jacopo Peri's " Eurydice," is held to have 
been a larger sort of tenor violin, less in size 
than a bass-viol, and not a double bass. 

Double Bassoon. The deepest-toned 
instrument of the Bassoon family. It stands 
in the same relation to the bassoon as a 

double bass does to the violoncello, that is to 
say, its sounds are actually an octave below 
those written. Its compass is 



that is to say, from the Bt? below CCC to 
tenor F. It forms, in the orchestra, a mag- 
nificent support to the wind band, but good 
players are not commonly to be met with, 
partly because the large size of the instru- 
ment renders it very unwieldy, partly on 
account of the fatigue which the performer 
necessarily must undergo. The common 
habit of replacing it by an ophicleide should 
be discouraged, as the quality of the two 
instruments differs greatly. 

Double beat. An ornament of old music, 
consisting of a beat repeated. 

Double bourdon. An organ stop of 32-ft. 
tone. On the manuals it rarely goes below 
middle C ; on the pedals it extends of course 
through the whole compass. It consists of 
stopped wood-pipes. It is found difficult to 
produce a pure tone in the longer pipes, as the 
first harmonic has a strong tendency to assert 
itself. [Bourdon.] 

Double chant. [Chant.] 

Double chorus. A chorus for two sepa 
rate choirs : the several themes may be dis- 
tinct, or so constructed that united they form 
one harmony. [Chorus.] 

Double counterpoint. [Counterpoint.] 

Double croche (Fr.) A semiquaver. 

Double demisemiquaver. A note whose 
value is one half of a demisemiquaver. 

Double diapason. [Double, § 4.] 

Double dieze (Fr.) A double sharp. 

Double drum. A drum with two heads, 
used in the bands of foot regiments, and being 
suspended from the neck of the player is 
struck with drumsticks held in the right and 
left hands. [Drum.] 

Double flageolet. A flageolet having two 
tubes and one mouth-piece, admitting of the 
performance of simple music in thirds and 
sixths, &c. 

Double flat. A sign ((?[?) used in music 
before a note already flattened in the signa- 
ture, which depresses the note before which it 
is placed another half tone. It is contradicted 
by a natural and a flat. 

Double octave. The interval of a 15th. 

Double pedal point. A portion of a 
fugue or melody in which two notes are long 
sustained, generally the tonic and dominant. 
[Fugue.] [Sustained note.] 

Double quartet. A composition for two 
sets of four voices or instruments soli. 

Double reed, (i) The vibrating reed of 

( ^37 ) 


instruments of the oboe class. (2) A reed- 
stop on an organ of i6-ft. pitch. 

Double relish. An ornament in old 

music : 



■ h I r • 

pi^y^^- X~r ^'j^ffTrrrfr^ ^ ^ 

Double root. [Extreme sixth,] 

Double sharp. A sign (x) used before 
a note already sharp, to indicate that it is 
desired to raise the pitch by a semitone. It 
is contradicted by a natural and a sharp. 

Double sonata. A sonata for two solo 
instruments, as pianoforte and violin, or two 
pianofortes, &c. 

Double stopped diapason. [Bourdon.] 

Double-stopping. The stopping of two 
strings simultaneously with the fingers in 
violin playing. The practice was first sug- 
gested by John Francis Henry Biber in 1681, 
in a set of solos for a violin and a bass : one 
of these pieces is written in three staves, two 
for the violin playing in double-stopping, and 
the third for the bass. He also in the same 
work suggests a varied tuning in fourths and 
fifths for the purpose of making the double- 
stopping easy. 

Double-tongueing. A peculiar action of 
the tongue against the roof of the mouth 
used by flute players, to ensure a brilliant 
and spirited articulation of staccato notes. 
The term is sometimes applied also to the 
rapid repetition of notes in cornet playing. 

Double travale. A direction in tam- 
bourine playing. [Tambourine.] 

Down beat. The first beat in each bar 
is so called, because in counting time the 
hand or conducting stick is allowed to fall at 
that place. 

Down bow. The bow drawn over the 
strings from the heel or holding part of the 
bow to the point ; the greatest power of tone 
in the strings is elicited by the down bow. 

Double trumpet. An organ reed-stop 
similar m tone and scale to, but an octave 
lower in pitch than, the 8-ft. trumpet. 

Doublette (Fr.) A compound organ-stop 
consisting of two ranks, generally a twelfth 
and fifteenth. 

Doucement (Fr.) Softly, sweetly. 

Doux (Fr.) Soft, sweet. 

Douzieme (Fr.) A twelfth. 

Doxology (Gk.) The hymn or song of 
praise — the Gloria Patri — used at the end of 
the Psalms in the Christian church ; also any 
metrical form of the same. 

Doxologia magna (Lat.) The version of 
the angels' hymn, "Gloria in excelsis Deo," 

sung at the celebration of the Holy Eucha- 

rist. The greater doxology. 

Doxologia parva (Lat.) [Doxology.] 
Drag. (i) An ornament consisting of 

descending notes in lute-music. (2) A 

rallentando (in old English church music). 
Dramma lyrica, or per musica (It.) 


Drammaticamente (/^.))In a dramatic 

Drammatico (It.) j style. 

Dreichorig [Ger.) The triple stringed 
grand pianoforte. A trichord. 

Dreiklang (Ger.) A chord of three sounds. 

Drei-stimmig [Ger.) Music in three parts. 

Dritta (7i.) Right; ;«a«o i^n'^^a, right hand. 

Driving notes. Syncopated notes. Notes 
driven through the ensuing accent. 

Droite {Fr.) Right ; as main droite, right 

Drone. (i) The monotonous bass pro- 
duced from the larger of the three tubes of 
bag-pipes. As there are no governing holes 
in the drone the sound it gives forth serves as 
a continuous bass to any melody ; the pipe 
second in size is tuned to give out the fifth 
above the drone ; and the smaller pipe, called 
the chanter, has ventages by which the melody 
is made. [Bagpipes.] (2) The chorus or 
burden of a song. 

Druckbalg (Ger.) A reservoir of wind, 
as in an organ, &c. 

Drum. An instrument of percussion, of 
cylindrical form, having discs of vellum or 
parchment at each end, so made that the 
discs can be tightenedor slackened at pleasure 
by means of braces acted upon by sliding 
knots of leather, or by the later application of 
screws. There are many kinds of drums : 
(i) The long drum, with two heads, held 
laterally and played on both ends with stuffed- 
nob drumsticks held in the hands of the per- 
former. (2) The side-drum having two heads, 
the upper one only being played upon by two 
sticks of wood ; the lower head has occasion- 
ally strings of catgut stretched over its surface, 
and then it is called a snare drum. (3) The 
kettle drum, always employed in pairs, (4) 
The bass-drum or grosse-caisse which is 
played with two sticks unless the player has 
to strike cymbals with his left hand. 

The drum is an instrument of Eastern 
origin ; it was employed by the Hebrews, 
Romans, Parthians, and other nations in 
religious dances, and as signals of war, and 
was probably first brought to Western Europe 
by the Crusaders or their followers. [Naker, 
nakeres.] [Kettledrum.] 

Drum-major. The name of an officer in 
the British army who is responsible for the 
instruction of drummers in the various roll- 
calls, and for the invention and construction 

( 138) 


of new beats, communicated by order of the 
major of the regiment to the drummers. The 
office does not appear to be older than the 
time of Charles II. There was formerly an 
officer in the Royal Household called the 
drum-major general, who granted licenses to 
other than the royal troops for the use of 
drums in their regiments. 

Drum slade. An old term for a drummer. 

D string. The third open string on 
violins, the second on tenors, violoncellos, 
and three-stringed double basses, the fourth 
on the guitar. 

Duan [Gaelic.) A verse, stanza. 

Due, a (It.) [Divisi.] 

Due corde (It.) (i) Two strings. A 
direction that the same note is to be played 
simultaneously on two strings of a violin or 
other instrument of its class. (2) A direction 
to cease holding down the soft pedal of a 

Duet. A composition for two voices or 
instruments, or for two performers upon one 

Duetto (It.) A duet. 

Duettino (It.) A little duet. 

Due volte (It.) Twice. 

Dul^aynas (Sp.) The name of a larger 
sort of oboe, or small bassoon, " Se usa 
un genera de Dul9aynas que parecen nues- 
tras Chirimias." — Don Quixote. As it is sup- 
posed that the instrument was brought into 
Spain by the Moors, the word may be derived 
from the same root as the Egyptian Dalzimr, 
both instruments being of the oboe or reed 

Dulcian, or dulcino (It.) The name of 
a species of small bassoon. [Bassoon.] 
[Dulciana.] [Dulfaynas.] 

Dulciana, A word now applied, in this 
country, solely to a soft and delicate-toned 
organ stop consisting of very small-scale 
flue pipes. Originally, a dulciana (dulcan, 
dulcian, dolcan, dolcin, or dulzain) was a kind 
of hautboy [Waits], and these terms are 
still found on some foreign organs as the 
names of soft reed-stops, as at Rotterdam, 
the Hague, and elsewhere, but in some cases 
the stop is not actually reed, but the pipes by 
their peculiar shape, narrow at the mouth and 
widening gradually towards the top, produce 
a reedy quality of tone. The dulciana stop 
was introduced into this country, or perhaps 
invented, by the celebrated organ-builder 
Snetzler. The first known specimen was 
included by him in the specification of the 
organ of St. Margaret's Church, Lynn, in 
1754. Stops of this class are universally 
used, and are of great utility. They are most 
commonly found on the Choir organ. 

Dulcimer. One of the most ancient mu- 
sical instruments, used by various nations in 

almost all parts of the world, and which, in 
shape and construction, has probably under- 
gone fewer changes than any other instrument. 
In its earliest and simplest form, it consisted 
of a flat piece of wood, on which were fas- 
tened two converging strips of wood, across 
which strings were stretched tuned to the 
national scale. The only improvements since 
made on this type are the addition of a series 
of pegs, or pins, to regulate the tension of 
the strings ; and the use of two flat pieces of 
wood formed into a resonance-box, for the 
body. The word dulcimer is probably con- 
nected with dolce, sweet, through the inter- 
mediate word dolciniela ; but the German 
name, Hackbrett (chopping-board), points to 
the manner in which it is played, the wires 
being struck by two hammers, one held in 
each hand of the performer. Perhaps the 
greatest divergence of form is to be seen in 
the Japanese goto, or koto, an illustration of 
which is now given : 

The next figure shows a dulcimer of 
Georgia : 

The Italians, who have ever been note- 
worthy for combining beauty with utility, 
have not failed to improve upon the original 
simplicity of the dulcimer, as the following 
illustration will shew : 

The form of the instrument given in the 
next figure, the dulcimer of Benares, suggests 

( 139) 


that it is not placed, for use, in the ordinary 
position r 

But, the fact which makes the dulcimer of 
the greatest interest to musicians is, that it 
is the undoubted forefather of our pianoforte. 
A modern grand pianoforte is, in reality, 
nothing more than a huge dulcimer, the 
wires of which are set in vibration, not by 
hammers held in the pianist's hands, but 
by keys : it is a keyed-dulcimer. 

It is remarkable that in the immediate fore- 
runners of the pianoforte (the spinet, harpsi- 
chord, &c.) the strings were plucked, so, the 
invention of "hammers" which constitutes 
the real difference between a pianoforte and a 
harpsichord, was in truth a return to a primi- 
tive type. 

At one period the dulcimer came to be 
called in Italy a cembalo, possibly from its 
" ringing " cymbal-like tone, hence the same 
term was afterwards bestowed upon a harpsi- 
chord {clavi -cembalo). In full scores it is not 
even now an unusual thing to find the piano- 
forte part marked cembalo. The dulcimer is 
much less commonly met with in England 
than formerly, but it is still to be heard in 
some rural districts, as the musical accom- 
paniment of a puppet-show. 

The following Swiss dance of the Canton 
of Appenzell, as arranged for a violin, dulci- 
mer, and bass (from a collection of Swiss 
songs, &c., Berne, 1826), will give a fair 
notion of the capabilities of the dulcimer : 



P » m -f- . f 

f rPT r i nirt:ffi^^^ 

h ?! * rj^* » f^ 

p^ ^ -^T^^^ 




,♦ • ^ 







[f^f^LAE Eg ^lEggi: ! 




Dump or dumpe. The name of an old 
dance in slow time with a peculiar rhythm. 
It is doubtful whether it was entirely " dull 
and heavy," or merely the slowness of the 
measure that made the title of the dance 
synonymous with wearisomeness, for Shake- 

( 140 ) 



speare makes Peter, in " Romeo and Juliet," 
say, "O play me some merry dump," which may 
either have been descriptive of the character 
of the dance, or it may be a humorous contra- 
diction in terms. Some authors have supposed 
that the dance is called dump from a trick of 
lute players who struck the open strings with 
the fist at certain marked intervals of the 

"My Ladye Carey's Dumpe." (cir. 1600.) 


^^^t=f=^r^^=^ . 




m t^iW^ 

































b : i h 






^- ^.g^g=^^ 





-«— •- 




$^ J » y 



Ji ^ 





^:p^t rfgS 




|jft»— * 



rn^*** >. 



:^:^;iM^^r- F-^^ E^^^=p 


i: ^ T ±±3 : 













(c;^ p- 


Duo (/^.) A duet. 

Duodecimole. A group of twelve notes. 

Duodecimo {It) The interval of a 

Duodene. A group of twelve notes suit- 
able for playing on ordinary manuals, with 
definite relations of pitch, arranged for show- 
ing relations of harmony and modulation, and 
for precisely fixing the theoretical intonation 
of any chords and passages without altering 
the ordinary musical notation, first introduced 
by Mr. A. J. Ellis, F.R.S., in the " Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Society," vol. xxiii. pp. 3-31, 
and subsequently more fully explained in an 
additional appendix (xix.) to his translation of 
Prof. Helmholtz's treatise " On the Sensations 
of Tone," 1875. The intention, construction, 
and notation of duodenes will be best under- 
stood from a brief account of their generation. 

Let C represent not only a note, but its 
vibrational number, in Roman letters indepen- 
dently of octave. Italic letters show octaves 
thus : C„, C,, C, c, c\ c", c'", where C is the 
lowest note on the violoncello. Let the fol- 
lowing letters and marks have the values 
written under them : 

op SP 4P Z C ^C 15P13.'-. 
8^ 4^ 3*-' 2^ 3^ 8 ^-^ 128 

Then JD, read " low D " = I? x |C = ^C 

t? t \ 

12 8 8 1 
135 30 


— 2 V 5 

— 3 -^ 3 

C==gA; t A, read "high A", = |i 

C=?^ C = 

C = 3 Dj .|. Al? read 

"highAflat-^IJxl^i x.c = 8C=|x 2C 
= II A, and so on. The exact pitch of every 

( 141 ) 


note in relation to that of C is therefore given 
by its symbol. 

The marks x quint, + major, — minor, 
I Greek minor, placed between two symbols, 
show that they form a Fifth ^, a major Third |, 
a minor Third ^^ or a Pythagorean minor 
Third |f, respectively, or their alterations 
consequent on changing either note by octaves, 
t Ej? G An harmonic cell, as in the mar- 


gin, contains C x G vertical, 

C + E and t Eb + G horizontal, and C — f E?, 
E — G oblique from bottom up to left, and 
hence all the elements of tertian harmony {i.e., 
excluding harmonic Sevenths) and its triads 
C -^- E — G major, and C — f Et7 -j- G minor. 
C is called the First, G the Fifth, E the major 
Third, and f E b the minor Third of the 
C cell. 

t Eb G An harmonic heptad, as in the 
t Ab C E margin, consists of two cells, 
F A the Fifth of the lower cell 
being the First of the upper cell. It contains 
four cell triads, major F-f-A — C, C-|-E 
- G ; minor F — f A b f C, C— f E P f G ; 
and two union triads, resulting from the 
union of the two cells into a heptad, major 
t A b + C — t E b. and minor A — C + E. 
It has therefore all the six consonant triads 
containing C, its First, and all the con-disso- 
nant triads containing two notes consonant 
with C and dissonant with each other (of 
which the trine f Ab + C + E must be noted), 
and hence all the elements of chord-relation- 

t B b D An harmonic decad, as in the 

t Eb G B margin, consists of two hep- 

t Ab C E tads (of C and G) having a 

F A common cell (of C), and 

hence contains three cells, having 3 major 

and 3 minor cell triads, and 2 major and 2 

minor union triads, and hence all the related 

elements of scalar harmony of Thirds, Fifths 

and Sevenths. The First of the central cell 

is called the tonic of the decad. 

A trichordal consists of three cell triads, 
selected one from each cell in a decad, form- 
ing 8 combinations of 7 notes, giving all the 
scales in use, with their harmonies, named by 
using }na, mi (with Italian vowels) for major 
and minor cell triads, and reading them in 
order from lowest to highest, thus — 

C. Mamama. 
B — D 1 F + A— C+E — G + B— D | F + A 

C. Mimima. 
B— DlF-fAb+C— fEb + G + B— DIF— fAb 
To show with what note the scale begins, 
change the m of the name of the chord con- 
taining it to p (for pxxmo), or t (for ^ertia), or 
qu (for qniniSi), as in C mapdma (ordinary 
major), C mipima and mapima (two ordinary 
forms of ascending minor), C mipimi (ordi- 

t f 


t B7 



t Eb 



t Ab 






nary descending minor), C mimipi (Helm- 
holtz's mode of the minor Sixth). Thus 56 
scales, including all the old ecclesiastical modes 
and their harmonies, may be succinctly de- 

t db 

t g^ 

t cb t Eb G B I djf 

tf b t Ab c E I gji 

bb td I fit 

An harmonic hepta-decad, as above, where 
the capital letters indicate the decad of C, and 
the small letters the newly-added notes, and 
the oblong contains the duodene of C, consists 
of seven decads, having for their tonics the 
notes of a heptad (of C in the example). It 
shows six new decads, of each of which the 
original decad forms the larger part, and hence 
constitutes the first step in a more general pro- 
cess of modulation, consisting of change into 
a related decad, and called decadation. The 
heptadecad introduces tetrachordal scales, with 
chords of the extreme sharp Sixth. The 
duodene represents a decad in the act of 
changing, by means of the two new notes 
(d b and f tf in example) called mutators, each 
forming part of two new decads. 

A duodene is, therefore, formed on any 
root (as C), by taking the major thirds above 
and below it (as E and fAb) to form the 
initial trine (as f Ab + C + E), and then 
taking two-fifths above, and one-fifth below 
each of the notes in that trine. It consists 
therefore of four trines of major thirds, and 
three quarternions of fifths, and has three 
tonics, namely that of fAb mapdma, that 
of C decad, and that of E mipimi. Its 
notes have a strict relation of pitch, and it 
contains no interval less than the small 
semitone or low sharp, || (as f A!? to A). 
But if the trine above, asff+fa-t-cft were 
introduced, two intervals of a comma |J (as 
f to f f, and a to f a) and one of a diaskhisma, 
|g|| (almost exactly lo-iiths of a comma, as 
c Jt to db), would be introduced, and similarly 
for a trine below. If we took a quaternion 
to the right (as |cjfxtgttx JdlfxaJt), 
four intervals of a diesis \ll (almost exactly 
21-1 iths of a comma, as | c Jf to d b) would be 
introduced. Hence if we write the duodenal, 
that is the symbol of the root of a duodene, 
at the commencement of any piece of music, 
we determine the exact pitch which every one 
of its notes must receive, until we change the 
duodenal, and thus change the pitch of its 
notes to a definite amount. If we assume 
for the root named by the duodenal, the tonic 
of the decad of the duodene, the change of 

( 142 ) 



duodenal points out the actual decadations in 
the composition, that is, the actual process of 
the modulation. Thus, to take a simple but 
crucial example from " God Save the Queen," 
where the duodenals are written above : — 

#^^ U I j : M^U^ 






14 15 


Observe chords 3, 9, and 13. The duo- 
denal G makes chord 3 from D — f F + f A 
(in the dominant duodene), because the melody 
requires the true D in order to sink by a per- 
fect minor Third to B, and the harmony does 
not treat chord 3 as the dissonance D | F-t- A, 
But the duodenal F, makes chord g from 
ID — F -f- A (in the subdominant duodene), 
because chord 8 contains A, and the change 
A to f A is unmelodic. But chord 13, in 
duodene of C, is marked as the dissonance 
D I F -f A, which is duly resolved by the fall 
of D to C in 14, A being retained from 12. 
It would of course be possible, and smoother, 
to use the F duodenal, making chord 13 from 
;{: D — F -h A. In this way, three theoretical 
methods of treating the triad on the second 
of a major scale are accurately shown. 

For further details and illustrations, rele- 
rence must be made to the citations at the 
commencement of this article. 

Duodramma (It.) A dramatic piece for 
two performers only. 

Duolo, con (It.) With grief, sadness, 

Dur (Ger.) Major, as C dur, C major. 

Dur (Fr.) Hard, coarse. 

Durate, duramente, duro (It.) With 
harshness, roughly. 

Durchfiihrung (Ger.) The development of 
a theme or subject. [Form.] 

Durchgehend (Ger.) Passing, transient. 

Durezza (It.) Rigour, harshness. 

Dutch concert. A so-called concert in 
which every man sings his own song at the 
same time that his neighbour is also singing 
his, a practice not necessarily so national as 
convivial. There is another form of Dutch 
concert, in which each person present sings 
in turn one verse of any song he pleases, 
some well-known chorus being used as a 
burden after each verse. When every person 
has sung his song, all sing their respective 
songs simultaneously as a grand Jinale. 

Dux [Lat.) The proposition, theme, or 
subject of a fugue, the answer being called 

Dystonic. With false intonation; dis- 

( ^43 ) 




E. (i) The note Hypate in Greek music. 
[Greek music] 

(2) The key-note of the Church mode called 

(3) The note Elami in the system of Hexa- 
chords. [Notation.] 

(4) The E above tenor C, the octave above 
it being represented by e, the octave below it 
by EE. 

(5) The key having four sharps in its 


Ear. The Ear is the organ of hearing, in 
other words, the organ for the appreciation of 
sound, i.e., of vibrations of the air or water. 
All that is necessary to form an ear is a nerve- 
mass capable of appreciating these vibrations. 
Its simplest actual expression is a sac, filled 
with fluids, containing " otoliths " iovc, th-og, 
an ear, and Xldog, a stone), and supplied with a 
nerve, a condition best exemplified in the 
sub-kingdom of Mollusca, represented fami- 
liarly by the oysters, the mussels, snails both 
terrestrial and aquatic, and the octopus. The 
"otoliths" are masses of carbonate of lime, 
as may readily be seen by placing one of 
them dissected out from any of the above 
mentioned animals (e.g. a snail) on a glass 
slide, covering it with an object glass with 
sufficient water to fill the interspace between 
the two, and adding at the side of the cover- 
ing-glass a drop of any acid (acetic acid, or 
indeed ordinary vinegar will do very well) 
while the experimenter observes it through 
the microscope. Air bubbles — really bubbles 
of carbonic acid gas — will be seen to pour out 
from the otolith, and when these have ceased, 
that body will have entirely disappeared. 

It is true that we are suspicious of a 
specialised organ of hearing even in such 
animals as possess no specialised nerve 
system. This is somewhat apparently of a 
paradox, for it may be asked. How can an 
animal without nerves feel at all? and is it 
not highly improbable that if no nerve system 
exists, any special sense-organ can be de- 
veloped ? The answer to the first of these 
objections is very plain : all animals, even 
those who possess no specialised organs 
whatever manifest the simple phenomena of 
sensation ; all, even the Infusoria and the 
Amoeboe, of which we hear so much now-a- 

days, and which are very little more than 
simple masses of protoplasm, manifest this 
faculty. Any one who has observed these 
occupants of almost any drop of water, with 
a microscope of low power, will have seen 
enough to convince himself of this. As to 
the second objection, the fact remains that in 
some animals which have no undoubted 
nerves, in some medusae* or jelly-fish, f we 
find in the mass forming their body crystals 
of carbonate of lime, which substance must 
intensify the vibrations of the water in which 
they live, and must, when put into a state of 
motion as a whole, or into one which affects 
its particles inter se, cause by its relative 
density greater disturbance of the soft matter 
in which it lies, than would be the case if it 
were absent. 

But leaving this as somewhat problematical, 
and taking the hearing organ of molluscs as 
the type, we shall find this type essentially 
adhered to in the higher animals in spite of 
endless complications. Let us propound the 
bold paradox without fear of contradiction, 
that a man as well as a snail hears in water, 
and that the essential parts of his marvellous 
hearing apparatus are a sac containing fluid 
in which are otoliths, and round which are 
distributed the ultimate filaments of a nerve. 
The typical physiology, as well as the 
typical anatomy of hearing, is very simple. 
These " ear-stones," by the vibrations con- 
ducted to them, are made to rattle in this bag 
containing fluid, and, by beating against its 
sides, cause more disturbance to the nerv'e fila- 
ments there distributed than would be caused 
by the same vibrations if they acted directly 
on the nerve. 

The power of hearing must be very widely 
if not universally distributed through the 
animal kingdom, though the hearing organ is 
not always easy to find. Von Sieboldij: has 
however discovered this organ in the Euro- 
pean field-cricket, situated in the front legs 

* These medusae are by some said to possess a ring 
of nerves, but this is disputed. 

t " Gegenbaur, Grundziige der Vergleichenden Ana- 
tomic," p. 129, fig. 15 e, and p. 131. 

+ " Lehrbuch von Vergleichender Anatomie," von 
Siebold und Stannius. BerHn, 1S48. Erster Theil, p. 

( 14+ ) 


of both sexes. That the lower animals have 
the power of making music very widely dis- 
tributed among them is a fact of which any 
one who reads Mr. Darwin's " Descent of 
Man," part ii., can very easily convince him- 
self; the references to this work would be too 
numerous to give with completeness, and 
extracts would be impossible, seeing that the 
subject occupies a considerable portion of the 
whole work. It is, however, sure that this 
power is possessed by some spiders (vol. i. 
p. 339) ; by many insects, as e.g. of the order 
Homoptera (p. 350 — 352), including the Cica- 
dos ; of the order Orthoptera (352 — 360), in- 
cluding crickets and grasshoppers ; of the 
order Hymenoptera (366), including bees and 
wasps ; of the order Coleoptera (378 — 385), or 
beetles ; of the order Lepidoptera (387), or 
moths and butterflies. All these animals 
possessing the power of music, which they use 
principally for attracting the other sex (the 
male being generally the musician), must 
possess also organs capable of appreciating 
such music — auditory organs. 

When we reach the sub-kingdom of Verte- 
brata we find the same type throughout, 
gradually becoming more complicated as we 
proceed from the lowest fish to the highest 
mammal, man ; and it will be convenient to 
reverse the philosophical order and to describe 
the human ear first, since after the description 
of this it will be easy to allude to deficiencies 
or modifications in the less complicated organs 
of the lower vertebrata. 

The Humatt Ear may be divided into three 
parts — the external, middle, and internal ear. 
The two former have the function of convey- 
ing vibrations to the latter which appreciates 

Fig. I. 

(Transverse section). 

I. Pinna; 2. external auditory meatus or canal; 
3. cavity of tympanum and membrane of tympanum 
(between 3 and 6 chain of small bones) ; 4. eustachian 
tube ; 5. internal auditory canal or meatus giving pas- 
sage to the auditory and facial nerves ; 6. bony labyrinth 
(above fenestra ovalis) ; a. apex of petrous bone ; b. in- 
ternal carotid artery ; c. styloid process ; d. facial 
nerve passing to supply muscles of face ; e. mastoid 

The external ear (see fig. i.) consists of 
two parts, the " pinna," or auricle (i), and 
the external auditory canal or " meatus " (2). 
The pinna (i) is that part which is quite 
external, and which we unscientifically call 
" the ear," as when we say that a certain 
person has large or small " ears." It is com- 
posed almost entirely of cartilage or gristle, 
and has complicated foldings, to all of which 
names have been given, but which it is not 
our business to give here in detail. The 
general shape is that of an irregular funnel, 
having its apex in the auditory canal. The 
only part of which we shall speak particularly 
is the " helix," or the margin which is folded 
in. At the upper and posterior part of this is 
to be found, in many individuals, a small 
point or process, generally folded in like the 
rest of the helix, but sometimes projecting 
outwards. This is considered by Mr. Darwin 
to be a strong fact in determining the gene- 
alogy of man (" Descent of Man," vol. i. p. 
22, fig. 2), for this point is well marked in 
many of the lower monkeys, as baboons and 
some species of macacus, and in them is not 
folded inwards, but stands erect. He thus 
considers it a reminiscence of some pointed- 
eared progenitors. He remarks (p. 23, note 
26) : " This rudiment apparently is somewhat 
larger in negroes and Australians than in 
Europeans (see Carl Vogt, " Lectures on 
Man," Eng. transl., p. 129), these races being 
confessedly lower and more like the lower 
animals than Europeans." The pinna is fur- 
nished with nine muscles, three of which are 
called extrinsic and move it as a whole, while 
the remaining six would, if they contracted, 
move its parts on one another, and are called 

The extrinsic muscles are situated in front, 
above and behind, and move the pinna there- 
fore forwards, upwards and backwards re- 
spectively. The anterior muscle is called the 
" attrahens aurem," the superior is called the 
" attollens aurem," and the posterior the 
" retrahens aurem." These muscles are in 
man without any function whatever; they do 
not have any effect on his hearing powers; 
they are capable of moving the ear only in 
some individuals, and are only rarely move- 
able at will. The " retrahens aurem," which 
is the strongest, is also the most commonly 
moveable ; in some people it is contracted 
involuntarily in fright, just as in a timid 
horse who throws back his ears ; it is much 
more rarely under the control of the will, but 
is less seldom so than the other muscles. 
Mr. Darwin (" Descent of Man," vol. i. p. 20) 
says : " I have seen one man who could draw 
his ears forwards, and another who could 
draw them backwards;" but this gives too 
great an idea of the rarity of such an accom- 

( 145 ) 



plishment. A case has been observed in 
which a boy was able to move his scalp from 
side to side by alternately contracting the 
" attollens aurem" of either side, this muscle 
rising from the " aponeurosis" (or flat tendon) 
of the " occipito-frontalis " muscle, which 
has the power of moving the scalp forwards 
and backwards. 

The intrinsic muscles are situated, four on 
the outer, two on the inner side of the pinna. 
They have never been known to contract. In 
some animals, however, they are functional, 
as any one can see who carefully watches the 
pinna of the ear of a cat when intent on 
some sound. 

In spite of the complicated structure of the 
pinna, it is nearly sure that it possesses no 
effect on our powers of hearing, either by 
collecting sound to a focus or by conducting 
it along its substance ;* that it is in fact of 
no use as far as hearing is concerned. This 
is the result of the observations of no less an 
authority than Mr. Toynbee.f It seems also 
that the nearly precisely similar ears of the 
orang and chimpanzee are equally function- 
less (" Descent of Man," vol. i. p. 21). 

The external auditory canal (fig. i. 2) is 
about li in. long; rather less than the external 
half is formed of cartilage or gristle, the 
remainder of bone. Its direction is not 
directly inwards, but slightly forwards also. 
It is closed at its inner end by the " mem- 
brana tympani " (fig. i. 3), or membrane of the 
drum. The glands which secrete the wax 
(ceruminous glands) are situated in the carti- 
laginous part of the canal, and agree in their 
structure with the sweat-glands. 

Fig. n. 



A. Malleus.— I. head; 2. handle; 3. processus gra- 
cilis; 4. short process. B. Incus. — i. body; 2. long 
process with orbicular process; 3. short or posterior 
process ; 4. articular surface receiving head of malleus. 
C. Stapes. — I. head; 2. posterior leg; 3. anterior leg; 
4. base. C*. Base of stapes. D. Bones in natural 
mutual relations. 

The middle ear or tympanum (fig. i. 3) is 
separated from the external ear by the mem- 

* In using a stethoscope, however, we use the con- 
ducting power of the cartilage of the ear. 

+ " The Diseases of the Ear," by J. Toynbee, F.R.S. 
i860, p. 12. 

brana tympani (fig. III. vi, and fig. i. 3), which 
inclines outwards, making an angle of 4.5^ 
with the floor. It is a cavity which is not 
shut off fnom the air, for the " Eustachian 
Tube " (fig. I. 4) forms a communication 
between it and the " pharynx," the upper 
part of the cavity of the throat. 

Fig. ni. 


a. Malleus; a. tip of handle of malleus, the letter 
lies in the cavity of the tympanum ; b. incus ; c. 
stapes ; ni. external auditory canal ; ifi. membrane of 
tympanum ; t. line of tension of tensor tympani muscle 
pulling lower part of malleus inwards ; /. line of tension 
of laxator tympani muscle pulling upper part of malleus 
inwards ; g. slender process of malleus. The axis 
round which the chain of bones rotates passes through 
its base. 

In the tympanum are situated three small 
bones (fig. i. 3 to 6, and figs. 11. and iii.), the 
Malleus (A), Incus (B), and Stapes (C), the 
names being derived from their shape. The 
malleus (hammer) has a round head (i), and 
a handle (2), and from the base of the head, a 
thin spike of bone, the " processus gracilis" 
(3) projects. The Incus (anvil), B, is more 
like a tooth with two fangs, a long and a 
short one. The long process (2) carries a 
knob or tubercle which is originally a sepa- 
rate bone, as it remains in some animals 
through life. The stapes (stirrup), C, is just 
like a stirrup. It is very difficult to under- 
stand the arrangement of these little bones 
from description or even from drawings, a 
model or the actual objects being almost 
necessary. It may, however, give a general 
idea of their position to say that the handle of 
the malleus and the long process of the incus 
are directed vertically downwards; the slender 
process of the malleus and the short process 
of the incus are horizontal, the former being 
directed forwards, the latter backwards ; the 
stapes is also horizontal, but with its base 
horizontal and directed inwards. The malleus 
is anterior in position to the incus. The 
head of the malleus fits on to the body of the 
incus (the crown of the tooth), the long pro- 
cess of the incus fits on to the head of the 
stapes (the part where the stirrup-leather 
would be attached), and the base of the stapes 
fits loosely into the " Fenestra Ovalis," an 
oval window in the bony wall of the internal 
ear or labyrinth. The whole chain of bones 

( 146 ) 


turns round an axis formed by the slender 
process of the malleus and the short process 
of the incus. The handle of the malleus is 
firmly fixed to the membrana tympani on its 
inner aspect a little below the middle. There 
are three muscles m connection with this 
chain of bones, two are attached to the mal- 
leus, one to the stapes. The two attached to 
the malleus are the tensor and laxator tym- 
pani. The former is attached just below, the 
latter just above the origin of the processus 
gracilis (see fig. in. t, I), which, as we ob- 
served, is the axis of this chain of bones. 
The stapedius muscle is attached to the neck 
of the stapes. These bones are exceedingly 
important from the point of view of compara- 
tive anatomy, since their homologies play very 
different parts in the lower animals. The homo- 
logue of the malleus, for instance, in fish, 
amphibia, reptiles, and birds, is the " os quad- 
ratum " which suspends the lower jaw ; and 
the stapes is in batrachia, reptiles, and birds, 
the " columella," a long bone, shaped some- 
what like a straight post-horn, or stethoscope, 
which alone discharges the function which 
these three bones discharge in mammalia. 
Other interesting points will be related later 
on in connection with development. 

The cavity of the tympanum is practically 
enlarged by communicating with the " Mas- 
toid Cells," air cavities which occupy the 
mastoid process of the temporal bone, that 
process of bone which may be felt behind and 
below the pinna, and is supposed by phreno- 
logists to be the residence of " Pugnacity," 
though they have never explained the connec- 
tion between that propensity and the function 
which these air-cells really discharge, that of 
increasing the tympanic cavity. 

The internal ear or labyrinth (fig. iv.) is the 
essential part of the organ. It consists of 
two parts, a bony cavity enclosed in the 
thickness of the base of the skull, and a mem- 
branous sac within this. 

Fig. IV. 

(Smaller figure real size). 


I. Vestibule; 2. fenestra ovalis ; 3. superior semi- 
circular canal ; 4. horizontal or external semi-circular 
canal ; 5. posterior semi-circular canal ; 6. first turn of 
cochlea; 7. second turn ; 8. apex ; 9. fenestra rotunda; 
* ampullae of semi-circular canals. 

The bony labyrinth may be briefly described 
as a chamber, the "Vestibule" (fig. iv. i), 
which sends one prolongation forward (the 
" cochlea," 6, 7, 8), three others backwards 
(" semi-circular canals," 3, 4, 5), and has its 
outer and inner walls perforated, the outer 
by the fenestra ovalis (2), in which lies the 
base of the stapes, and by a round hole closed 
by membrane, and called the fenestra rotunda 
(9) ; the inner by a series of holes in a depres- 
sion called the " Fovea hemispherica," which 
transmit branches of the auditory nerve from 
the internal auditory meatus in which lie the 
auditory and facial nerves. By these two 
lateral perforations it communicates with the 
cavity of the tympanum externally, and with 
that of the cranium internally. Close behind 
the "Fovea hemispherica" is a small canal, 
the " Aquaeductus VestibuH," to which refer- 
ence will be given later, in describing the 
course of the development of the ear. 

The bony semi-circular canals (fig. iv. 
3, 4, 5) are three tubes bent so as to form 
about two-thirds of a circle. They are situated 
at the upper and back part of the vestibule 
with which they communicate by five open- 
ings, one end of the superior having an opening 
common also to the posterior semi-circular 
canal. Each tube at one end has an expan- 
sion, called an " Ampulla " (fig. iv.*) These 
canals are called from their position, superior, 
posterior, and external. The superior canal 
is vertical and transverse, the posterigr is ver- 
tical and longitudinal, and the external is 
horizontal. The directions of these canals, or 
the planes in which they lie, will be best 
understood by placing a book with the two 
covers at right angles to one another, up- 
right on end on a table, so that one of the 
covers faces the reader, the other being at 
right angles to the side of the table at which 
he is seated. Then the reader will be on 
the outer or tympanic side, the side of the 
table opposite to him will be the side of 
the cranial cavity. The plane of the table 
will represent the plane of the external or 
horizontal canal, the plane of the cover oppo- 
site to the reader the posterior, and that at 
right angles to the side of the table at vvhich 
he is seated the superior canal, which is also 
the most anteriorly placed of the three. 
Thus it will be seen that the planes of these 
three canals are the three planes of a cube, 
a fact to which allusion will be made here- 

* With regard to the terms anterior, posterior, ex- 
ternal, and internal, it may be necessary to explain that 
anterior means on the side towards the face ; posterior 
on the side towards the back of the head, and external 
and internal remote from or near to an antero-posterior 
axis drawn from the face to the back of the head. 

( 147 ) 


Fig. V. 


sv. Scala vestibuli ; cm. canalis membranea, or 
canalis cochleae, or ductus cochlearis ; st. scala tym- 
pani ; m. modiolus. 

The cavity of the vestibule is prolonged 
anteriorly by the cochlea (fig. iv. 6, 7, 8), 
so-called from its likeness to the shell of a 
snail. As a whole, it forms a blunt cone with 
its apex outwards ; this cone is formed by a 
gradually tapering spiral tube, the first curve 
having its concavity upwards ; it is coiled 2-| 
times round a central column or " Modiolus" 
(fig. v. m), which sends an incomplete parti- 
tion into the cavity of the tube (fig. vi. 3). 
This partition is called " Lamina spiralis 
ossea," and winds in the cavity of the spiral 
cochlea like the thread of a screw or the stair- 
case in a turret ; it is wanting at the apex of 
the tube. This lamina is completed by two 
membranes, that nearer the apex of the 
cochlea called the " Membrane of Reissner " 
(fig. VI. i), that nearer the base, the " Mem- 
brana basilaris " (fig. vi. vih), so that three 
canals are formed, that on the side of the 
apex of the cochlea being called the " Scala 
vestibuli " (fig. v. and vi. sv.), that next the 
base called the " Scala tympani " (fig. v. 
and VI. st), and the intermediate one, belong- 
ing to the membranous labyrinth (here on the 
outer wall of the cochlea not lying free), 
called the " Canalis membranacea, vel 
Cochleae," or " Ductus Cochlearis" (fig. v. cm 
VI. a). The scala vestibuli and scala tympani 
communicate at the apex of the cochlea, for 
the lamina spiralis does not extend quite to the 
apex, the scala vestibuli communicates below 
with the cavity of the vestibule as its name 
implies, the scala tympani would communi- 
cate below with the cavity of the tympanum 
through the fenestra rotunda, but that this is 
closed by a membrane. Thus it would be 
possible to get through the fenestra ovalis into 
the vestibule, thence enter into the semi-cir- 
cular canals posteriorly, or anteriorl}' through 
the scala vestibuli to the apex of the cochlea, 
there into the scala tympani, through it to the 
fenestra rotunda, and through it again into 

the tympanum. Most books describe the 
cochlea as divided into two passages, the 
scala vestibuli and scala tympani, but it is 
both more r.ccurate and plainer to describe 
three passages from the first, otherwise it 
is impossible to account for the canalis 
membranacea in the description of the 
membranous labyrinth. The difficulty in 
understanding this part consists, as will 
be presently seen, in the fact that whereas 
all other parts of the membranous labyrinth 
lie freely in the bony labyrinth, the canalis 
membranacea is not free at its outer side, 
the side farthest from the modiolus, but is 
there attached to the bony labyrinth. 

The membranous labyrinth lies, except in 
one part already alluded to, freely in the cavity 
of the bony labyrinth, and corresponds almost 
exactly with it. Between the two is a fluid, 
the '• perilymph," or " liquor Cotunnii ;" and 
within the membranous labyrinth is the 
" endolymph," another fluid. The membra- 
nous labyrinth is the part of the internal ear 
which is essential to hearing, the bony laby- 
rinth serving to enclose and protect it. The 
membranous vestibule is divided by a con- 
striction into two halves, which do not com- 
municate. The posterior and larger is called 
the "common sinus," or " utricle ;" with it 
communicate the membranous semicircular 
canals, which correspond in arrangement 
with their bony cases. The anterior and 
smaller chamber is called the " saccule ;" it 
becomes constricted anteriorly into a narrow 
canal, called the " canalis reuniens," which 
opens into the " canalis membranacea" of the 
cochlea. This latter canal is, as above de- 
scribed, interposed between the scala vestibuli 
and scala tympani. It ends blindly above at the 
apex of the cochlea. " Otoliths," or " oto- 
conia" (ear-dust, Gr. olc, ih-oc, an ear, and 
Kovia, dust), are found in the common sinus or 
utricle, in the saccule, and in the ampullae of 
the semicircular canals ; and besides them, 
the ampullae are lined with long, stiff", hair- 
like filaments, called " fila acustica." They 
are six-sided crystals of carbonate of lime, with 
pointed ends, and lie in the walls of these 
parts of the membranous labyrinth. They 
are occasionally absent. In these parts we 
also find pigment cells, which seem in some 
mysterious manner to be essential to the sen- 
sitive parts of nearly all the special-sense 
organs ; for they are present in the olfactory 
region of the nose, as well as in the globe ol 
the eye, and only in the latter is their func- 
tion known. It is a well known fact, that 
white cats (cats which have no pigment) are 

Within the canalis membranacea cochleae, 
and separated from it by a membrane called 
the " membrana tectoria," lies an assemblage 

( 148 ) 


of structures known as the '* organ* of Corti," 
after its describer. This is one of the most 
beautiful, as well as marvellously complicated, 
of all the structures in the body. 

Fig. VI. 


I. membrane of Reissner : 2. auditory ner\'e ; 3. la- 
mina spiralis ossea; 4. spiral ligament ; sv. scalavesti- 
buli; 5<. scala tympani ; a. canalis membranacea or 
ductus cochlearis, or canalis cochles ; be. sulcus spiralis ; 
p. membrana tectoria ; d. rods of Corti ; /. cells of Corti 
and Deiters; i. cells of Claudius ; mb. membrana basi- 
laris ; sm. scala media. 

The organ of Corti, then, has a floor called 
the " membrana basilaris," attached at the 
inner side to the lower lip of the free edge of 
the lamina spiralis ossea, and at the outer 
side to the circumferential wall of the cochlea. 
This membrane separates it from the scala 
tympani. Its roof is a membrane attached 
on the inner side to the upper lip of the free 
edge of the lamina spiralis ossea, and at the 
outer side to the circumferential wall of the 
cochlea. This membrane separates it from 
the canalis membranacea vel cochleae, or duc- 
tus cochlearis. The essential part of the 
organ of Corti is a double series of rods, 
whose bases are separated by some distance, 
while their upper ends meet at an angle, the 
continuous series of rods forming a sort of 
spiral gabled roof, gradually diminishing as it 
follows the spiral course of the cochlea. The 
regularity of their arrangement, seen from 
above, suggests the key-board of a pianoforte. 
They have been estimated by KoUiker as about 
3,000 in number, and are composed of a dense 
material. The inner series are more closely 
set and more numerous than the outer, which 
they overlap. Both series are enlarged at 
their bases and heads, especially the latter. 
The space between their bases and below 
their junction is called the " scala media" of 
the cochlea. Thus there are four canals in 
the cochlea, though this last belongs really to 
the canalis membranacea. Besides these 
rods, there are other bodies called " Cells of 
the organ of Corti." Some are placed be- 
tween the inner series of rods and the free 

• Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, tom. iii. 

edge of the lamina spiralis ossea, and are 
called the " Cells of Claudius." They stand 
in a single line; their upper ends are provided 
with stiff bristle-like prolongations, or " cilia." 
The outer set are like them, but are placed 
between the outer series of rods and the cir- 
cumferential wall of the cochlea. They are 
called the "pedunculated cells of Corti," and 
are set three deep, their cilia projecting through 
holes in a membrane extending from the junc- 
tion of the rods of Corti over the outer cells of 
the organ of Corti to the circumferential wall 
of the cochlea, and called by Kolliker the 
" membrana reticularis." Between the rows 
of the pedunculated cells of Corti are inter- 
posed the " spindle-shaped cells of Deiters," 
which are fusiform, as their name implies. 
All of the basilar membrane not otherwise 
covered, is covered by six-sided cells of epi- 

The auditory nerve, by which we appreciate 
sounds, does not rise from the brain, properly 
so called, but from the medulla oblongata, or 
that uppermost part of the spinal marrow 
which is enclosed in the skull, in company 
with the facial nerve, which supplies all the 
muscles of the face with motor power. The 
fibres of the auditory nerve can be traced to 
the floor of the fourth ventricle, i.e., the ex- 
panded upper end of the tube which the spinal 
marrow really forms ; and across this floor, 
to the fissure or furrow which separates it 
into two halves. Here they are found to rise 
from a mass of gray matter, i.e., an assem- 
blage of nerve cells called the "auditory 
nucleus." Other inconsiderable fibres are 
added from nerve centres in the neighbour- 
hood, and some fibres are said to be connected 
with the sensory roots of the fifth or trigeminal 
nerve, the nerve of facial sensation. f It is 
connected by a small filament with the facial 
nerve. These two nerves run together along 
the floor of the cranial cavity outwards and 
forwards, and leave that cavity by the " in- 
ternal auditory meatus," a hole in the petrous 
part of the temporal bone. The facial nerve 
traverses a canal in that bone, and leaves the 
bone to emerge by a hole just behind the 
socket of the lower jaw. While in the tem- 
poral bone, it gives off a slender branch called 
the " chorda tympani," which crosses the 
membrana tympani and handle of the malleus, 
and gives a twig to the laxator tympani 
muscle. It subsequently joins the gustatory 
nerve, the nerve of taste. Besides this, the 
facial nerve gives a twig to the stapedius 
muscle. In the internal auditory meatus, the 
auditory nerve divides into two portions, both 
of which contain nerve cells. One division is 
supplied to the cochlea, the other to the vesti- 

t Hirschfeld and Leveille, pi. 15. fig. v. 5. 

( 149 ) 


bule. The division which goes to the cochlea 
pierces the bony wall of the internal auditory 
meatus, not by one but by many foramina in 
the centre of the base of the cochlea. The 
central foramen is larger than the rest, and 
contains a nerve destined for the last half-turn 
of the lamina spiralis. The rest of the nerve 
fibres surround this, and ascending in the 
substance of the modiolus, they are distri- 
buted to the rest of the spiral lamina, piercing 
its substance, and running outwards to the 
scala media. These nerves form a continuous 
spiral ganglion, i.e., a plexus or network of 
nerve fibres, with the addition of nerve cells 
near the edge of the spiral lamina. It is pro- 
bable, but not proven, that their ultimate ends 
are connected with the organ of Corti. 

The vestibular division of the auditory nerve 
is distributed to the saccule, utricle, and am- 
pullae of the semi-circular canals, i.e., the parts 
containing otoliths. 

The development of the Ear is conducted, 
in its first stages, like that of the eye or nose. 
The skin becomes bulged in on the side of the 
head, and forms a pit which sinks deeper and 
deeper, while the opening gradually narrows, 
and at last closes. Thus a closed cavity is 
formed, and this becomes the membranous 
labyrinth. Towards it the auditory nerve 
grows from the developing medulla oblongata. 
Next a prolongation grows upwards and back- 
wards, persistent in the lower vertebrata but 
not in mammals, except as the rudiment 
called the " Aqu^eductus vestibuli." Next, 
three portions of the sac get pinched up in an 
elongated form, these ridges rise higher, and 
by-and-by the middle or most elevated por- 
tion of each becomes separated from the 
under-lying sac, by its walls coalescing in this 
part. Thus three tubes are formed open at 
each end, and one end of each becomes 
dilated. These are the three membranous 
semi-circular canals. Another prolongation 
grows forward and gradually becomes spiral. 
This is the canalis membranacea cochlese. 
The bony case becomes developed round 
these from cartilage or gristle, from three 
originally separate pieces called " prootic," 
" opisthotic," " epiotic " respectively; i.e., 
anterior, posterior, and superior ear-bones or 
cartilages. These are separate in cold-blooded 
vertebrata throughout life. The space be- 
tween the membranous labyrinth and its bony 
case is filled up by connective tissue which 
gradually liquefies and forms the peril3'mph. 

The cavity of the tympanum, the external 
passage and the eustachian tube are developed 
out of what is called " the first branchial 
cleft ; " for in the embrj'o there are formed 
four arches which lie on the sides of the neck 
exactly like the arches of the gills of a fish, 
and between them are similar slits so that 

the cavity of the gullet here communicates 
with the outer world. These all close except 
the first, which remains as the external ear, 
cavity of the tympanum, and eustachian tube. 
Some of the clefts however remain occa- 
sionally during life. Out of the first arch are 
developed in order from above downwards, 
the malleus, a piece of cartilage called 
" Meckel's cartilage," and the lower jaw, an 
arrangement persistent in fish ; out of the 
second arch the stapes, stapedius muscle, 
incus, besides other structures which in- 
directly suspend the larynx, viz., the styloid 
process, stylo-hyoid ligament, and part of the 
hyoid bone. During the whole of foetal life, 
according to KoUiker, the tympanic cavity is 
filled with connective tissue which embeds 
the little bones, and this only becomes ab- 
sorbed after the child begins to breathe. The 
pinna is a lappet developed behind the first 
branchial cleft. 

Propagation of Sound. — In order correctly 
to understand the sense of hearing we must 
have acquaintance with the principal laws of 
acoustics involved. Sound travels through 
air at about the rate of 1050 ft. a second, in 
water at about four times this velocity, and 
in very elastic solid bodies eighteen times as 
rapidly. In passing from solids to water the 
velocity is diminished, and from solids to air 
still more so ; the passage from water to 
solids is easy, but that from water to air or 
from air to water, ver}^ difficult. Vibrations 
lose much of their intensity in passing from 
air to solids. The cases of passage therefore 
from the medium of least to that of greatest 
density, i.e., from air to solid, or from the 
medium of least to that of considerably 
greater density, i.e., from air to water, are the 
cases of greatest difficulty in the transmis- 
sion of vibration. A dry stretched membrane 
easily receives and transmits vibrations 
of the air ; and such a membrane placed on 
the surface of water overcomes in a great 
degree the difficulty of the passage between 
air and water. This assistance is enhanced 
when the membrane is combined with some 
solid body. Any membrane conducts sounds 
well when only in water. Sounds, like light, 
are liable to be reflected whether travelling 
in water or air. 

Certain terms require explanation. Sounds 
are " communicated " when they are merely 
conveyed from one sounding body to another, 
and this can take place in a noise as well as a 
musical sound. Sounds are " excited " * under 
two circumstances : when the body which is 
sounding and that to be excited have the same 
note and the vibration of one produces sym- 

* This property has been utilized in such instruments 
as the viola d'amore- 

( 150 ) 


pathetic vibration of the other, the bodies are 
mutually called " reciprocating," while if the 
vibration of one produces its harmonics in 
the other, the latter is said, with regard 
to the exciting body, to be " resonant." Ac- 
cording to Helmholtz, "timbre" or "quality" 
depends on definite combinations of certain 
secondary sounds or harmonics with a primary 
or fundamental sound, and such combinations 
he calls " sound colours." 

Hearing. — Sounds may reach the auditory 
nerve either through the combination of spe- 
cialized structures lying between the tym- 
panum and the filaments of that nerve, or 
through the bones of the skull. In the normal 
state the latter road is so much less effica- 
cious that it may be disregarded ; but when 
the other route is obstructed or rendered im- 
pervious, it then becomes the medium of the 
communication of sound. That sounds do 
however reach the auditory nerve in health 
by this way, anyone may learn by closing his 
ears and then speaking or singing. Under 
some circumstances the bones of the skull 
are the better conductors of the two ; a tuning- 
fork held between the teeth gives a distinctly- 
audible note long after its vibrations have 
become inaudible through the air. Sounds 
are heard under water by this means. 

The External Ear. — The pinna or auricle 
is said by some authors to help us to hear by 
reflecting sound into the meatus and by pro- 
pagating it through its substance to the bony 
part of the meatus and thence to the mem- 
brana tympani. Reflection can only be 
helped by the large hollow behind the meatus 
called the concha, and by the point in front 
of the meatus called the tragus, the concha 
reflecting the vibrations on to the tragus, and 
this reflecting them in turn into the meatus. 
The other parts of the pinna have been sup- 
posed to assist sound by conduction, their 
various folds having the function, according 
to this view, of receiving vibrations in various 
planes perpendicularly and thus most favour- 
ably for propagation. Another view regards 
these folds as instrumental in neutralizing 
conflicting sound waves, that the principal 
vibrations may be able to enter the meatus 
without interruption. All these are mere 
speculations. An animal with moveable ears, 
such as a horse, turns his ears to the source 
of sound, but we have no such power, the 
extrinsic muscles of our ear are generally 
quite functionless, and never, in any case, pos- 
sess this power, the only one which would 
help us to utilize our pinna. Mr. Toynbee 
believed the pinna to be quite functionless 
in man (see above). 

The External Meatus is undoubtedly func- 
tional in conducting sounds, its closure will 
instantly prove this. Its curved course 

proves that the vibrations must reach the 
tympanum after manifold reflection from its 
walls and not directly. It serves to conduct 
vibrations without dispersion to the tympanic 
membrane. The column of air which it con- 
tains increases the strength of the vibrations 
which reach it, and by lengthening the tube 
of the meatus by adding a tube externally, 
and thus lengthening the column of air, the 
sounds are much increased in intensity. Its 
walls must conduct vibration to the mem- 
brane of the tympanum, but this function is 
so inconsiderable that we may practically 
neglect it. 

The Middle Ear or Tympanum. — The 
Memhrana Tympani serves to conduct vibra- 
tions received from the external air to the 
three small bones, the malleus, incus, and 
stapes, and thus to the internal ear. It is 
usually in a state of moderate relaxation, and 
is made more tense by the action of the 
tensor tympani muscle, and less tense pro- 
bably by that of the stapedius and perhaps 
the laxator tympani. The vibrations which 
it receives are derived from the air in the 
external meatus, and perhaps also from the 
bony ring in which it is set. 

The state of moderate relaxation which is 
usual to it, is the most favourable state for 
vibrating in sympathy with sounds of a wide 
range. The membrane vibrates reciprocally 
as a whole if the sound is in unison with the 
note to which it is (so to say) tuned by the 
muscles of the small bones, i. e. its funda- 
mental ; or in resonance in divisions, if the 
note sounded is higher than this, one of its 
harmonics. That it is not always tuned to 
the very note sounded is obvious, when we 
consider that this can only be the case when 
one note only is sounded. It cannot, of 
course, vibrate reciprocally to a note lower 
than its fundamental. A membrane has a 
large power of vibrating sympathetically since 
its harmonics are very numerous. The effect 
of increasing the tension of the membrane 
may be easily tested by closing the nose and 
mouth and either blowing air out from the 
lungs or drawing it in. By the former we 
blow air through the eustachian tube into the 
cavity of the tympanum, and force the mem- 
brane outwards, by the latter we decrease the 
pressure in the tympanic cavity, and the ex- 
ternal air forces the membrane still more 
inwards than is naturally the case. The 
result is in either case the same, the sense of 
hearing is on the whole impaired, though very 
high sounds are heard better than before. We 
have stretched the membrane, raised its fun- 
damental note, and diminished its power of 
vibrating in sympathy with low notes, though 
we have at the same time increased its range 
of sympathy upwards. Still it is chiefly im- 

( 151 ) 


proved for reciprocal vibrations, for a lax 
membrane divides itself far more readily into 
segments which vibrate in sympathy with 
harmonics, the strength of such vibrations 
being increased b)' the number of the seg- 
ments into which it divides itself. 

The tensor tympani (perhaps the laxator 
tympani, though some deny that this is a 
muscle at all) and the stapedius are the 
muscles which regulate the tension of the 
membrane. These two muscles are generally 
considered antagonists, and are supplied by 
different nerves ; the former renders the 
membrane tenser, the latter, more lax.* They 
simply tune the drum of the ear, making the 
membrane tenser for high, laxer for low 
sounds ; there being practicall}' a degree of 
tenseness which is most fit for perceiving 
vibrations of a certain average pitch. For 
exceedingly loud noises, as explosions, the 
probability is that the membrane is made 
tense, since in this state it cannot vibrate 
so freely. Thus is probably explained the 
sense of effort which we feel when expecting 
a loud noise which may never occur. 

The ossicula auditits or small bones of the 
tympanum, that is, the malleus, incus and 
stapes, move as one piece, though they are 
not so tightly joined together but that they 
can play on one another. It is possible 
that their particles may also vibrate, but 
they are not adapted for this, seemg that 
much vibration must be lost at the joints 
between them. The direction of the applica- 
tion of the force to the malleus is the same as 
that in which it acts through the stapes ; a 
line perpendicular to the membrane is parallel 
with the long axis of the stapes, or perpen- 
dicular to the membrane closing the fenestra 
ovalis. Each time the membrane of the 
tympanum is bent inwards the base of the 
stapes is driven more deeply into the fenestra 
ovalis. The axis of the chain of bones is 
described above. Since the tensor tympani 
is attached to the malleus below, the laxator 
tympani above this axis, as far as their action 
on the membrane of the drum is concerned, 
the malleus is worked by the former muscle 
as a lever of the third, by the latter as a lever 
of the first order. These bones are covered 
with mucous membrane which must insulate 
them and tend to prevent the propagation of 
vibrations from them to the air in the tym- 

The Eustachian Tube serves to equalize 
the pressure on the outer and inner sides of 
the membrane of the tympanum. It is 
naturally closed, being only open during 
swallowing or yawning, when the muscles of 

Some, however, consider both as tensors of the 

the palate, inserted on opposite sides of the 
tube are put into action and pull its sides 
apart, thus temporarily opening it. During 
a bad cold in the head we often become deaf, 
especially after blowing the nose. We simply 
perform the experiment mentioned above of 
blowing air through the eustachian tube into 
the tympanum, forcing the membrane out- 
wards, and also rendering it too tense. The 
eustachian tube, however, is often swollen 
during a cold, and is pervious only to great 
pressure of air ; it therefore collapses and 
imprisons this extra amount of air. Some 
people know that their best chance of relieving 
this uncomfortable state is to swallow oryawn, 
though they do not know the reason. This 
sometimes opens the eustachian tube, and 
the much compressed air escapes, the hearing 
being at once regained. If this does not 
succeed it is sometimes necessary to pass a 
catheter, a tube appropriately bent, along the 
floor of the nose and into the eustachian tube, 
thus opening it. A very ingenious method 
was invented by Politzer for this purpose ; 
the patient, whose eustachian tube is imper- 
vious, is given a glass of water, and the 
surgeon, having closed one of his nostrils 
with one hand, inserts a tube into the other ; 
the patient is then told to drink. As he does 
so, the surgeon blows through the tube, and 
while the muscles of the palate open, or tend 
to open the tube, the additional pressure dis- 
lodges the plug of mucus or whatever was 
closing the tube ; it becomes pervious, and 
hearing is at once restored. 

The air of the tympanic cavity probably 
plays little or no part in the production of 
sound, though some effect must theoretically 
be produced through it on the membrane 
closing the fenestra rotunda, and through it 
in turn on the labyrinth, especially the scala 
tympani of the cochlea, by means of the 
perilymph. That this effect must, however, 
be very small is shown by experiment ; for 
vibrations are very ill-conducted from the 
moist side of a membrane to air, and from 
this air to water through a membrane stretched 
on its surface, i.e. from the inner moist side 
of the membrana tympani, to the air of the 
tympanic caVity, and from it to the perilymph 
by means of the membrane of the fenestra 
rotunda ; whereas they travel with remarkable 
intensity between air and water when con- 
ducted from the first membrane vibrating in 
air to the second membrane stretched over 
water through a chain of insulated solid 
bodies capable of vibrating as a whole, the 
last of which communicates with a solid body 
in close apposition with the second membrane, 
i.e. from the membrana tympani to the mem- 
brane of the fenestra ovalis through the 
ossicula, covered with moist mucous mem- 

( 152 ) 


brane, the last of which, the stapes, has its 
base in close apposition with the membrane • 
of the fenestra ovalis, being in fact imbedded ^ 
in it. This is, therefore, the principal route 
of the vibrations in their passage through the 

The jnembraiious labyrinth is, as above 
said, the essential part of the auditory ap- 
paratus, and hearing remains even if all the 
structures between it and the external air are 

As to the special function of its constituent 
parts, we know nothing certainly ; suppositions 
have been made, but the theories propounded 
on the question have not advanced beyond 
the region of hypothesis. The vestibule is 
probably the most essential part, inasmuch as 
it is not only the first part of the ear to be 
developed in man, but is also the first part to 
appear in the series of vertebrate animals, 
being present in the lowest fishes, except the 
amphioxus, which has no distinct organ of 

The semi-circular canals are supposed to 
help us to determine the direction of sounds, 
since they would, if prolonged, intercept vibra- 
tions in any direction, being in the three 
planes of a cube, and this arrangement is 
found in nearly all cases where they are 
present at all. But whether they actually 
fulfil this function is quite unproved. M. 
Flourens * has experimented on the subject 
by cutting one or other of these canals, but 
has not removed the difficulty. 

The otoliths are supposed to intensify sound 
by striking against the fine endings of the 
auditory nerve as they vibrate. 

The cochlea, by far the most complicated 
part of the ear, is involved in the same 
obscurity as regards its functions as the rest 
of the ear. The complicated structures of 
the scala media have been supposed merely 
to deaden vibrations after they have produced 
their eftect on the auditory nerve, thus pre- 
venting confusion. But it is by far more 
likely that they have a higher office to fill, 
and it is now generally believed that they 
serve to distinguish pitch. The rods of corti 
especially seem adapted to this function, 
arranged as they are in regular graduated 

* Solucha. Pflllger's Archiv, vol. viii., quoted in the 
London Medical Record, Feb. ii, 1874. Solucha has 
made further experiments which make this stili more 
probable. On cutting one or more of these canals the ani- 
mal executes certain disorderly movements. These are 
probably due to the fact that the animal has lost proper 
conceptions as to the position of its head, since some- 
what similar movements follow from merely fixing the 
head unsymmetrically. These canals, probably, possess 
the function of informing the animal, by a series of 
unconscious impressions as to the exact position of its 
head in space, and each canal has an exact relation to 
a dimension of space. 

series, dense as they are in structure, and 
elaborate as is the distribution of the cochleal 
nerve in their neighbourhood. They are sup- 
posed to vibrate each in sympathy with one 
note, and to transmit the vibrations to the 
special twig of the auditory nerve with which 
each is supposed to be connected. Not only 
would they thus appreciate pitch, but since 
"timbre" or " quality " depends on the de- 
finite combination of harmonics with a fun- 
damental note (as Helmholtz has shown) they 
would thus convey what he well calls " sound- 
colours " to the sensorium, these sound- 
colours being combinations of a fundamental 
tone with harmonics, various both in pitch 
and relative intensity. Duges, who first pro- 
pounded the theory that the cochlea was the 
organ by which we appreciate " pitch," called 
attention to the concomitant variations in the 
evolution of the cochlea and the range of the 
voice in the three classes of mammals, birds 
and reptiles ; the former having the largest, the 
latter the smallest development of both cochlea 
and vocal range. 

A "musical ear" consists in the power of 
appreciating and distinguishing aerial vibra- 
tions both simple and compound, just as "the 
good eye for colour" consists in the power of 
appreciating and distinguishing the simple 
and compound vibrations of light. 

When we hear a sound all that is proven is 
that particular filaments of the auditory nerve 
have been excited, not necessarily that there 
has been any external cause for the sensation. 
Aural delusions occur, though not so com- 
monly as optical delusions. The singing in 
the ears which people often hear when they 
are out of health, overworked, when the blood- 
vessels of the head are congested, when blood 
is extravasated, when they are under the 
influence of a narcotic poison, when they are 
about to faint ; all belong to this category. 
Many people are painfully conscious, even for 
many hours after a long railway journey, of 
the note to which their carriage has been 

Comparative Afiatomy. — The lowest sub- 
kingdom in which we find any specialised hear- 
ing organ is that of the coelenterata, the 
familiar representatives of which are the 
jelly-fish and sea-anemones. In them the 
ear is simply a sac filled with fluid, in which 
are crystals of carbonate of lime, the whole 
called a " lithocyst " or " stone-sac," by which 
the vibrations are intensified. This is analo- 
gous with the primitive auditory vesicle of 

A similar structure is found in the sub- 
kingdom " Vermes," or worms, in certain 
marine worms called " Turbellaria," a fami- 
liar representative of which is the worm 
often seen on the sea-shore and called the 

( 153 ) 


" sea-man's bootlace." Ivlany of the higher 
worms, or annelids, represented by the leech 
and earthworm, have a pair of such organs in 
the head, connected by a nerve with the 
nerve-ring surrounding the gullet. 

Arthropoda, the sub-kingdom containing 
Crustacea (crabs, lobsters, shrimps, prawns, 
and the wood-louse) ; Insecta ; Arachnida 
(spiders and scorpions) ; and Myriapoda (cen- 
tipedes), have not all of them distinct hearing 
organs. In Crustacea both closed and open 
hearing organs are found. In the higher 
Crustacea they are found at the base of the 
inner or smaller pair of antennae or feelers, 
and in them they are open. In another crea- 
ture called Mysis they are placed in the tail, 
and are composed of an otolithic sac lined 
with hair-like bodies, reminding us of the 
human " fila acustica," which are, like them, 
connected with the endings of a nerve. In 
those which have open hearing sacs, the par- 
ticles of sand which are washed in are 
utilized for otoliths, being fastened in regular 
order to certain of these hairs. This variety 
of hearing sacs among Crustacea is very in- 
structive ; whether closed or open they are 
closely connected with the integument, and 
the fact of their being sometimes open, some- 
times closed, reminds us of the gradual 
development of the human ear, which is at 
first merely a pit in the integument, and after- 
wards becomes a closed sac (Gegenbaur, loc. 
cit. p. 388). 

Among Insects the power of hearing must 
be almost universal, since music is so widely 
distributed among them, but the organs 
themselves have not been satisfactorily made 
out in many cases. Some have thought them 
to be represented by a tight membrane near the 
base of the feelers, others by the feelers them- 
selves; among the grasshoppers and crickets 
by a sac filled with fluid, connected with a nerve, 
enlarged as it spreads over the sac, the whole 
sac being placed below a delicate membrane 
forming the floor of a pit on both sides of the 
first abdominal ring. In some locusts it is 
placed on the basal division of the front pair 
of legs, and is composed of a vibrating mem- 
brane like the tympanum, in the neighbour- 
hood of which is an air-chamber connected 
with one of the tracheae or air-tubes which 
pervade the body.* 

It may not be uninteresting to insert a de- 
tailed description of a very elaborate hearing 
organ which is found in some orthoptera. 
The passage is translated from Von Siebold 
and Stannius, " Lehrbuch der Vergleichenden 
Anatomic," part i. p. 582 : 

" Only in certain orthoptera has a paired organ been 
successfully discovered which seems provided with the 

• Gegenbaur, loc. cit. p. 389. 

necessary apparatus of a sense of hearing. This organ 
is represented in the Acridida by a depression or 
pinna surrounded by a horny ring and more or less 
vaulted over, in the bottom of which a tympaniform 
membrane is spread out ; on the inner surface of the 
latter a pair of horn-like appendages rise, between 
which a vesicle filled with clear fluid, extremely deli- 
cate, is fastened as a membranous labyrinth. Con- 
nected with this is a special auditory nerve, coming 
from the third thoracic ganglion, which swells to a 
ganglion on the tympanic membrane, and ends in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the labyrinth with a 
number of little and extremely slender club-shaped rods; 
loosely surrounded with ganglion cells (? are these end- 
ings primitive nerve fibres). The locusts and achetidae 
(grasshoppers) possess a similar hearing organ in the 
' shins ' of both forelegs. Some of the locusts possess 
on both sides of the 'foreshins,' close under the knee- 
joint, a depression, while others of this family of the 
orthoptera are provided on the same spot with two 
more or less spacious hollows, opening forwards by an 
aperture (auditory capsules). In these pits and also 
in the hollows of both anterior tibiae of the locusts 
an oval tympanic membrane is fitted. Between the 
two tympanic membranes the main tracheal stem of 
the forelegs forms a vesicular swelling, on the superior 
end of which the auditory nerve rising from the first 
thoracic ganglion and running down with the main 
crural ner\'e swells to a ganglion. From this ganglionic 
enlargement a band-like nerve mass runs down on the 
gently excavated anterior side of the tracheal vesicle, 
upon which ner\e mass a linear series of vesicles with 
watery contents rise which again contain those remark- 
able club-shaped and slender rods (? primitive nerve 
fibres). The two great tracheal trunks of the forelegs 
open with two wide funnel-shaped openings at the 
posterior edge of the Prothorax, so that here also part of 
the tracheal system as in acrididse allows of a compari- 
son with a tuba eustachii. In the achetidae an opening 
closed by a silvery membrane (membrana tympani) 
may be seen on the external side of both forelegs close 
under the knee-joint, behind which a similar hearing 
organ is concealed. 

''Note. — In acheta achatina and italica an equally 
large tympanic membrane is situated also on the inner 
side of the forelegs which, in acheta sylvestris, domestica, 
and campestris is only feebly indicated on this inner 
side of the tibiae." 

Hearing organs are also found in cock- 
chafers in the root of the posterior wings. 
In the larva of crabs Heusen has described 
an ear consisting of an otolithic sac, in the 
adult the otoliths disappear and the sac is 
curiously composed of three demi-canals. In 
the diptera or flies they are situated in the 
rudimentary wings called halteres. 

Auditory organs are found in all classes of 
molluscs either connected with the nerve 
ganglia in the " foot " or motor organ, as in 
the lower forms (oysters, muscles, snails, and 
slugs), or with the ganglia below the oesopha- 
gus, as in the higher forms. In the cepha- 
lopoda (octopus, &c.) they are placed in the 
mass of gristle which composes the head, and 
in them the sac is complicated. In all, the 
type is essentially the same, viz., a mem- 
branous sac containmg fluid and an otolith or 
otoliths and supplied by a nerve. In certain 
mollusca called brachiopoda, hearing organs 
are found only in the larval state. In all 
molluscs the otolithic sac seems to be lined 

( 154 ) 


with ciliated epithelium, i.e., epithelium 
which is furnished with eyelash-like hairs 
which continually lash the fluid, in which they 

Vertebrate Animals (Fish). — No hearing 
organ has been found in the lowest fish, the 
amphioxus or lancelot. In all other fish it is 
present, and it is very interesting to trace its 
gradual evolution as we proceed towards the 
higher representatives. In the myxinoids the 
vestibule, the only part of the ear constant 
in fishes, consists of a simple ring-shaped 
tube lined with cilia, and lies freely at the 
sides of the head, like the primitive auditory 
vesicle of the human embryo. In the lamprey 
the ear consists of a vestibule with two semi- 
circular canals each of which has an ampulla. 
In all the higher fishes the labyrinth is en- 
closed in the bony or cartilaginous skull, and 
consists of three semi-circular canals, the 
vestibule being divided into two divisions as 
in man, with " endolymph " and " otoliths." 
The otoliths are often very large, as in the 
cod tribe. In the whiting, for instance, they 
may easily be found as two porcelain-like 
bodies, somewhat crescent-shaped and grooved 
transversely. In the rays the vestibule is 
prolonged by a tube which opens on the 
upper flat surface of the head. No fish has 
an external ear, tympanum, membrana tym- 
pani, or cochlea, but the labyrinth is often 
connected with the air-bladder, either by a 
tube or by a chain of bones. The air-bladder 
is thus pressed into the function of assisting 
the hearing (Weber, " De aure et auditu," p. 
1245). In typical fishes we thus get the 
representatives of the vestibule, saccule and 
utricle, each with its otolith, and three semi- 
circular canals of man. 

Amphibia. — In those amphibians which 
retain their gills through life, such as the 
newt and salamander, we have very little 
more than we found in fishes. They possess 
an internal ear only, which consists of a. 
vestibule, three semi-circular canals ; and as 
an addition to the ear of fishes, a " fenestra 
ovalis," with a small plate closing it, repre- 
senting the base of the stapes. In one called 
the axolotl (that animal on which Cortez fed 
his army) this plate is connected with a little 
bone, but none of these creatures have a 
middle or external ear. 

In those amphibians which when adult 
have lost their gills, we find the following 
additions. The labyrinth or internal ear has 
an otolithic saccule ; in addition to the plate 
of cartilage closing the fenestra ovalis, which 
has a small muscle to move it (like the stape- 
dius in man), we find a long thin bone 
" columella " running through a tympanic 

* Gegenbaur, loc. cit. p. 513. 

cavity and connected with a third member, a 
small cartilage which is attached to a tym- 
panic membrane, and has another muscle 
attached to it (like the tensor tympani in 
man). In these animals the middle ear or 
tympanum first appears ; this cavity is filled 
with air and communicates by an eustachian 
tube with the cavity of the mouth. The tym- 
panic membrane is on the level of the surface 
of the body — there is no external passage or 

Reptiles. — We divide reptiles into ophidia 
or serpents, lacertilia or lizards, chelonia, or 
turtles and tortoises, and crocodilia, crocodiles 
and alligators. 

In serpents we seem to have an ear in- 
ferior to that of frogs ; they have no eustachian 
tube, the tympanum does not contain air, but 
a sort of packing material called cellular or 
connective tissue, the tympanic membrane, 
as such, is absent, the tympanum being 
closed externally by skin. This substitution 
of cellular tissue for air is very interesting 
when we remember that in the human embryo 
the reverse change takes place. With this 
exception the ear is the same as that of 

In lizards we again find a tympanic mem- 
brane and cavity, a eustachian tube, and in 
some the commencement of an external ear. 
In the iguana, for instance, there is a slight 
fold of skin beyond the tympanic membrane, 
and this is again instructive, for in the human 
embryo the tympanic membrane is at first on 
the level of the skin ; and the external ear, 
both the bony and cartilaginous parts of the 
meatus and the pinna, are subsequent ad- 

In turtles and tortoises we find the tym- 
panic cavity divided into two by a bony septum 
or partition, which, however, is incomplete. 
The cochlea makes its first appearance as a 
slight conical bud, as it does in the human 
embryo, and there is a fenestra rotunda. j- 

In crocodiles the cochlea becomes bent and 
divided into two scalae. The tympanic mem- 
brane is placed at the bottom of a deep fissure, 
and protected by a flap of integument con- 
taining cartilage and capable of closing the 
slit by muscles attached to it ; thus we have 
an external ear. The tympanic cavity com- 
municates with air-cells in many of the bones 
of the head as in birds. Indeed, to the com- 
parative anatomists to whom the striking dif- 
ference between feathers and scales is the 
least difference in the world and quite unim- 

f There is one lizaxd of very exceptional structure 
which possesses a cochlea with an indication of the 
spiral curve which afterwards produces the form which 
we find in man. Its name is Hatteria, but it is indeed 
so full of anomalies that it is best mentioned in a note, 
and not as a representative of lacertilia. 

( 155 ) 


-E DUR. 

portant, the crocodile is nothing but a bird 
with certain practically unimportant distinc- 

The ear oi birds is composed of an internal 
ear consisting of a vestibule with a foramen 
rotundum, and a foramen ovale, a cochlea with 
an incipient spiral turn, three semi-circular 
canals, and two cartilaginous bands represent- 
ing the lamina spiralis ossea; of a middle ear 
consisting of a cavity, filled with air, com- 
municating with air-cells in most of the bones 
of the head, provided with a membrana tym- 
pani and eustachian tube, and with a colu- 
mella or stapes. This columella which we 
have seen from amphibia upwards, is, as we 
have said, the stapes of man. It is shaped 
like a long post-horn, or like a stethoscope. 

The external ear consists of an external 
auditory meatus, and an indication of a pinna 
in the form of a fold of skin just in front of 
the meatus ; this is largest in the owls. In 
some birds as the bustards the meatus is sur- 
rounded by a ring of specialized feathers, 
which perhaps serve to reflect vibrations to- 
wards the tympanum. 

The Ear of Mammals is in the main so 
like that of man that it will be sufficient to 
mention such differences as we find in dif- 
ferent classes. 

In the internal ear we find that the cochlea 
ha5 a very variable number of turns. The 
hedgehog has one-and-a-half turns, the seal 
two, many ruminants somewhat more, next 
the camel, horse, and elephant, and many 
bruta (ant-eaters, sloths, &c.) ; the bats, apes, 
and man, two-and-a-half; most carnivora 
three, the pigs nearly four ; the guinea-pig 
and agouti quite four; and the paca (a rodent) 
five ; marsupials have a very varying number 
of turns, the kangaroo two-and-a-half (like 
ruminants which they represent among mar- 
supials), and the opossum nearly five.* 

The otoliths are not universally found 
among mammals. The labyrinth has many 
variations, for which reference must be made 
to the larger treatises. The " ossicula audi- 
tus " are very variable in shape ; in the lowest 
order of mammals, the monotremata, includ- 
ing the ornithorhynchus (duck-billed platypus), 
and echidna (Australian ant-eater), the stapes 
is shaped like that of amphibia, reptiles, and 
birds ; it is a long and thin bone without any 
division— a " columella," in fact. In cetacea 
or whales, dolphins and porpoises, the ear is 
very remarkable ; the external auditory meatus 
is almost obliterated, in one dolphin hardly 
admitting a pig's bristle. It is probable that 
the vibrations of sound are communicated in 
them to the auditory nerve, not by the meatus 
but by the bones of the head, as in fish, and 

Gegenbaur, p. 773. 

in them the tympanic bone, forming the wall 
of the tympanum and supporting the drum, 
is very dense and hangs almost independently, 
reminding one of the large otoliths of fish 
(Owen), though whether it really fulfils the 
same office it is difficult to say. 

The pinna is absent in most seals, the 
mole, cetacea, and the ornithorhynchus, in 
most diving animals it is very small. In 
some bats it is enormously developed, and 
has vibratile movements by which it seems 
to act as a sort of tactile organ " relating to 
the perception of atmospheric impulses re- 
bounding from surfaces near which the bat 
approaches in flight. "f Spallanzani says that 
a bat, after being deprived of the power of 
sight, hearing, and smell, by having the eyes 
put out, and the ears and nostrils plugged, 
was still able to avoid obstacles and to pass 
through openings only just large enough to 
admit its body. 

Some animals have the power of volun- 
tarily closing their external meatus — the ele- 
phant and the water shrew, for instance. j 

Ecbole {Gk.) The terms eclysis (k-Xvo-te) \ 
and ecbole [kKJioXri) refer to the flattening and 
sharpening of sounds to adapt them to a 
change of key-note. 

Eccedente (7^.) Exceeding, augmented, a 
term applied to intervals. 

Ecclesiastical modes. [Plain song.] 

Echeion. ^x^Tor {Gk.) (i) A hollow 
vessel, generally of metal {^aXKfiov) used as a 
drum or gong. (2) Metallic vases so ar- 
ranged behind the seats of the ancient theatre 
as to reinforce the sound of the actors' voices. 
An account of them is to be found in Vitru- 
vius. (3) The resonance box of a lyre. 

Echelle {Fr.) A scale; as, echelle chro- 
matique, chromatic scale ; echelle diatonique , 
diatonic scale. 

Echo. A sound produced by reverbera- 
tion ; an imitation of a sound so produced, 
(i) In old organ music the use of this term 
signified that a passage so marked was to be 
played upon the echo-organ, a set of pipes 
enclosed in a box, by which a soft and distant 
effect was produced, incapable however of 
so great expression as that obtained by the 
use of the swell, which is an improvement 
upon the echo-organ. (2) Echo-stop on a 
harpsichord was a contrivance for obtaining 
a soft and distant effect. 

Eclisses {Fr.) The sides of a lute, guitar 
or violin. 

Eclysis. [Ecbole.] 

Ecole {Fr.) A school or style of music. 

Ecossaise {Fr.) In the Scotch style. 

E dur {Ger.) The key of E niajor, the 
key having four sharps in its signature. 

f Owen, Anat. of Vertebrates, vol. iii. p. 189. 

( 156 ) 


Effect. Ejjet (Fr.) Effetto {It.) The 
mental impression produced by the perform- 
ance of music, arising from the genius of the 
composer in the novel invention of pleasing 
or striking melodies, or telling harmonies, 
and the happy fitness of choice of certain 
passages, vocal or instrumental, in certain 
understood situations ; or the clever inter- 
pretation of those passages by the performers. 

Eguaglianza (it.) Equality, evenness. 

Eguale {It.) Equal, as voci egiiali, equal 

Egualmente {It.) Equally, evenly. 

Eighth. The interval of an octave. 

Einfach {Ger.) Simple ; as, einfache In- 
tervalle, simple intervals ; ein/acher Contra- 
punkt, simple counterpoint. 

Einfalt {Ger.) Simplicity ; as, rnit Einfalt 
und Wiirde, with simplicity and dignity. 

Eingang {Ger.) Introduction, as, Eingang 
Schliissel, mtroductory key. 

Eingestrichen {Ger.) Having one stroke, 
as c', d\ &c. [Pitch.] 

Einheit {Ger.) Unity. 

Einleitungs-satz {Ger.) An opening 
phrase, or introduction ; an overture. 

Einschlafen {Ger.) To slacken pace and 
diminish the power. 

Einschlagend {Ger.) Lit. striking in- 
wards, as is the case with a percussion reed ; 
whereas aufschlagend is used with reference 
to a free reed. [Reed.] 

Einschnitt {Ger.) An incomplete musical 
sentence or motive. 

Eis {Ger.) E sharp. 

Eisenvioline {Ger.) Lit., iron fiddle. A 
nail violin, an instrument the sounds of which 
are produced from pointed pieces of iron. 

Eisteddfod {Welsh). A congress or session 
for the election of chief bards, called together 
for the first time at Caerwys by virtue of a 
commission granted by Queen Elizabeth, May 
26th. 1568. Eisteddvodau have been since 
held in various places at uncertain intervals, 
and now (1875) will probably take place an- 
nually in localities made known some time 
before the assembly. The object is the 
encouragement of native poetry and music. 

Eklysis or Eclysis {Gk.) [See Ecbole.] 

Ela. The name given by Guido to the 
highest note in his scale. 


Electric organ. An organ, the key and 
stop-action of which are connected with the 
pallets and sliders by the force of an electric 

Elegant {Fr.) Elegantemente {It.) Ele- 
gatiza, con {It.) Elegantly, with elegance of 

Elegiac. In the style of an elegy ; of a 
mournful character. 

Elegy. iKeyeloy (Gk.) (i) A distich con- 
sisting of an hexameter and pentameter. (2) 
A poem in elegiacs. (3) A composition of a 
mournful and commemorative character. 

Elevatio {Lat.) (i) Arsis, q.v. (2) A 
motet sung at the elevation of the Host. (3) 
The raising of a mode beyond its ambitus. 

Elevato {It.) Raised, exalted. 

Elevazione {It.) A composition founded 
upon a special theme, as Elevazione sopra il 
Pange lingua. 

Eleve {Fr.) A pupil. 

Eleventh. The interval of an octave and 
a fourth. A compound fourth. 

Embouchure {Fr.) The mouth-piece of 
a wind instrument. 

Emmeleia, i^^i\ua{Gk.) (i) Consonance, 
concord in musical sounds. (2) A tragic 
dance accompanied by music. (3) The music 
of the tragic dance. 

E moll {Ger.) The key of E minor. The 
relative minor of G major. 

Emp^ter les sons (Fr.) To sing legato, 
or with a portamento. 

Empfindung (Ger.) Emotion, passion, 

Emphasis. Accent. [Arsis.] [Accent.] 

Emporte {Fr.) Passionate, hurried. 

Empresse {Fr.) Eager, hurried. 

Enarmonico {It.) Enharmonic. 

En badinant {Fr.) Scherzando. [Scherzo.] 

Encore {Fr.) Again, more. A word used 
in England when a repetition of a piece is 
desired. It is used both as a noun and as a 
verb in common writing ; as, an encore, to 

Enccenia. Dedication festivals ; in old 
English, chyrche-holy ; Anglo-Sax., cyric- 
halgung, church hallowing. 

Energia, con ; energicamente ; ener- 
gico {It.) With energy, forcibly. 

Enfant de chceur {Fr.) A chorister-boy. 

Enfatico {It.) With emphasis, earnestly. 

Enfler {Fr.) To swell, to increase in 

Enfasi, con {It.) With emphasis. 

Enge {Ger.) Narrow, close, straight. A 
term used in reference to the small 5caZg of 
organ pipes, or to the closeness of subject 
and answer in a stretto. 

Engel-stimme {Ger.) [Vox Angelica.] 

Engraving of music. [Printing of 

Enharmonic, (i) One of the three genera 
of Greek music, the other two being the 
Diatonic and Chromatic. (2) Having inter- 
vals less than a semitone, e.g., an enharmonic 
organ or harmonium is an instrument having 
more than twelve divisions in the octave, and 
capable, therefore, of producing two distinct 

( 157) 


sounds where, on the ordinary instrument, 
one only exists, as, for instance, Gtt and A?, 
&c. An enharmonic scale is one containing 
intervals less than a semitone. (3) An enhar- 
monic modulation is a change as to notation, 
but not as to sound, e.g. : 




It is important to notice that an enhar- 
monic modulation is not so termed in strict 
propriety, because, it is only feasible on an 
ordinary keyed-instrument by actually ignor- 
ing the existence of intervals smaller than a 

Enoplius. kv6ir\ioq (Gk.) Warlike music. 
Music of the war-dance. 

Ensemble {Fr.) Together. The whole, 
(i) The general effect of a musical perform- 
ance. (2) The union of the whole company of 
performers in a concerted piece. 

Entr'acte {Fr.) Music played between the 
acts or divisions of an opera, drama, or other 
stage performance. 

Entrata {It.) Entree {Fr.) Entry, intro- 
duction, or prelude. Scena d'entrata, the 
first scena allotted to a vocalist in an opera. 
{Fr.) scene d'entree. 

Entrechats {Fr.) The peculiar bounds 
with which a dancer leaps across the stage 
on entering. 

Entremese {Span.) A short musical 
interlude, in one or two scenes, played by a 
few actors, rarely more than four. Entre- 
meses were mostly of aburlesque character, and 
when performed between the preludes and the 
plays, Autos, or Loas, made an interlude of a 
nature peculiarly acceptable to the Spanish 
mind. The subjects were chosen from pos- 
sible events of a droll character in common 
life, and were mostly written in verse. They 
cannot be traced to a higher antiquity than 
the 17th century, and are still popular in re- 
mote parts of Spain. When more than ordi- 
nary prominence is given to the music, the 
name Saynetes (the Spanish for dainties) is 
given to them. 

Entremets {Fr.) Short dramatic or alle- 
gorical entertainments. A remote antiquity 
is claimed for this species of diversion, which 
some writers declare to be the origin of the 
opera and drama. The date of their inven- 
tion has been fixed at an epoch during the 
reign of Saint Louis (1226-1270). 

The king desired to re-awaken the en- 
thusiasm of his nobles and warriors that they 
might join him in the eijdeavour to wrest the 
Holy Land from the hands of the infidels. 
He sought the aid of the Duke of Burgundy, 

who, flattered by the preference shown to him 
in being selected as the king's agent in the 
matter, sought every means to carry his 
wishes into effect. He gave a series of 
banquets and entertainments to the nobility, 
who at that time were noted for their luxury, 
not to say licentiousness ; and in the course 
of these feasts certain allegorical poems, 
commemorating the deeds of the old warriors 
and kings, their ancestors, were recited or 
sung. Appeals were made to the chivalric 
spirit still supposed to exist in the breast of 
the scions of a warlike stock, and they were 
implored to unite in aiding the defenders of 
their religion in a crusade against the un- 
believing occupants of the sacred cities. The 
stratagem succeeded, the nobles and princes 
joined with the Duke of Burgundy and bound 
themselves by oath to follow and support 

The Entremets thus originated were con- 
tinued on great occasions, and ultimately 
became diverted from their primary intention. 
The performers, mimes, farceurs, haladins, 
tnenetriers, &c., as they are variously called, 
followed the fortunes of their lords, and in 
course of time invented new entremets, no 
longer confining themselves either to patri- 
otic or religious subjects. These entremets 
suggested more extended performances, and 
what can now be gathered of their character 
has led many, not unreasonably, to assume, 
that in them was the germ of the modern 

In later times when acting was better un- 
derstood, a further change was made in the 
style of the subjects selected, and the entre- 
mets were almost always of a humorous 
character, though heroic subjects were some- 
times chosen. In 1237, upon the occasion 
of a marriage, Alberic, in his chronicle, speaks 
of the entremets then and there performed, 
and also adds that " lUi qui dicuntur minis- 
trelli in spectaculo vanitatis multa ibi fecerunt, 
sicut ille qui in equo super cordam in aere 
equitaret, et sicut illi qui duos boves de scar- 
late vestitos equitabant cornitantes ad singula 
fercula quae apponebantur regi in mensa." 
In 1378, at a feast given by Charles V. to 
his uncle in the castle of St. Germain, two 
entremets representing the conquest of Jeru- 
salem, hy Godfrey de Bouillon, were per- 
formed. And at the marriage of Charles IX. 
in 1572, the entremets were on the subject of 
the destruction of Troy. Jean Antoine de 
Baif in 1573 published " Mimes, entremets, 
enseignmens et Proverbes," which were simply 
epigrams, and the change of opinion with 
regard to the use of the word in De Baif's 
mind, shows that even then a gradual altera- 
tion in the meaning and force of the entre- 
mets was taking place. The word is now 

( 158) 


employed to signify any small entertainment 
between two greater ones. cf. Entremese. 

Entusiasmo. Entusiastico (It.) With 

Entwurf {Ger.) A sketch. 

Eolian Harp. A musical instrument made 
of a long narrow box of thin even-grained deal, 
about five or six inches deep, having a circle 
of small holes drilled in the centre of the upper 
side. On this side the strings, six or more, are 
stretched in parallel lines over bridges fixed 
at each end, the tension being preserved by 
means of screwpins. The strings must be 
tuned in unison, and the box placed in a free 
current of air. A delicate combination of 
sounds is then produced, somewhat resem- 
bling the effect of a full orchestra, without 
instruments of percussion, when heard at a 
distance, the sound increasing or decreasing 
in power with the force of the wind. The 
usual method of using the instrument is by 
placing it on the ledge of a half-opened win- 
dow ; but the tone is best produced when the 
box is made of the exact length of the window 
opening, and the lower sash of the window 
closed as far as the box will allow. The 
Eolian harp is the invention of an English- 
man of the name of Pope, and was improved 
by Kircher, a German (1670). The har- 
monics heard are due to the overtones of the 

•* Behoves no more, 
But sidelong, to the gently waving wind 
To lay the well-tuned instrument reclined ; 

From which, with airy flying fingers light, 
Beyond each mortal touch the most refined, 

The God ofWinds drew sounds of deep delight." 

Thomson's Castle of Indolence. 

Eolian mode. The fifth of the authentic 
Gregorian modes. It consists of the natural 
notes La, Si, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol. 

Epicedion. eTmcijhiov (Gk.) A dirge, 

Epigoneion {Gk.),lTTiy6y£iov. A musical in- 
strument, named after its inventor, Epigonus, 
the date of whose existence is matter of doubt, 
and the character of the instrument is also 
somewhat uncertain. It is described as hav- 
ing forty strings, but the method of tuning is 
absolutely unknown. 

Epilenia, £7^tX^/^'^a (Gk.) Vintage songs. 

Epinette (Fr.) [Spinet.] 

Epinicium. imviKiov {Gk.) A song of 

Episode. A term in fugue writing, applied 
to those phrases which are supplemental to 
the main subjects or their answers. [Fugue.] 

Epitasis [Gk.) lirlTaenQ. (i) The raising 
of the voice from a low to a higher pitch. (2) 
The tightening of the strings of an instru- 
ment, as opposed to avtaiq. 

Epithalamium, kiriQaXuiiiov {Gk.) A 
nuptial song. 

Epode, IttuUq {Gk.) (i) An after song, 
the strain of a lyric song after the strophe 
and antistrophe. (2) A burden or refrain. 

E poi {It.) And then, after ; as, e poi la 
coda, then go to the coda. 

Equabilmente {It.) Equally, similarly. 

Equal voices. A term for an assortment 
of men's voices or women's voices. Thus, a 
piece is said to be set for equal voices, when 
the voices of men only are needed, though the 
quality of those voices are not equal, the alto 
voice differing from the tenor as the tenor 
does from the bass. The like difference in a 
less marked manner, also exists among 
women's voices, but when all men's or all 
women's voices are required, the term equal 
is applied to each group. The union of the 
voices of the two sexes is styled " mixed." 
In its most true sense the term should only 
be applied to groups of voices of like register 
and compass. 

Equisonans {Lat.) The name given to 
the consonance of the unison and octave. 

Equivoca {Lat.) Equivocal, or doubtful, 
nota equivoca was, in mediaeval music, a 
note whose value varied according to the 
length of the notes on either side. 

Equivocal or doubtful chords. A name 
given to combinations of sounds which are 
common to two or more distinct keys, and 
which, when heard, make the listener doubt- 
ful as to the particular key-tonality into 
which they are about to be resolved. 

The simplest form of chords of this class 
is to be found in the so-called diminished 
triad, e.g.: 



The above chord may be resolved into the 
keys of C major, C minor, A minor, B minor, 
or B major (the last two by means of an 
enharmonic change), thus: 





The inversions of this chord give, as might 
be expected, greater scope for varied pro- 
gressions than can be obtained from its 
original position. 

The next important doubtful chord is the 
diminished seventh, but in this case it will be 
noticed that the numerous resolutions are the 
result of its possible enharmonic change, 
whereas, in examples i, 2, and 3 above, no 

( 159 ) 


alteiation has been made in the notation of 
the chord : 






If this chord be struck and held down while 
the eye traces the various changes of nota- 
tion through which it is capable of passing, 
it will be found that an impression of an en- 
tirely new key is given at each successive 

Composers have not been slow to avail 
themselves of the sudden flights into remote 
keys, which such combinations suggest, 
every hey being easily and naturally reached 
by a judicious treatment of this chord in the 
position given above or in its other three 
positions. Another class of chords are used 
as doubtful chords, though less frequently 
than those just described, namely, the chords 
of the extreme sixth (called also sharp or 
augmented sixth), e.g. : 







^^ — " — -b'S' — 

The use of doubtful chords is only to be 
traced in modern authors ; old writers used 
them rarely, and then only to produce some 
startling effect, justified by the character of 
the words in vocal music, or by the professed 
drift of a piece of orchestral sound-painting. 

Erhohung {Ger.) Elevating, enhancing, 
raising ; as, Erhohungs Zeichen, the sign of 
chromatic elevation, a sharp or natural. 

Erniedrigung [Ger.) Lowering, depress- 
ing; as, Erniedrigungs Zeichen, the sign for 
chromatic depression, a flat or natural. 

Erst {Ger.) First; as, erster Satz, first part. 

Ersterben {Ger.) To die away, jnorendo. 

Erw^eitert {Ger.) Extended, augmented, 

Es {Ger.) E flat. 

Esatto {It.) Strict, exact ; as, esatto in- 
tonazione, just intonation. 

Es dur {Ger.) The key of E flat major. 

Esecuzione {It.) Execution. 

Eses {Ger.) E double flat. 

Es moll {Ger.) The key of E flat minor. 

Espace {Fr.) A space of the stave. 

Espagnuolo, a {It.) In the Spanish style. 

Espirando (it.) Dying away ; gasping. 

Espressione, con {It.) With expression. 

Espressivo {It.) Expressive. 

Essential harmony. Harmony inde- 
pendent of grace, auxiliary, passing, synco- 
pated, anticipating, or pedal notes. 

Essential notes. Notes belonging to a 
key-chord. The essential notes of the chord 
of F major are F, A, C. [Chordae essentiales.] 

Estinguendo. Estinto (/i!.) Dying away, 
gradually reducing both power and pace. 

Estravaganza (7;^.) A work fanciful and 
far-fetched in composition or execution. 

Estremamente {It.) Extremely. 

Estro poetico {It.) Poetic rage, or fer- 

Etendue {Fr.) Extended. 

Etouffe {Fr.) Lit. stifled. Damped, by 
means of pedal, mute, or palm of the hand. 

Etouffoirs {Fr.) Dampers. 

Etude {Fr.) A study, exercise, or lesson. 

Et vitam. One of the movements of the 
Mass. A part of the Credo, [Mass.] 

Etwas {Ger.) Somewhat; as, etwas 
langsam, rather slow, &c. 

Euphonia {Lat. and 7^.) (i) Sweet sound, 
suavitas vocis. (2) A consonant combination 
of sounds. 

Euphonium. A brass bass instrument, 
properly belonging to a military band, but 
sometimes introduced into the orchestra as a 
substitute for the third or bass trombone, to 
the tone of which the sound of the Euphonium 
has not the slightest affinity. [Metal wind 

Euphony. Sweet sound, 
combination of sounds. 

Evacuant {Ger.) An exhaust-valve, in 
an organ or other wind instrument. 

Evacuatio {Lat.) Lit. an emptying. In 
mediaeval music, the making of a note in out- 
line only, by which its value was reduced by 
one-third, e.g. : 

An agreeable 

Semibrevis plena 
et perfecta. 


Semibrevis vacua 
et imperfecta. 

Other notes were similarly affected by eva- 

Eveille {Fr.) Sprightly, quick, lively. 

Evirato {It.) [Castrato.] 

Evolutio {Lat.) The working out or 
development of a subject. 

Evovae. The vowels of the words " secu- 
lorum amen" at the end of the Gloria Patri. 
Hence used as a name of the endings of 
Gregorian tones, e.g., the following are the 
evovae of the fourth tone : 



Exercise. (i) Preparatory practice in 
order to obtain skill. (2) A composition 

( 160 ) 


intended for the improvement of the singer or 
player. (3) A composition or thesis, required 
of candidates for degrees in music in the uni- 

Expression. The power or act of render- 
ing music so as to make it the vehicle of deep 
and pure emotion ; the spirit of music, as 
opposed to the mere mechanical production 
of sound. In rendering works of a high class, 
a true expression involves the merging of the 
artist's personality in an enthusiastic effort to 
carry out to the highest extent, the fullest 
meaning of the composer. Hence the diffi- 
culty of giving a reading of classical works 
which shall satisfy those critics who have 
formed their own ideal of the author's concep- 
tions. Compositions of a low order, often 
achieve great popularity owing to their clever 
treatment by practised artists, who know how 
to create an artificial interest in such a work, 
which its internal merit does not warrant. 

Marks of expression are of comparatively 
modern use. It is said that Locke (c. 1677) 
was the first Englishman who used signs for 
crescendo and diminuendo, but there can be no 
doubt that an expressive treatment of music 
has at all times been known and appreciated, 
although the signs or directions for this ex- 
pression were unwritten. This remark applies 
equally to solo and concerted music ; in the 
latter, whether vocal or instrumental, sacred, 
or secular, the proper treatment of certain 
passages would, if not traditionally received, 
be suggested by the leading musicians among 
the performers. If this be true, directors of 
modern choirs or orchestras are to some 
extent justified in adding marks of expression 
to unmarked works to be performed, it being 
a fact that, where none exist, singers and 
players now-a-days sink into an uninteresting 
dead-level of production. 

The absence of such marks gives the 
greatest latitude to the artist who renders 
music, and allows him to stamp his reading 
more with his own individuality than where 
the expression required is definitely indicated. 
Thus, some of the old simple songs or tunes 
depend entirely upon the performer for their 
true expression; whereas modern music is so 
full of directions that any intelligent reader 
may see the drift of the author's meaning. 
But the fictitious expression obtained only 
by a strict attention to orders, is vastly dif- 
ferent from that true expression which is the 
offspring of sympathetic genius, which will 
ever remain the real test of the taste, culture, 
and ability of an artist. 

Expression-stop. In a harmonium the 
expression stop when drawn, closes the waste- 
valve of the bellows. Any alteration of the 
pressure of the feet on the wind-pedals, causes 
therefore a corresponding alteration of the 

power of the tone produced. Hence, by a 
proper sympathy between the pressure of the 
foot, and the force of sound required, the 
most delicate contrasts of light and shade 
can be obtained. 

Extempore. Musical improvisation. The 
art, or rather gift, of creating melody and har- 
mony without premeditation. The ancient 
Greeks were said to have possessed the talent 
of poetical improvisation ; and the gift is 
found in many races in which the imagination 
is free and vivid, such as the Arabs, and some 
tribes of Negroes. Among the former, the 
extempore effusions relating to small customs 
and superstitions such as those contained in 
the Sonnah, among the latter, hymns, religious 
poems and songs (generally with some rude 
kind of vocal and instrumental accompani- 
ment), form the themes improvised upon. 
Some of their songs, originally extempore, 
afterwards remembered and made traditional, 
are not without a savage kind of beauty, but 
like most productions of the class to which 
they belong, do not appear to produce the 
effect upon paper it is known they do when 
sung by an excited body of singers. 

In Europe the Italians, above all other 
nations, cultivate the gift of reciting extem- 
pore verses, which are not always mere simple 
effusions of a few stanzas, but are sometimes 
marked by extraordinary talent, and are ex- 
tended to the length of an epic poem. Even 
tragedies and comedies have been made on 
the spur of the moment. It is said that the 
people of Tuscany and of the Venetian terri- 
tories possess the gift in the strongest degree, 
and that females as well as males have exhi- 
bited powers of this sort. 

Petrarch is said to have introduced the cus- 
tom of singing extempore verses to the lute, 
and many names of eminent improvvisatori 
are preserved, one of the greatest being 
Metastasio, who, however, gave up the art at 
an early period of his long career. Among 
musicians, the gift of performing extempore 
upon an instrument is more remarkable than 
the power of making verses ; for it not only 
requires a special aptitude, but also demands 
an extensive knowledge of art at ready com- 
mand. John Stanley, the blind organist, con- 
temporary with Handel, was an extraordinary 
impromptu player, capable of clothing any 
suddenly suggested theme with every resource 
of art. The stories told of J. S. Bach, in this 
respect, would be incredible, if his works did 
not show how great and free was his command 
over the technicalities of composition. The 
list of eminent musicians who have excelled 
as extempore performers might be swelled to 
a large extent, if it were necessary; but it will 
be sufficient for the present purpose to name 
only one or two, who may be said to repre- 

( 161 ) 


sent the historical sequence of the existence 
of the faculty of performing at a moment's 
notice a subject arranged according to any 
form that might for the time be selected. 
Mozart possessed the power in no mean 
degree, for there are records of the fact of his 
having performed a concerto with only blank 
sheets of paper before him, he having been 
either too idle or too busy to write out more 
than the accompanying parts. Clementi, 
Moscheles, and Cramer, were famed for this 
gift, in their day, and the elder Samuel 
Wesley also was noted for his skill. Secular 
or trifling melodies have frequently been 
made themes for improvisation of an amusing 
or grotesque character. 

One of the greatest pleasures Mendelssohn 
gave to his friends was that of listening to his 
extempore playing, and many living musicians 
of eminence have also displayed their powers 
as well in public as in private. 

It is a singular fact that many performers 
highly gifted as extempore players, have 
failed, where it might appear at first sight 
they were eminently qualified to shine ; a 
good extempore player often proving an in- 
different, if not wholly bad accompanist or 
composer, and the reverse. The union of the 
different qualities in one and the same indi- 
vidual is rare. 

Extemporize. To play extempore. 

Extended compass. A range beyond 
the ordinary limit of a voice or instrument. 
A pianoforte was formerly said to be of ex- 
tended compass, when a few notes more 
than the old five octaves were employed ; 
now, a pianoforte is not considered of ex- 
tended compass if it has less than seven 

Extended harmony. [Dispersed har- 

Extraneous modulation. A modulation 
to an extreme or unrelated key. [Modula- 

Extreme, (i) Ovi\.s\6.Q; di^, extreme parts, 
the highest and lowest parts in part-music. 
(2) Expanded to its furthest limit ; as, extreme 
intervals, intervals greater than major or 
normal; e.g., C to GJ an extreme fifth. Such 
intervals are called also augmented, super- 
fluous, or sharp. (3) Not closely related ; a 
modulation into an extreme key is one into 
any key, other than, its own relative minor, 
its dominant, and sub-dominant, and their 
relative minors. (4) An old term fur 
any key having more than three sharps or 

Extreme sixth, chord of the. A chord 
of modern growth, so called because the in- 
terval of an extreme or augmented sixth is 
contained in it, either directly or by inversion. 
It exists in three principal forms : 

Ex. I. 

Ex. 2. 



Ex. 3. 





i A ^- A A 




•-JBL -S- 


It will be noticed that this chord occurs on the 
sixth degree of the minor scale, but like many 
other chords originally formed of notes in the 
minor scale, it is as frequently resolved into the 
major key of the tonic, as into the minor ; e.g. : 

Ex. 4. Ex. 5. Ex^6. 







A A ^ \i ^J. 



^ f r - ^ 


The dominant chord G, B t], D, which is 
common to both C major and C minor, forms 
the connection between the resolutions given 
in Ex. I, 2, 3, and those in Ex. 4, 5, and 6. 

Various explanations of the origin of this 
chord have been suggested. Some consider 
it merely a chord of | on the sixth of the 
minor scale, or the first inversion of the 
subdominant common chord with the sixth 
chromatically raised (Ex. i). Others look 
upon it as a chord of % on the sixth of the 
major scale, or the first inversion of the sub- 
dominant common chord, with the bass-note 
flattened (Ex. 4). These two opinions obtain 
favour in proportion to the supposed major or 
minor tonality of the chord. 

Some authors find a much more complicated 
solution, namely, that it contains the minor 
ninth of the dominant, combined with the 
major third, seventh, and other notes of the 
fifth above the dominant. Hence it is called 

a double -root-chord, and q would be given 

as its derivative in all the above examples. 

This chord, as constructed in Ex. i and 4, 
is sometimes known as the Italian Sixth ; as 
constructed in Ex. 2 and 5 as the French 
Sixth ; as constructed in Ex. 3 and 6 sis the 
German Sixth. 

The component notes of these are often 
converted and form different inversions or 
positions, e.g. : 

Chords of this kind are occasionally met 
with in the works of Bach and Handel, but 
are not of frequent occurrence at that date. 
Among modern authors, Spohr makes most 
use of them, and they form an important in- 
gredient of his flowing chromatic progressions. 

( 162 ) 



F. (i) The note called parhypate in the 
Greater Perfect system of the Greeks. The 
letter-name of Trite in the upper tetrachord. 

(2) The first note of the Eolian mode, or 
church scale, commencing four notes above 
the hypo-Eolian. [Greek music] 

(3) The note called "Fa ut" in the hexa- 
chord system. [Notation.] 

(4) The key-note of the major scale requir- 
ing one flat in the signature ; and the key- 
note of the minor scale related to A flat. 

Fa. The syllable used in solmisation for 
F. [Aretinian Syllables.] 

Fa bemol {Fr.) F flat. 

Fablier [Provengal.) [Trouveur.] 

Faburden, Falso-bordone {It.) Faux- 
bourdon {Fr.) One of the early systems of 
harmonising a given portion of plain-song, 
or a canto fermo. As the word implies, to 
faburden signified originally to hold a drone 
{bordonizare). It was afterwards used as a 
term for a sort of harmony consisting of 
thirds and sixths added to a canto fermo. It 
will be remembered that the organum was 
similar in construction, being only note against 
note, but consisted of fourths, fifths, and 
octaves. [See Descant.] But when counter- 
point had superseded both diaphony and 
descant, the term faburden still was retained, 
and applied to certain species of counter- 
point, sometimes (but not always) note 
against note. 

The following examples of Falso-bordone, 
by Bernabei (middle of 17th century), (from 
Proske's Musica Divina) are specially interest- 
ing as showing that composers, even at 
that time, ventured to alter church song 
when it suited their convenience. The intro- 
duction of the F# in the tenor at the close of 
Ex. I, to secure a good cadence, disturbs 
the mode of the second tone ; and in Ex. 2, 
the introduction of Gjf is equally fatal to the 
tonality of the fourth tone. 

Ex. 1. 




^g- <? 


Con - fi - tebor tibi Domine, in toto corde me - o ; 

UidJ ^ — ^ — ^ 

in consilio justorum, et congrega - ti - o - ne. 

talsoooraone. rT\ 

-JU 1 1 _ I iiH. 

eJ ' m es — a a-e? g? - 

Mag-na o-per-a Do-mi - ni, 

mi- — b'Z: — 'n — /O . m ^-H' 

l-p .m^ j^ p' ^ iJ F 
Ex-qui -si - ta in om-nes 

^rr^ rr^-^ 


vo - lun - ta - tes ej - us. 


_i2 C2- 





Ex. 2. 

—<s — s>- 

-Tg | | g= i| <s > r j 

. fT?. 


Lau - da 


te pu - e - ri Do - mi - num : 

e ^ -T-r— 


lau - da - te no - men Do - mi - ni. 




-tS G) IS>- 

I I I 


-' % I ' \ 

Sit no -men Do - mi - ni 

be - ne -die - tum, 





-«— — ^ — '^^ 





- c cs ^-»- 

1 — r 

" ^rrr 

^' * i j i 

Ex hoc nunc et us - que in see -cu-lum,insaE - cu - lum. 


a? g? - 

r^ r-j fi: (Ti r^ 


: ^^9? - 




Faces d'un accord {Fr.) The positions 
or inversions of a chord. 

Fach {Ger.) A rank of pipes, as in an 

Facile {Fr.) Easy. 

Facilement {Fr.), Facilmente {It.) 
Easily, with ease. 

Facilita {It.), Facilite {Fr.) Facility, 
readiness of execution. 

Facilite {Fr.) Made easy. An easy 
arrangement of a difficult passage. 

Facture {Fr.), Fattura {It.) (i) The 
construction of a piece of music. (2) The 
measurement, dimension, or scale of organ 

Fa diese {Fr.) F sharp. 

Fagottista (7^) A bassoon player. 

Fagotto (7^) [Bassoon.] 

( 163) 


Fagottone {It.) A large bassoon [Double 

Fall {Old Eng.) A cadence. 

Fal las. Short songs with the syllables 
fal la at the end of each line or strain. Morley 
(c. 1580), who composed some, speaks of them 
as being a kind of ballet. The fal las of 
Hilton (c. 1600) are held in highest estimation 
for the freedom of their construction and the 
beauty of their melodies. Gastoldi is the 
reputed inventor of fal las. 

Falsa musica {Lat.), called also mnsica 
ficta. False or feigned music was that in 
which notes were altered by the use of 
accidentals. " Falsa musica est quando de 
tono facimus semitonium et e converso " 
(Johannes de Garland). 

False cadence. [Cadence.] 

False fifth. A fifth when not perfect. 

False intonation, (i) The production 
of an unnatural or improper quality of tone. 
(2) Singing or playing out of tune. 

False relation. The separation of a 
chromatic semitone between two parts. 

False string. A badly woven string, 
which produces an uncertain and untrue tone. 

Falsetto {It.) The artificial or supplement- 
ing tones of the voice, higher than the chest 
or natural voice. Falsetto is present in every 
voice with more or less power or quality. 
The similarity of the character of the natural 
and artificial voice in boys or females renders 
the two tones less distinct ;- but the chest 
voice and head voice in the man being of 
two qualities, the falsetto has a special char- 
acter. The control of the falsetto requires 
great skill. The voce d'evirato is not falsetto, 
although high in pitch. [Larynx.] 

Falso-bordone {It.) [Faburden.] 

Fancies, (i) An old name for compot,i- 
tions in an impromptu style ; a fantasy. 
(2) Short pieces of music without words. 

" And sing those tunes to the over-scutched hus- 
wives that he heard the carmen whistle, and sware — 
they were his fancies, or his good-nights." — (Shak- 


Fandango {Sp.) A lively Spanish dance 
in triple time, derived from the Moors. It is 
a mild form of the Chica, q.v. It is danced 
by two persons, male and female, and accom- 
panied by the sounds of a guitar. The dancers 
have castanets, which they beat in time to 
the measure, though sometimes the male 
dancer beats a tambourine. 




^ * -^-^ 

§ m I *^1^ 




^^ ^- 

: irT—» * * I a 




Fanfare {Fr.) A flourish of trumpets, a 

Fantaisie (Fr.) [Fantasia.] 

Fantasia {It.) Fantasie {Ger.) A compo- 
sition in a style in which forrri is subservient 
to fancy. [Form.] 

To play as fancy di- 
(7^.) Fantastico {It.) 


Fantasiren {Ger.) 
rects ; to improvise. 

Fantastiqne {Fr.) Fantastically 
tesque manner. 

Farandola {It.) Farandoule {Fr.) A 
dance popular among the peasants of the 
South of France and the neighbouring part 
of Italy. It is performed by men and women 
taking hands, and forming a long line, and 
winding in and out with a waving motion. 
The manner of taking hands is peculiar. 
The men and women are placed alternately, 
each man's right hand is held by a woman's 
right hand, and his left by the left hand of 
another woman, so that along the line, when 
seen from the front of the row, there is a 
woman's face and a man's back, and the 
reverse. The dance is sometimes made the 
means of fanning popular excitement. A 
recent traveller, describing his experience of it, 
says : — " As the night wore on all the roughs 
in the town turned out, and began dancing 
the faraudole—a. kind of exciting dance pe- 
culiar to the south : men and women, hand 
in hand, form a long chain, and to a very 
quick step turn and twist along the various 
thoroughfares. This dance has the same 
eff"ect on the fiery Southerners that the scalp 
dance has on the Red Indians, and makes 
them quite wild. It was after they had thus 
worked themselves up to a proper state ol 

( 164) 


excitement that the mob of Avignon massacred 
Marshal Brune in 1815." 

The figures of the Farandola by the 
name of the " Spanish dance," were well 
known in English ball-rooms thirty years 

Farsa in musica [It.) A musical burletta 
or farce. 

Fascia {It.) (i) A bind or tie. (2) The 
sides of a fiddle. 

Fastoso, fastosamente {It.) Proudly, 

Fattura {It.) [Facture.] 

Fausse corde {Fr.) [False string.] 

Fausset {Fr.) [Falsetto.] 

F clef. [Clef.] 

F dur. {Ger.) The key of F major. 

Federclavier {Ger.) Spinet. 

Feier {Ger.) A festival. Feierlich, in a 
festival style, grandly. 

Feld {Ger.) (i) The disposition of pipes 
in an organ. (2) Feldjidte, a rustic flute or 
pipe. (3) Feldmusik, military music. (4) 
Feldton, the key of E flat, in which military 
instruments are often set. 

Ferial. Non-festal ; as, ferial use, music 
for use on ordinary days, 

Fermamente, fermato (/^.) Firmly, with 

Fermata (7^.) A pause (from fermare, to 
stay, or stop). 

Fermo {It.) Firm, fast ; as, canto fermo, 
the subject or part held firmly, while descant 
or counterpoint moved about it. 

Feroce, con ferocita {It.) Wildly, 

Fertig {Ger.) Quick, dexterous. 

Fervente, ferventemente (7^.) Fer- 
vently, vehemently. 

Fes {Ger.) The note F flat. 

Fest {Ger.) A festival ; as, Festgesang, 
a festival cantata. 

Fest {Ger.) Firm; as, fester Gesang, ca.nto 
fermo. [Fermo.] 

Festivamente (7^.) Solemnly, pleasantly. 

Festivita, con (7^.) With joyfulness. 

Festivo (7^.) Festive, solemn. 

Festoso (7^.) Joyous, gay. 

FF. £f., abb. of fortissimo. Very loud. 

Fiacco (7^.) Weak, weary, faint. 

F holes. The openings in the upper plate 
of a violin or other instrument having a re- 
sonance-body, so called from their common 
shape /. 

Fiasco {It.) lit. a flask or bottle. A term 
applied to a failure in singing, playing, or 
representation. The fistula pastoricia was 
blown by the Romans to signify their dis- 
satisfaction, and it is possible that the present 
use of the term arose from the similarity 
between the shape of a flageolet {fiaschinett) 
and a flask. The Italians now blow some- 

times into the pipe of a key, whence the 
expression colla chiave. 

Fiato {It.) (i) Wind ; as, stromenti di 
fiato, wind instruments. (2) Breath, in sing- 
ing ; as m the French une longne lialeine, a 
long breath, a long note or passage performed 
with one respiration. 

Ficta musica {Lat.) [Falsa.] 

Fiddle. [Violin.] 

Fidicen (La^) {¥vovc\ fides and cano.) A 
lute or harp player. 

Fiedel {Ger.) Fiddle. 

Fier {Fr.) Fiero {It.) Prou'd, fierce. 

Fieramente, fiero (7^.) Proudly, fiercely, 

Fife. Fifre {Fr.), Querpfeife {Ger.), Pif- 
fera {It.) An ancient musical instrument, 
the name being cognate with pipe. The com- 
pass is two octaves from D : 


A combination of fifes and drums is the only 
music officially allowed in the British army 
and navy. Although of ancient use in Eng- 
land for military purposes, it was discontinued 
in the reign of James I., and was not restored 
until the siege of Maestricht in 1747. The 
fife in the orchestra is called flauto piccolo. 

Fife. An organ stop. A piccolo, generally 
of two feet in length. 

Fifre. [Fife.] 

Fifteenth. The interval of a double 
octave. Bis-diapason. 

Fifteenth. An organ stop of two feet in 
length on the manuals and four feet on the 
pedals, consisting of open metal pipes. 

Fifth. A diatonic interval of five notes. 
Its ratio is 2 : 3, the diapente of the ancients. 

Figura {Lat.) A note. Figxira simplex, 
a note standing by itself. Figura ligata, a 
ligature, or a series of notes with contiguous 

Figure. A form of melody or accompani- 
ment maintained throughout the phrase in 
which it is suggested. In a melody, figure 
is called sequence. In harmony a figure 
relates to the rhythmical observance of a 
certain form in all the accompanying chords 
to the melody. (2) A musical phrase. (3) 
A florid melody. 

Figurato (7/.) Figure {Fr.) Figured. 

Figured Bass. A bass having the accom- 
panying chords suggested by certain numbers 
above or below the notes. It is at present 
the most satisfactory system of musical short- 
hand. The whole of the notes are not always 
indicated by a corresponding number of 
figures, because one number generally implies 
two or more to complete the chord. When 
there is no figure, it is understood that the 
common chord of such a note is to be used as 

( 165 ) 


its harmony. The following table will show 
the manner in which figures are used : 

The figure 2 implies a 4th and 6th, 
,, ,, 3 ,, 5th perfect, or dimi- 

nished, according to the position of the 
note in the key. 
The figure 4 implies a 5th, or 5th and 8th. 
„ 5 ,, 3rd and 8th. 

» „ 6 „ 3rd. 

„ 7 „ 5th and 3rd. 

„ 8 „ 3rd and 5th. 

„ „ 9 ,, 3rd and 5th. 

A stroke through a figure directs the raising 
of the interval by a natural or sharp, as the 
case may be. 

An accidental standing alone implies a cor- 
responding alteration of the 3rd of the chord. 
Horizontal lines direct the continuance of the 
harmony of the previous chord. If there are 
no figures under the previous chord, the line 
or lines direct the continuance of the common 
chord of the first note under which they were 

Filar la voce {It.), Filer le son (Fr.) To 
prolong a sound, swelling and diminishing 
the tone by degrees. 

Fin (Fr.) The end. 

Finale (It.) The last movement of a con- 
certed piece, sonata, or symphony ; the last 
piece of an act of an opera ; the last piece in 
a programme. 

Fine (It.) The end ; used to show the end 
of a piece or movement, after a repeat, or 
partial repeat. 

Finger-board. Fingerhrett (Ger.) (i) 
The flat or slightly rounded piece of wood 
attached to the neck of instruments of the 
violin and guitar class, on to which the strings 
are pressed when stopped by the fingers. (2) 
A manual or clavier. 

Finger cymbals. [Cymbals.] 

Fingering. Applicattira (It.), Application 
[Fr.),Doigter (Fr.), Applicatiir (Ger.), Finger - 
setzung [Ger.) The art of placing and using 
the fingers properly in performing upon a 
musical instrument. 

(i) When instruments were for the first time 
constructed so that the leverage of their keys 
was light and admitted of rapid and ready 
motion, musicians soon formed rules for the 
employment of the fingers in such a manner 
as to give the greatest facility to the player. 
These rules were ptoperly improved and ex- 
tended by each master who taught the use of 
a keyed instrument, and there is reason to 
suppose that they were kept more or less 
secret by each teacher, long before it was 
deemed expedient to set forth the methods in 
a general publication. 

Comparing the earliest published methods 
of fingering with the musical compositions 

belonging to the same period, it is difficult 
to conceive that a clear, distinct, and rapid 
performance could ever be attained by those 
methods, for they are of a cramped, stiff and 
awkward character, while the compositions 
are of an opposite nature, considering the 
state of the art at the time. 

Such a thing as acquiring a knowledge of 
a keyed instrument without a master was out 
of the question, and it is not at all unlikely 
that this was contemplated by the authors or 
compilers of the books of instruction. 

One of the earliest printed books in which 
rules for fingering are laid down was Euse- 
bius Ammerbach's " Orgel oder Instrument- 
Tablatur," Leipsic 157 1, where in the fourth 
chapter a scale is fingered in the following 
manner : — 

Rechte Hand (Right Hand). 



12121212 12321 

Linke Hand (Left Hand). 

2 I 2 I 


. ,-^ i g.^ 



32103210 32121 2123 

o stands for the thumb, i for the forefinger, 
2 for the middle finger, and so on. 

The thumb of the right hand was never 
used in scale passages, that of the left hand 
only occasionally, the little fingers were only 
used with the thumbs in spanning chords. 

The rules for fingering in striking or play- 
ing chords are thus stated : 3rds in either 
hand were to be struck with the first and third 
fingers ; 4ths, 5ths, and 6ths with the first 
and fourth ; 7ths, octaves, gths and loths 
with the thumb and third finger, and only 
occasionally with the little finger and thumb. 

Before saying an3'thing further of other 
works on the subject, it may be as well to 
refer to a private MS. book of lessons pre- 
served in the British Museum, and quoted by 
Stafford Smith in his Musica Antiqua, in 
which the master has marked the fingering of 
a passage in a very different manner to that 
laid down by the German author. It is true 
that there is a difference of nearly thirty years 
in the dates between Ammerbach's book and 
this, but as treatises published later preserve 
and teach the like awkward system of finger- 
ing, a curious confirmation of the conjecture 
that there was a considerable difference be- 
tween the theory and the practice cannot fail 
to strike the thoughtful reader. The MS. 
referred to bears the date 1599, and the first 
lesson with the fingering (i being thumb, 2 
forefinger, &c.) is as follows : — 

Right Hand. 

3 4343 


( 166 ) 


Now in this fingering all the fingers are 
brought into play, and though it is somewhat 
clumsy according to modern views, it is less 
unhandy than that of Ammerbach, and as we 
have no ground for assuming that the English 
teachers had better principles to guide them 
than their German neighbours, and as it is 
known moreover, by tradition, that the most 
skilful players only imparted the secret of 
their power to favoured pupils, not only at 
that time but in later years, the assumption 
is not made without reasonable support. 

A modern player would find it a very diffi- 
cult task to perform the following extract from 
a " Gagliardo by Orlando Gibbons," printed 
in " Parthenia," 1611, if he confined himself 
to the use of three of his fingers in either 
hand : 

or to execute with ease any such a piece as 
that by Frescobaldi quoted in the article 
Canzona, belonging to about this period. 
And yet not only was the peculiarity of 
fingering as set forth by Ammerbach taught 
at that time, but was also continued to a later 

There is a lapse of more than 100 years 
before the next important book made its 
appearance," DasMusikalische Kleeblatt" of 
Daniel Speer, 1697, in which the improve- 
ments suggested are few, the chief of which 
was the more frequent use of the thumb of 
the left hand, as will be seen in the following 
scale fingered according to his directions : 

R.H.I 2 3 




c? c ^ 

~- G >^ ^ - 

L.H. 3 2 I 3 2 I 
2 I 2 I 21 2 


r ^ ^ 




That there were differences of opinion on 
the subject with regard to fingering in the 
published books of about the same period, 
is shown by the subjoined quotation from 
" Kurtzer jedoch griindlicher Wegweiser, 
vermittelst welches man aus dem Grund die 
Kunst die Orgel recht zu Schlagen," Augs- 
burg 1698, in which the scale of C is thus 

fingered ; the thumb being indicated by the 
circle : 

R.H. 1232325 

^ g . f? 



2 1 

3 2 

o 3 
I 2 

2 I 
I 2 

I 2 



^ /n 


O I O I 
2 12 12 

es r^ 


01232323 2312323 

The well-known book, published by Walsh, 
under the title of " The Harpsichord Master, 
containing Plain and Easy Instructions for 
Learners on the Harpsichord or Spinnet," 
1734, which, passing through many editions, 
may be fairly considered as correctly repre- 
senting the method of that period, gives the 
following directions for fingering : — " Observe 
in ye fingering of y"" right hand, y"" thumb is 
ye I St, so on to y^ 5th, and y^ left hand 
y little finger is y^ ist, and so on, y^ fingers 
to ascend are y^ 3rd and 4th to descend y^ 3rd 
and 2nd." 

12343434 3434345 54323232 3232321 

123434343434345 54323232 3232321 




Mattheson (" Kleine Generalbasschule," 
1735) and Maier (" Musiksaal," 1741) agree in 
their fingering, their method being as follows, 
little or no advance or alteration having been 
devised in the meanwhile in other publica- 

R.H. 23232 32 


^ < p 

L.H. 2 I o I o I o 

3 212 I 21 






2 I 2 I 2 I O 



2 I 


It is stated that J. S. Bach disregarded the 
ordinary principles taught in instruction 
books, and employed both thumb and little 
finger as frequently as the other fingers, 
whereby a greater power was gained, and the 
performer was able to move rapidly in extreme 
keys. Some writers claim the suggestion for 
the free use of all the fingers, for Fran9ois 
Couperin, who, in his work, " L'art de toucher 
le Clavecin," 17 16, describes the method of 
fingering practised and taught by Bach, and 
consequently they say that the German is 
indebted to the Frenchman for his ideas on 
the subject. But Couperin's fingering is 
somewhat different from that of Bach, the only 
similarity in their methods being the constant 
employment of the thumb. 

( 167 ) 


Couperin, in the work alluded to 
calls the fingers of either hand i, 2, 
commencing with the thumb : 

3. 4> 5. 

Main droite. 

Main gauche. 





5 4 3 2 1 

And in order to make his fingering acceptable, 
gives instances of the old style of playing con- 
trasted with his own improvements. In some 
cases his suggestions are good, in others 
there is little if any help out of long-standing 
awkwardness, as the following fingered scale 
will show : 

Progres d'octaves. 

His next improved example is better, and 
more in accordance with modern methods : 

" Maniere ancienne de faire plusieurs tierces de suite." 
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 2 

" Facon moderne pour couler les memes tierces." 
232323 232323 I 3212 


454545 454545 3 5 433 

Bach never published his method, but it 
was made known through Forkel, who ac- 
quired it from Emanuel Bach. The peculiar 
methods of fingering shown in the quotations 
from the German books seem to have been 
confined to the country in which they were 
first given forth, the style adopted in England 
and France appearing to be borrowed from 
Italy. Many of the harpsichord instruction 
books printed in England in the early part of 
the last centur}^ profess to be based upon the 
" Italian method of fingering," which per- 
mitted the constant employment of all the 

The invention of the pianoforte called a 
new set of instruction book writers into ex- 
istence, but it required the genius of Cramer, 
Clementi, and Dussek to liberate learners 
from the trammels of the harpsichord finger- 
ing, dementi's " Introduction to the Art of 
Playing on the Pianoforte" was written soon 
after his return to England, in 1784, and 
went through many editions. In 1810 he 
greatly improved the work, and added an 
appendix to it. Cramer made but few, if 
any, advances on the method of fingering 
suggested by Clementi in his " Introduction," 

but Dussek, in his " Book of Instructions," 
published about 1798, when he began business 
as a music publisher, laid down a code of 
rules which have served as the basis of 
teaching fingering from his time onward. 

He recommends the pupil not to play his 
scales after the old method of fingering, by 
suffering the fingers to cross each other 
unnaturally, as in this example, right hand : 



-m — ^ 


thereby implying that the old clumsy methods 
were still taught ; but " to set it down as an 
invariable rule, and without any exception, 
that whether ascending or descending, the 
assistance, or rather, the displacing the 
thumb only is sufficient to effect the necessary 
change of position in the other fingers, the 
thumb being naturally formed to glide easily 
under them, without displacing the proper 
position of the hand." 

+ 123 4 32 1+21+3 2 1+21 + 

+ 1 2 +123 + 

Right Hand. 

^ i^ 


+3 21+21 

Left Hand. 


3+2 1+21 +12+ 123+ 1 2+1234 

The free use of all the fingers is now common, 
and the old rules with regard to the sparing 
of the thumb so little observed, that there is 
a tendency to go the opposite extreme in 
employing it more often than is absolutely 
necessary. Space cannot here be allowed, or 
the whole of Dussek's rules for fingering 
might be reprinted with advantage as a set-off 
against modern extravagance, but those who 
have leisure and inclination might study them 
with profit, for no better code of rules for 
pianoforte playing have as yet been given to 
the world. 

(2) In violin playing the fingers serve as 
stops shortening the length of the vibrating 
portion of the several strings as they are re- 
quired, a like practice being followed in the 
performance upon such fingerboard instru- 
ments as the lute, mandoline, or guitar, as 
are plucked with the right hand. Upon the 
guitar the places of the several degrees are 
marked on the fingerboard by frets, which, 
when the string is pressed — always a little 
behind the one required — serve as a temporary 

(3) This is not the place to enter deeply into 
the anatom}' of the hand, which can be found 
in any text-book on anatomy, and more espe- 
cially in the elaborate Treatise of Sir Charles 
Bell. The bones of the hand are joined to- 
gether by various sorts of joints, some of 
them fixed, some moveable. The joint by 
which the thumb joins the bone on which it 
plays is a remarkable one, admitting of a 

( 168 ) 


most complex series of movements, and since 
the brain of man is indebted to the hand of 
man as much as the hand to the brain, each 
rendering higher development in the other 
possible, and thus helping to constitute a 
couple of mutually perfecting factors — by far 
the greater part of this potentiality on the 
side of the hand is owing to this articulation 
of the thumb. The thumb of man is pre- 
eminent in the animal series. 

From a musical point of view another 
subject is of interest. If we straighten our 
fingers we shall see that no two of them are of 
the same length. Now let us bend the fingers 
on themselves, so as to bring the finger-tips 
into the middle of the palm, and we shall find 
that the finger-tips form an almost straight 
line with one another. The convenience of 
this to the musician is obvious, in playing 
keyed instruments such as the pianoforte or 
organ ; or any wind instrument like the oboe, 
flute, or clarinet, we have a series of evenly 
arranged finger-tips ready to the notes. This 
is a point of what we may call accidental 
convenience, for the hand of man was not 
especially adapted for playing instruments. 
The question now arises howthis curious effect 
is produced, and a few words will explain it. 
If any one will take the trouble to measure as 
accurately as he can the length of the first and 
of the third joint of each finger (the "proximal 
and distal phalanges") omitting the middle 
joint, he will find that by subtracting the 
length of the end (distal) joint which carries 
the nail from the length of the nearest (proxi- 
mal) joint which joins the " knuckle," he will 
get a constant number, in other words, if the 
proximal phalanx is long, and would carry the 
finger-tip far beyond the middle of the palm, 
the distal phalanx is proportionately long and 
in a bent position of the finger carries the 
finger-tip proportionately far back towards 
the palm, or in yet other terms, the number 
of linear units obtained by subtracting the 
length of the distal phalanx of each finger 
from the length of the proximal phalanx of 
the same finger is constant in all the fingers. 
This is not absolutely correct, for the angles 
at which the phalanges are bent are not 
exactly right angles, so that the middle 
phalanx cannot be quite neglected, but the 
principle nevertheless we believe to be correct. 
The muscles which move the fingers and 
thumb are situated some in the forearm, some 
in the hand. If any one grasps his forearm, 
and moves the fingers, he will feel the muscles 
moving under his grasp. The thumb has the 
greatest number of muscles attached to it, and 
therefore takes the precedence in importance; 
the first or index-finger has a special muscle 
to extend or straighten it called the extensor 
indicis or " indicator," This muscle was said 

to be absent in all the apes, and there was an 
old sa3ang, " no ape can point," which was 
quoted in favour of human superiority — this, 
however, is not true (Journal of Anat. and 
Phys., vol. vi. p. 185) ; we trust, notwith- 
standing, that the pre-eminence of man in 
the animal kingdom rests on somewhat more 
important foundations, and need not be ceded, 
however much apes may point. The little 
finger has a special muscle to extend or 
straighten it which the old anatomists called 
the " auricularis," because it is used to 
straighten the little finger when the extremity 
of that member is inserted into the ear. Thus 
did these ingenious men infuse an element of 
humour into the driest and apparently least 
comic of all subjects. 

Palm of Hand 

Tendons of 
Flexor Muscles 

Fig. 1. 


There are a set of muscles called " lumbri- 
cales " (from "lumbricus," a worm, because 
they are not unlike an earth-worm in size 
and shape), which are of great importance to 
musical performers, and in pianoforte players 
become very largely developed. They are 
attached to the flexor tendons (which bend the 
fingers) as they pass along the palm. They 
help to bend the fingers, but their individual 
action is somewhat complicated, viz., to 
bend the finger at the knuckle-joint, but to 
straighteti the finger. 

But there is one point in the anatomy of 
the hand which is of great interest to musical 
performers, especially to pianoforte and organ 
players. If any one will place the tips of 
his fingers on a table in a bent position, as if 
playing the pianoforte, and then try to raise 
them one at a time, he will find that he can 
raise his thumb easily, say four or five inches, 
the forefinger is also very moveable, and can 
be raised so that the tip is about three inches 
from the table, the middle finger about two- 
thirds of that height, and the little finger 
rather higher. Now let him try to raise the ring 
finger, keeping the middle and little fingers 

( if^9 ) 


down, and he will find a peculiar difficulty in 
doing so. If he is a pianoforte or organ- 
player he will probably call to mind many 
exercises which he has toiled at, all of them 
easy enough but for that unlucky ring finger. 
In fact, all good writers of exercises have the 
education of the ring finger very prominently 
in view. What is the cause of this ? It has 
been asserted popularly that this finger has a 
tendon too little, but this is just the opposite 
of the fact. 

Back of Hand 


Fig. 2 

If we look at figure 2. we shall see the ex- 
tensor tendons (the tendons which extend or 
straighten the fingers) running to the fingers, 
but, in addition, we shall see that the tendon 
which goes to the ring-finger gives off a small 
slip (*) on each side, one of which joins the ex- 
tensor tendon of the little finger, the other that 
of the middle finger. Now we observed that 
none of these three fingers is as moveable as 
the forefinger. If we observe, also, the direc- 
tion of these slips we shall see that they do not 
run straight across from the ring finger to the 
two on each side, but run at the same time a 
little towards the fingers. Now if we see 
what happens when we raise the middle 
finger alone, we shall observe that the slip 
will become tight at a certain point, but not 
until it has passed through a considerable 
space, the first action being to relax the 
tendinous slip; the same with the little finger. 
But if we raise the ring finger alone, the slips 
almost immediately become tight, and prevent 
its being raised, and the exercises before 
alluded to have for their purpose the stretch- 
ing of the tendinous slips, especially in 
youth, when growth and change are active in 
the tissues. Now these slips must have some 
purpose, though it is not at all certain that 
we know it. It is probable that their pur- 
pose is to make the grasp firmer, the three 
fingers being so associated together that each 
as it were assists the other, and it is hard 

to detach one without the rest. They are 
present in monkeys (see paper before alluded 
to), and in them would be useful in climbing, 
in which exercise, strength of grasp is of 
course of great importance. The forefinger 
is not included in this association, as its 
value depends largely on its freedom of inde- 
pendent movement, especially on its capability 
of being opposed accurately to the thumb. 

These slips have an historical interest. 
Robert Schumann, painfully aware of their 
presence, and acquainted with the cause of 
the difficulty connected with the ring finger, 
tied back that finger for a long time. Not 
being successful in his operation, he irre- 
coverably damaged his hand, and injured his 
pianoforte playing most seriously, and in con- 
sequence turned his attention to writing, to 
which fact we are largely indebted for the 
number of his masterly compositions. What 
was a loss to him and to his contemporaries 
has become a rich gain to posterity. A case 
is recorded in which an accidental wound to 
the back of the hand partially divided one of 
these tendinous slips, and the ring-finger 
gained a considerably increased degree of mo- 
tion. The subject of the accident noticed 
the change on playing the pianoforte after 
the wound was healed. With regard to the 
feasibility of this as a definite operation, 
there is no doubt that if it could be done 
safely it would be worth every pianist's while 
to have these slips divided. 

The experiment of Schumann, which led 
to the above suggestion, has resulted in a 
series of fourteen operations performed by Dr. 
Forbes, and described by him in an interesting 
article in the Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal, Dec. 25, 1884. He reports that all 
were successful, and that no ill consequences 
followed. The remaining doubt is the per- 
manency of the results. Who can say when 
this small operation may become the fashion ? 

Fingerleiter. (Ger.) [Chiroplast.] 

FinlfrStzung} («-•> l^'"^-^"^'^ 
Finite canon. [Canon.] 
Finite (It.) Finished, ended. 
Finto (it.) A feint, a term applied to de- 
ceptive cadences. [Cadence.] 
Fiochetto {It.) Slightly hoarse. 
Fioco (It.) Hoarse. 

Fiorito^^^^h^^-) 0^"^^^^*^^^' ^'^^'^' 

Fiorituri (7^.) Ornaments, cadenzas, florid 
passages in a melody or an accompaniment. 

Fis (Ger.) F sharp. 

Fisfis or Fisis (Ger.) F double sharp. 

Fis dur (Ger.) F sharp major. 

Fis moll (Ger.) F sharp minor. 

Fistula (Lat.) A pipe. Fistula dulcis, a 
ftiite a bee. Fistula, cui semper decrescii 

( 170 



arundinis ordo, pan-pipes. Fistula ehurniola, 
the ivory pitch-pipe, from which an orator 
took the pitch for his voice. Fistula pastoricia, 
the shepherd's pipe, sometimes blown in 
the theatre as a sign of dissatisfaction. 

Fithele {old Eng.) The ancient name of 
the fiddle, probably derived from fidicula, a 
small stringed instrument of the cithara 

Flageolet, (i) A small pipe with a 
mouth-piece inserted in a bulb (hence the 
derivation of the name from the same root 
from which the word flagon comes), producing 
a shrill sound, similar, but much softer in 
quality than that produced from the flauto 
piccolo. It is an instrument of English in- 
vention, and was formerly employed in the 
orchestra. The obbligato in the song, "O, 
ruddier than the cherry," in Handel's " Acis 
and Galatea," is for a flageolet. (2) The tone 
produced from a violin by lightly press- 

bow near the bridge 
strings, is called 

upon lightly 
or flute 



Flageolettone (Ger.) [Flageolet tones.] 

Flageolet tones. The natural harmonics 
of stringed instruments, so called from their 
pure flute-like quality of tone. 

Flaschinett (Ger.) The flageolet. 

Flat, (i) The sign b, which directs the 
lowering of the note to which it is prefixed 
by one semitone. Its shape is derived from 
the ancient b. [B quadratum.] (2) Singing 
or playing is said to be flat when the sounds 
produced fail to reach the true pitch. (3) 
Minor ; as, a flat 3rd, a flat 5th, &c. 

Flatter la corde (Fr.) To play expres- 
sively upon a stringed instrument with a 

Flat tuning. One of the varieties of 
tuning on the lute ; called also French tuning, 
or French flat tuning, because the French 
pitch was formerly lower than that used else- 
where. Hence the German term Franz-ton 
for a low pitch. 

Flautando, flautato (It.) Like a flute ; 
a direction to produce the flageolet tones on 
the violin, &c. [Flageolet tones.] 

Flautino (It.) (i) An instrument of the 
accordion kind. (2) A little flute, piccolo, or 
flageolet. (3) [Flautando.] 

Flauto (It.) [Flute.] 

Flauto amabile (It.), fliite d' amour (Fr.) 
An organ stop, consisting of sweet-toned 
closed, or sometimes open, pipes. It is 
generally of 4 ft. pitch. 

Flauto dolce (It.) [Flute.] 

Flautone (It.) [Bass flute.] 

Flauto piccolo (It.) [Piccolo flute.] 

Flauto traverso (It.) The German flute 
held laterally, flutes having been formerly 

played with a mouth-piece, whence they were 
called flutes ct bee. [Flute.] 

Flebile, Flebilmente (It.) In a doleful, 
tearful manner. 

Flessibilit^ (It.) [Flexibility.] 

Flexibility. The power of free and 
rapid execution, in vocal or instrumental- 

Fling. A dance performed by Scottish 
Highlanders to a tune in common time. 

FLocher (G^r.) [F holes.] 

Florid counterpoint. A counterpoint 
not confined to any special species, but in 
which notes of various lengths are used. It 
is opposed to strict counterpoint. [Counter- 

Florid music. Music in which the melody 
and accompanying parts are of an ornamental 
and embellished style. 

Flote (Ger.) [Flute.] 

Flourish, (i) The execution of profuse 
but unmeaning ornamentation in music. (2) 
The old English name for a call, fanfare, or 
prelude for trumpets or other instruments to- 
gether or alone. (3) The preparatory cadenza 
for " tuning the voice," in which singers 
formerly indulged just before commencing 
their song. 

Fliichtig (Ger.) Light, rapid. 

Fliigel [Ger.) A grand pianoforte or harp- 
sichord, so called because of the wing-like 
shape of the top. 

Fliigel-horn (Ger.) A bugle. A valve- 

Flute, (i) One of the most widely used 
of ancient musical instruments, and at this 
day one of the most important instruments 
in an orchestra. It has been remarked in 
speaking of the aulos, that the general idea 
of a " flute," probably included anciently, not 
only open tubes, but also instruments having 
a reed, such for instance, as the oboe. But 
the word has for many centuries been used 
only in the former sense. 

Of tubes without reeds there are only two 
kinds — the flute played by a mouth-piece, 
and that played by placing the lips close 
against a hole on one side. The former kind 
\yas formerly called fliite a bee ; the latter, 
fliite traversiere, or flauto traverso, the cross 
flute. The flageolet, which still is in use, is 
a familiar example of a fliite a bee, but it is 
the smallest of its kind, for these instruments 
were at one time made sufficiently large to 
be called "tenor" and "bass" flutes; and 
complete four-part harmony could be obtained 
from a set [Bass flute]. The larger kinds 
only exist now as curiosities. The fliite a bee 
was used so commonly in England that it 
was called on the cont'xnentflilte d'Angleterre. 
They came to be called 6^a^-flutes, because 

( 171 ) 


of the similarity of the mouthpiece, through 
which the wind is directed against a sharp 
edge, to the beak of a bird. Fliites a bee were 
single and double. Such double flutes were 
familiar both to Egyptians and Assyrians, 
and illustrations of them will be found on p. 
40 (Aulos). The following illustration, from 
Boissard's Roman Antiquities, is interesting 
from its great likeness to the modern double- 
flageolet : 

Fig. I. 

The Romans gave various names to their 
flutes : calamus from the material (reed) of 
which it was made ; tibia, because anciently 
flutes were formed out of a leg-bone, as shown 
in the following illustration : 

Fig. 2. 

It is a remarkable fact that flutes of this 
barbarous construction are to this day used 
in many parts of Asia. The word fistula 
seems to have been applied both to flageolets 
and pan's-pipes. Flutes a bcc have at all 
times been a favourite object for ornamenta- 
tion, and the next illustration shows a very 
beautiful example in carved ivory in the 
Kensington Museum : 

Fig. 3. 

The ancients possessed cross-flutes, and it 
is strange that their real value should have 
been found out, and their use made general, 
after so long a period of disuse, that on their 
re-introduction they were called German flutes 
as opposed to the old English beak-flute. 
They were used by the Egyptians, as the fol- 
lowing illustration shows : 

Fig. 4. 

Fetis having obtained the exact measure- 
ments of an ancient Egyptian flute preserved 
in Florence, caused a flute to be made of the 
like dimensions and shape. The following 
figure shows it : 


He found the lowest note it was capable of 
producing, to be the A below middle C. But 
if Egyptian artists are to be trusted, the 
flute in Fig. 4 must have been of even graver 

Cross-flutes were known to the Greeks by 
the name plagiaulos {TrXa-ylavXog), and to the 
Romans as tibia obliqua, both of these terms 
leave no doubt as to their nature. By the 
Romans the cross-flute was sometimes called 
also tibia vasca, the meaning of which is 
very doubtful. 

It may be necessary to say, that although 
the tibice represented flutes of all kinds, yet if 
a real tibia or shinbone be made into a flute, 
it is held crossways, and the player blows 
into a hole in the side. 

(2) The " German flute," so popular in 
England during the last century, has entirely 
superseded the old 'English flute a bee in our 
orchestra, and is now known as the flute. Its 
construction has, from time to time, been 
improved, until it has now a compass of three 



But as the lowest note is very soft, and three 
or four of the highest notes are exceedingly 
shrill, it is safer to consider it as possessing 
a chromatic scale of about two octaves and a 
half. Notwithstanding the vast improvements 
in the key work of flutes (of which, by the 
way, the ancients seem to have been entirely 
ignorant), there are shakes on certain notes 
which are almost impossible, and others which 
are of excessive difficulty ; a list of the shakes 
most dif^cult to execute will be found in 

( 172) 


Prout's Instrumentation Primer, page 57, and 
other standard works on orchestration. The 
lovely effect of this instrument in an orchestra 
must be so well known to all as to render it un- 
necessary to quote special examples of its use. 

(3) The piccolo-flute has the same extent 
of compass as the ordinary flute, but is one 
octave higher in pitch. When used in an 
orchestra with moderation and skill, it is 
capable of producing delightful effects; but, 
unfortunately, it is so commonly abused that 
it has got an undeserved bad character. The 
lower portion of its notes are bright and joy- 
ous, but in the upper part of its compass it is 
so shrill as to only justify its use when rare 
and special effects are required. 

(4) As all open organ pipes of the Jlue class 
are made on the same principle as the flUte 
a bee, it will be easily understood that flutes 
are one of the most essential class of organ 
stops. They are of two kinds — open and 
stopped, and are equally common in metal 
and wood. The construction of the stopped 
flute, so far as the mouthpiece (foot) and lips 
are concerned, is identical also with that of 
the fi{ite a bee, only, of course, its first har- 
monic will be the twelfth, not the octave, of 
the primary sound. When organ builders 
describe some of their flute-stops as flauto 
traverso, or flute douee (another name for 
the cross-flute), it must be understood that 
they have only imitated the quality of tone, 
not the construction of that instrument. By 
slight modifications of the shape of the dif- 
ferent parts of a flute pipe, an almost endless 
variety of tone may be produced, and organ 
builders avail themselves of this fact to coin 
an endless variety of names. If the names 
so chosen carried with them a hint as to the 
special construction of each register, it would 
be unfair to complain of their multiplication; 
but, with a very few exceptions, this is not 
the case. 

The following are some of the titles ap- 
pended to flute-stops on English and foreign 
organs : 

(i) Describing their material, as wood flute, 
woud, and woudefluit (in Holland). Metal flute. 

(2) Stating whether the pipes are open or 
closed; as, open flute, fliite ouverte (Fr.); 
stopped flute, Gedackt-flote {Ger.) 

(3) Showing the pitch of the stop; as, bass 
flute (16 ft. and 8 ft.) Flatitone (16 ft.) 
Flauto grave (16 ft.) Flute prineipal (8 ft.) 
Flute major (8 ft.) Unison flute (8 ft.) Flute 
minor (4 ft.) Flute oetaviente (4 ft.) Quint 
flote (5^ ft.) Quintaton (sounding unison and 
twelfth). Piccolo flute (2 ft.) Flautino (2 ft.) 
Kleinflote (2 ft.) Terzflote (i^ ft.) Flute 
discant. Flute dessus (treble flute). 

(4) Describing the shape of the pipes, as 
Doppelflote (with two mouths). Pyramid 

flute (having pipes larger at the top than at 
the mouth). Flagfluit (Dutch). Flachflote 
{Ger.) (having flat lips). Spitz-flbte {Ger.), 
and Flute pointue {Fr.) (having pipes smaller 
at the top than at the mouth). Rohr-flote 
{Ger.), and Flute a eheminee {Fr.) (having a 
chimney in the stopper). 

(5) Intimating their quality of tone, as full 
flute. Hohl-flote {Ger.), and FMte ereuse {Fr.) 
(hollow toned). Clear flute. Hell-flote {Ger). 
Lieblich flote {Ger.) (lovely toned). Zart-flote 
{Ger.) (delicately voiced). Flute douce {Fr.), 
Dulcet. Flauto dolce {It.) (sweet-toned). 
Oboe-flute. Clarinet-flute (slightly reedy in 
tone). Sifllote (i ft.) (whistle-flute). 

(6) After their supposed nationality, as 
German flute, flauto tedesea, or allemande. 
Flute a bee, or English flute. Suabe flute. 
Schweizerflbte (Swiss flute, the German name 
for what was called in England the German 
flute). Flauto Francese. Flute Ravena. Cza- 
kan flute. 

(7) Implying that the quality of tone is 
similar to the modern flute, more powerful 
than theflfde a bee, as orchestral iiute, flauto 
traverso {It.), flute traversiere {Fr.), and 
Traversflote, Quer-flote {Ger.), (cross-flute), 
concert flute. 

(8) Names which are merely fancy titles, 
as fliite d'amour, jubal flute, portunal flute, 
old flute, recorder (flute a bee), Wald and 
Bauer flote (Ger.) (pastoral pipe), echo flute 
(soft toned), flute tacet, cordedain, &c. 

It would be an advantage alike to organ 
builders and organists if some definite system 
of nomenclature of flute stops could be devised 
and universally adhered to. 

Flute a bee (Fr.) [Flute.] 

Flute d'amour (Fr.) A low-toned flute, 
an A flute, sounding a minor third below the 
rotes actually written. It is now obsolete. 

Fldte douce (Fr.) An organ stop. [Flute.] 

Flute traversiere (Fr.) The German 

Fly. A hinged board which covers the 
keys of the pianoforte or organ when not in use. 

F moll (Ger.) The key of F minor. 

Foco (It.) Fire, spirit. 

Focoso (It.) With spirit, ardently. 

Foglietto (It.) A first violin part ; the 
leader's part, which contains cues, &c., used 
by a conductor in the absence of a full score. 

Fois (Fr.) Time, as premiere fois, first 
time; derniere fois, \ time (of repeating), &c. 

Folia. A Spanish dance, similar to the 
fandango. The tune of a folia was some- 
times written on a ground bass, as was also 
the Chaconne and Passacaille. [Follia.] 

Foliated. A melody or portion of plain- 
song is said to he foliated when ornamental 
notes have been added above or below those 
of which it originally consisted. 

( 173 ) 



Follia {Sp. and It.) Variations upon an 
air or melody, in which the ingenuity was 
held of more value than beauty. The name 
" FoUias de Espana " became applied to 
laborious trifling in other matters besides 

Fondamentale (Fr. and It.) Funda- 
mental. Basse fondamentale, basso fonda- 
mentale, fundamental bass. 

Fondamento (It.) (i) Fundamental bass. 
(2) The root or generator of a chord. 

Fonds d'orgue (Fr.) The foundation 
stops, the diapasons and 8 ft. flutes on 
English organs, the principals of foreign 
instruments. In general, all flue stops of 
8 ft. pitch, except solo stops of peculiar 
quality of tone. 

Foot, (i) A metrical measure, pes (Lat.) 
(2) A drone bass. (3) The chorus of a song. 
(4) The part of an organ pipe below the 
mouth. (5) To foot, to dance. 

Forlana (It.), fourlane (Fr.) A dance 
much in favour with the gondoliers of Venice. 
The tune is a lively measure in 6-8 time, and 
is similar to the Tarantella, but not so varied 
in its motions. It is said to have been first 
danced upon the Frioul, and to take its name 
from that fact. 

La Fourlane Venetienne ou La Barcariuole 


fel f t r^ r 


'-f m 





^^^^=^ ^. 




Form. The shape and order in which 
musical ideas are presented. 

This definition is, perhaps, the nearest that 
can be given of a word of such general mean- 
ing. Form has been divided into harmonic 
and melodic. By harmonic form is meant 
the key-tonality of chords, such, for instance, 
as would be illustrated by a comparison of a 
composition by Palestrina with one by Spohr. 
But this question of the key relationship of 
chords is now generally made subordinate to 
the study of harmony, and is taken from the 
domain of form. By melodic form is meant 
the proper grouping of the successive sounds 
which form a tune. This, again, is made 
almost foreign to the higher meaning of form, 
and is held to be subordinate to the laws of 
rhythm. In its highest sense, form has rela- 
tion more to the development than to the 
details of a composition. 

In attempting to classify and give names 
to the portions of music which, by their com- 
bination or succession, go to make up a com- 
position or movement, it will be necessary to 
say at once, that there is no settled or con- 
ventional usage of the terms employed, and 
all that is here done is to bring together those 
most commonly known, and as to whose 
meaning but little difference of opinion exists. 

The component parts of simple melodic 
forms may be arranged according to the fol- 
lowing order, (a) Motive or Theme ; (fe) 
Section ; (c) Phrase ; {d) Sentence ; {e) Sub- 

A theme consists of a note or notes con- 
tained in a single bar, whether the time be 
duple or triple, simple or compound. A single 
note may form a simple, and two or more a 
compound motive. Repeated notes belong 
to the second order : 

Simple Compound 

If a theme commences upon any other beat 
than the first, as much as is necessary to 
complete the bar, whether of rests or notes, 
is required to form the theme : 

^, I M , I I . . I ' r~. ' .. 


Occasionally a subsidiary theme may be 
completed upon an incomplete portion of the 

( 174) 


bar, having been first suggested at the begin 
ning of a bar: 


Two motives form a section 


Sometimes three motives are found in a 
section : 


J * * 

A simple phrase consists generally of two 
sections : 



^PPtr^^ - h^ *^ I J g 

which may sometimes be expanded beyond 
that limit to five or even more bars, with 
added motives : 


t^ ^MI^i^^PlP^^ 

Phrases of more than four bars may be 
called compound : 







i= — r- i 



A sentence is formed of two phrases whether 
simple or compound : 





^J^r^r-rr i rFE^EfEff 

A sentence may be shortened : 





or lengthened 












Sentences may be said to be compound 
when two or more are united to form a musical 
subject. All musical subjects may be analysed 
by resolving them into their elements, which 
consist, as shown above, of themes, sections, 
phrases, sentences, and compound sentences ; 
the union of these, and the connection of the 
subjects they make up, constitute what is 
called Form. 

The use of the word Subject in the higher 
development of Form, must not be confused 
with its special meaning in the art of counter- 
point and fugue. Fugue-form will be found 
treated sub voce Fugue. 

The study of form is most important to 
the composer. Without an adherence to its 
rules compositions are liable to become in- 
coherent, unintelligible, and amorphous, es- 
pecially in these days, when there is a great 
tendency, arising from ignorance or mistaken 
intention, to create music without much or 
any regard to form ; which is as much a 
necessity to a musical composition, as it is 
to the design of a picture, a building, or a 
piece of sculpture. In classical compositions 
the sonata form is the basis upon which is 
constructed the Symphony, the Concerto, the 
Overtuie and the class of work from which 
it derives its title. 

The sonata may consist of three movements 
in contrasted tempi and varied forms, but the 
first movement must be written according to 
given rules, which will be shown in detail 
after a general description of the ordinary 
arrangement of the sonata. Of the three 
movements the first should be an " allegro," 
with or without an introduction in slow tempo, 
though sometimes this is dispensed with. It 
may here be remarked, that whatever key 
their first movement is written in is the key 
by which the symphony is known, and all the 
other movements must be written in keys 
akin to it, but the last one must be the same 
as the first. The second movement marked 
with any tempo from andante to adagio, is 
usually called the " slow movement ; the 
last movement is usually an allegro, and may 
be written on the plan of the first movement, 
or in what is called rondo form. As the 
symphony is the most important work in 
which the sonata form is employed, a des- 
cription of the usual method of constructing 
it is subjoined, on the principle that the 
greater includes the lesser. In addition to 

( 175 ) 


the number of movements in the sonata 
proper, the symphony has a minuet and trio 
or a scherzo, movements which are not 
necessary in the sonata. 

The minuet or the scherzo — the latter most 
usual since Beethoven's day — ordinarily oc- 
cupies the third place in the order of the 
movements in the symphony, but occasionally 
the adagio and scherzo change places, as in 
Mendelssohn's 3rd Symphony. Sometimes, 
as in Beethoven's Symphonies, Nos. 7 and 8, 
an allegretto appears instead of the andante 
or slow movement, but as there is no fixed 
rule for the order of the intermediate move- 
ments, a composer is at liberty to make such 
changes as he pleases. 

Taking a symphony as a standard, the 
following is the usual order or form of each 
movement. The first of these, as has already 
been said, may begin with an introduction of 
a slow or moderately slow tempo. This in 
its design may foreshadow what is to appear 
in the succeeding allegro. If this is so 
written, it would give a coherence to the 
entire first movement; and, on account of 
the frequently mysterious nature of this kind 
of instrumental music, coherence and intelli- 
gibility is a thing much to be aimed at. The 
length of the introduction may be left to the 
discretion of the composer ; care being taken 
to lead well into the allegro or first move- 
ment proper. For an admirable example of 
this sort of treatment, the student is referred 
to Beethoven's Symphony No. 4. The allegro 
must contain two principal subjects : varied, 
and well contrasted, and written so as to give 
opportunity for good instrumental effect. The 
first of these is given in the tonic, and when 
the key of the symphony is well established 
the composer should prepare the introduction 
of his second principal theme. The old- 
fashioned way of doing this, if the symphony 
were in a major key, was to work up to a 
major chord on the supertonic of the original 
scale, sometimes with the 7th added, and by 
that means to glide into the second subject in 
the dominant; thus, if the key of the symphony 
were B P the movement would eventually 
arrive at a cadence on the chord of C with 
major third, the second principal subject 
being then heard in the key of F, or if the 
symphony were written in a minor key the 
composer worked up to a cadence on the 
dominant of the relative major — thus in a 
movement in C minor, the second subject 
always appeared in ''1 b major. But the student 
is warned against blindly following this rule; 
it should be his aim to make his second theme 
grow out of the first ; thereby avoiding the 
angularity of what may be termed the cut-and- 
dried school. The many ways of doing this 
must be left to the choice, guided by the 

ingenuity of the composer, but the chief thing 
to be borne in mind is to make the subjects 
melodious, striking, and workable. There 
may now be introduced one or two sub- 
sidiary or episodal subjects, growing out 
of, and in keeping with either the first or 
second principal subjects. With this ends 
what is called the first part of the first move- 
ment ; a double bar is usually made here, and 
a repeat marked to the beginning of the 
allegro. This repeat in the first part of the 
first movement of a symphony is a sine qua 
non, as without it the movement loses its dis- 
tinctive form. The composer must end this 
portion of the work in the dominant if the key 
of the symphony is major; or in the relative 
major if it is written in a minor key. The 
most interesting part of this portion of a sym- 
phony now follows ; it is technically known 
as the " free fantasia." Here the composer's 
imagination may be employed to its utmost 
limit ; but he must bear in mind only to use 
material already brought forward in the sub- 
jects of the first part of the movement. A 
disregard of this injunction is the great mis- 
take which composers (especially young ones) 
make now-a-days, and leads to diffuseness. 
Again, this portion of the symphony may be 
spoilt by the composer having to develop sub- 
jects which are not clear, well defined, and 
interesting ; therefore to avoid this he should 
be careful to write subjects in the first part 
of the movement which will admit of much 
varied treatment. Having done this, he is at 
liberty to produce with them any legitimate 
effects : at the same time he should never 
allow his music to resemble a vague sort of 
improvisation, such as is frequently heard in 
many modern compositions, by so doing, all 
beauty of form vanishes, and the composer 
betrays a weakness and want of control over 
his subjects. These remarks apply with equal 
force to each portion of the entire work. Not 
more than a third of the movement should 
be devoted to the free fantasia ; and when it 
is finished, the first principal subject is re- 
introduced in the original key, which in due 
course should be followed by the second prin- 
cipal subject, heard this time in the tonic. 
Then a coda may follow, after which the 
movement may come to a close ; but it is 
suggested, for the sake of coherence, that the 
coda should be formed out of the material 
alread}' employed, and it should not be too 

The second, or slow movement, may be 
similar in form to that of the first, but its 
character is entirely opposite ; and further, 
no repeat is made at the end of the first part. 
The prevailing character should be that of 
pathos and repose ; but though the two prin- 
cipal subjects should partake more or less of 

( 176) 


this, the rhythm of each should be arranged 
so as to form a striking contrast to the other. 
In this movement the themes are usually 
much more elaborately treated than those of 
the Allegro, and sometimes variations are 
made upon the first of the principal subjects ; 
examples of this latter style of treatment will 
be found in the slow movements of Beet- 
hoven's Symphonies, Nos. 5 and g. The key 
should not be the same as that of the opening 
Allegro, such an arrangement would very 
likely produce monotony — the exception to 
this rule is when the original key is minor, 
the second movement could then appear in 
the same key; but it should be in the major 
mode, or vice versa ; any key may be chosen 
that has some kinship to that of the preced- 
ing movement. 

If the minuet is selected for the third part, 
the composer must write it in accordance with 
the form of the dance of that name. But 
should the Scherzo be decided upon, he will 
find he has a much wider field for the expan- 
sion of his thoughts. The form of this move- 
ment may partake of that of the minuet, only 
the time should be generally double or three 
times as fast ; it may also be in f instead of f 
time. Its character is usually light, fantastic, 
and even humorous. It is sometimes written 
with two trios, sometimes without any, as in 
the case in the Scherzo of Mendelssohn's 3rd 
Symphony. The key is usually the same as 
that of the first movement. 

The last movement is an Allegro ; and is 
generally somewhat lighter in style than the 
first movement ; though its form may be 
the same. Rondo form may be adopted for 
this movement ; or it may take the shape 
of an air with variations, as in the Finale to 
Beethoven's Symphony, No. 3. It is not neces- 
sary to repeat the first part of the finale, if it 
is written in the form of the first movement ; 
and the free fantasia need not be elaborated 
to the same extent as in the opening Allegro. 
The key of the first and last movements 
must of necessity be the same. 

The form of the Concerto is somewhat 
similar to that of the Symphony ; but it 
differs from it in these respects: (i) The 
opening movement never appears with an 
introduction placed before it. (2) The orches- 
tra usually plays both the leading themes in 
the tonic before they are heard on the solo 
instrument in the usual symphonic form. (3) 
The repeat of the first part is not a necessity. 
(4) The Concerto never contains a Scherzo, 
and therefore consists but of three move- 
ments — the first of which should be an 
Allegro, the second an Adagio, and the third 
an Allegro. (5) The movements do not re- 
quire to be developed at such great length as 
those of the symphony. (6) A cadenza is 

usually introduced towards the close of either 
the first or the third movement, sometimes 
written by the composer, sometimes left to 
the performers' improvisation. In all other 
respects the form of the concerto is identical 
with that of the symphony. 

An improvement in the form of the concerto 
may yet be made in two particulars. The old 
plan of beginning the first movement by the 
orchestra playing the leading subjects in the 
tonic, before the entrance of the solo instru- 
ment, might be dispensed with as unneces- 
sary, because the themes must appear towards 
the close of the movement in that key. Men- 
delssohn's Violin Concerto, and that for the 
Pianoforte in G minor, are examples of the 
advantage gained by beginning with the solo 
instrument at once, or after a few bars of 
orchestral prelude. The other suggestion for 
improvement is the abolition of all cadenzas, 
as being redundant. If they are written for 
the display of the performer's skill, surely the 
composer should give him sufficient oppor- 
tunity for this during the movement. If they 
are to show that the subjects can be treated 
in a different manner, they should be included 
in that treatment in the body of either allegro 
or finale. 

The modern overture in strict form should be 
written in one movement, usually an Allegro, 
with or without an introduction in a slower 
tempo, and partakes of the nature of the first 
movement of a symphony, without the repeat 
of the first part. The subjects of an overture 
may be lighter in character than those of a 
symphony ; but they must appear in the 
same order, and be worked out in the same 
manner; greater importance being given to 
the coda in the overture than in the symphony. 
The introduction and allegro must, of course, 
be in the same key. 

The form of the sonata is, as alread}' 
shown, identical with that of the symphony 
in all points ; the only exception being that a 
minuet or scherzo is not necessary. The de- 
velopment of the subjects of a sonata ought 
not to be of the same extent as those of the 
symphony, concerto, or overture ; for the 
obvious reason that the tone-colour is much 
less varied ; sonatas never being written for 
more than two instruments. Trios and 
quartets, &c., for strings and pianofortes, 
though written in this same form need not 
be developed to the same extent. Nor should 
the attempt be made to introduce grand 
symphonic effects in these works. A warn- 
ing may be given to composers by pointing 
out how incomparably finer in effect Mendel- 
ssohn's D minor trio is to that of his trio in 
C minor, for the reason that in the latter 
work, especiall}' in the last movement, pas- 
sages are given to the violin and violoncella 

( 177 ) 


which never produce the effect they are 
intended to convey : but nothing of the kind 
is found in the trio in D minor. Here every- 
thing has the character and form of chamber 
music ; and composers should bear in mind 
not to write symphonic music when they are 
composing niusica di camera; though the 
form of the work and its movements may be 
the same as those of a symphony. For a 
model pianoforte quartet the student is 
referred to that in G minor, from the pen 
of Mozart. 

The string quartet for two violins, viola, 
and violoncello, is composed in the same 
form as the symphony ; but also should 
be written without any striving after sym- 
phonic effect or development, care being 
taken to give each instrument, as much as 
possible, its equal share of work and inde- 
pendent motion. The quintet, the sestet, 
septet, and octet should all be written in 
sonata or symphonic form, each instrument 
having proper but not obtrusive prominence 
and independence. The student is reminded 
that the whole of these remarks are not to be 
considered absolutely final ; since a com- 
poser may some day arise, who may alter the 
present forms of classical instrumental music 
as much as Haydn and Mozart did in their 
day. However, as such an one does not 
exist who has shown us any new form which is 
better than the old one, the student is exhorted 
to abide by the rules herein laid down, which 
are based upon precedent founded by the 
great masters. 

Rondo form differs from sonata or sym- 
phonic form, in that the first part is not 
marked for repeat. The original subject 
does not modulate, but reappears in its key- 
chord at the close of the first period, and 
again after the modulation of the second sub- 
ject, so that it must be heard three times. 

The arrangement of a movement in rondo 
form is after the following order : 

The first subject enters, sometimes without 
introduction, and remains in its original key. 
Then follows an episode, modulating into the 
relative major if the key be minor, or into the 
dominant if the key be major; after which 
comes the second subject in the dominant or 
relative major, as the case may be, followed 
by a modulation into the original key, to bring 
back the first subject. This ends the first 
part, which is not marked for repetition. The 
second subject, modulating into distant keys, 
commences the second half. This is followed 
by the first subject ; then an episode, prepar- 
ing the way for the second subject, and a final 
episode and coda, generally in the original 
key, with slight passing modulations. It 
must be understood that this general outline 
is sometimes varied by the genius of the 

composer ; but, as a rule, the order indicated 
above is followed. 

Fortsetzung (Ger.) Continuation. Further 
development or expansion of an idea. 

Fort (Fr.) Forte (It.) Loud ; expressed 
in music by the abbreviations for. or f. 

Fortemente {It.) Loudly, vigorously, 
with force. 

Forte-piano or fp. (i) Loud, then soft; 
strongly accented. (2) The pianoforte. 

Forte possibile {It.) As loud as possible. 

Fortissimo {It.) Lit. the loudest. Very 
loud. The letters ff or ffor are used as 
abbreviations of the word. 

Forza, con {It.) With emphasis. 

Forzando {It.) Lit., Forcing. Emphasis 
or musical accent upon specified notes or 
passages, marked by the signs/^,5/or >-. 

Forzato {It.) [Forzando.] 

Fourchette tonique {Fr.) Tuning-fork. 

Fourier's theorem. [Acoustics, § 11.] 

Fourniture {Fr.) A mixture stop on an 


Fourth. An interval of four notes. 

Fourth flute. [QuartfTote.] 

Frangaise {Fr.) A dance in triple measure, 
similar in character to the country-dance. 

Franchezza (/^.), Franchise {Fr.) Free- 
dom, confidence. 

Franculus {Lat.) A mediaeval sign or 
neume for an ascending brevis plicata. 
[ Neumes.] 

Franz -ton {Ger.) French pitch; lower 
than the recognised English concert pitch. 

Frasi {It.) Phrases. 

Freddamente, con freddezza {It.) With 
coldness, indifference. 

Fredon {Fr.) (i) Vocal ornaments at the 
will of the performer ; a tremolo or quavering 
upon every note. (2) The hutnming of a 

Free chant is a form of recitative music 
for the Psalms and Canticles, in which a 
phrase, consisting of two chords only, is ap- 
plied to each hemistich of the words. The 
author of the form, Mr. John Crowdy, in his 
" Free Chant Cadences," claims for it that it 
removes all difficulties in dividing the words, 
and enables the unskilled worshipper to join 
confident!}' in the chanting, without the assis- 
tance of any marks beyond the colons pro- 
vided for the purpose in the Prayer Book. 

Free fugue. A fugue in which the answer 

and general treatment are not 

according to 

strict rules. [Fugue.] 

Free parts. Additional parts to a canon 
or fugue, having independent melodies, in 
order to strengthen or complete the harmony, 

Free reed. [Reed.] 

Free style. Composition not absolutely 
according to the strict rules of counterpoint. 

C 178 ) 


Fregiatura (It.) An ornament, embellish- 

French horn. [Horn.] 
French sixth. [Extreme sixth.] 
French flat-tuning. [Flat-tuning.] 
French violin clef. The G clef, placed 
upon the first line of the stave. [Clef.] 



Frets. Small pieces of wood or ivory 
placed upon the finger-board of certain 
stringed instruments, to regulate the pitch of 
the notes produced. By pressing the string 
down to the finger-board behind a fret, only 
so much of the string can be set in vibration 
as lies between the fret and the bridge. Frets 
are, therefore, nothing more or less than little 
.bridges ; hence the word yuayac came to sig- 
nify a bridge or a fret. The Egyptian lutes 
had frets made of camel-gut, tied or glued 
round the finger-board. All the viols con- 
tained in a chest had frets, and some of the 
early forms of the violin were even furnished 
with them. But not only do they prevent the 
rapid fingering of difficult passages, but en- 
tirely deprive the violin of one of its most 
charming qualities, that of slurring or porta- 
mento, an attempt to produce which will, on 
a fretted instrument, result in a well-defined 
chromatic scale. Another reason for the 
abandonment of fretted violins was that, in 
extreme keys, the intervals could not be tem- 

Fretta, con (It.) With speed, haste, hurry. 

Freie Schreibart (Ger.) Free writing ; 
composition in a free style. 

Frisch (Ger.) Lively. 

Frolich [Ger.) Joyous, cheerful, gay. 

Frosch [Ger.) The nut of a violin bow, 
into which the lower end of the hairs is 
fixed, and which, when moved up or down by 
means of the screw, tightens or slackens their 

Frottola (It.) A ballad. 

F Schliissel (Ger.) The F or bass clef. 

Fuga {Lat.) A fugue, cequalis motus, a 
real fugue; authentica, a fugue with a subject 
in the authentic part of the scale ; canonica, 
a fugue in canon ; contraria, a fugue by in- 
version ; impropria, or irregularis, a free or 
irregular fugue ; in contrario tempore, a fugue, 
the answer of which is differently accented 
to the subject ; libera or soluta, a free or 
irregular fugue ; per arsin et thesin, by inver- 
sion (i) of rhythm, (2) of interval; retrograda, 
a fugue by contrary motion ; obstinata, a 
fugue in which a definite figure is main- 
tained, &c. &c. [Fugue.] 

Fuga [It.) A fugue ; as, fnga doppia, a 
double {uQxat; fuga ostinata, a fugue in which 
a definite figure is maintained ; fuga ricercata 

(i) highly scientific fugue; (2) a fugue without 
episodes ; /wg^a sciolta, a free fugue. [Fugue.] 

Fugato (It.) In the fugue style ; a com- 
position containing fugal imitation, but which 
is not in strict fugue form. 

Fuge (Ger.) A fugue. 

l^'^u^ll^ ?r^ ^ 1 A short fugue. 
Fughette [Ger.) \ *^ 

Fugue. A polyphonic composition con- 
structed on one or more short subjects or 
themes, which are harmonized according to 
the laws of counterpoint, and introduced 
from time to time with various contrapuntal 
devices; the interest in these frequently 
heard themes being sustained by diminishing 
the interval of time at which they follow each 
other (the stretto), and monotony being 
avoided by the occasional use of episodes, or 
passages open to free treatment. 

So varied are fugues in their character, 
that it is impossible to give any definition 
which shall include all kinds, but from what 
has just been said above, it will be at once 
seen, that they differ from all other formal or 
set compositions (the canon only exceptedj 
in that each component part (which might in 
other works be only a means of harmony) must 
stand in important relationship to every other 
part, sometimes even to the extent of being 
interchangeable with any one of them. The 
key-relationship, and also the rhythmical form 
of the sections and phrases of a fugue, have 
always been modified by contemporary art, 
and by this means a fugue of an early period 
may be easily distinguished from one of a 
later date, until in some modern examples 
the influence even of the sonata form is 
plainly discernible. As the growth of the 
splendid form now known as a fugue has 
been gradual, having extended over more 
than three centuries, it is not surprising that 
the name should, from time to time, have 
borne various meanings. In old writers it is 
sometimes used to signify a short theme, the 
measure or figure of which is to be frequently 
repeated ; at other times, a canon, because 
herein one part enunciates a subject and then 
as it were, takes to flight {fuga), while the 
other, or others, pursue it closely note for 
note. Canons often formed an important 
ingredient of early fugues. 

It is easy to trace the germ of the fugue in 
the higher developments of counterpoint. 
When music in two parts was written in con- 
formity with the laws of double counterpoint, 
each performer found himself setting forth 
the theme proposed by the other, and the 
good effect thus produced would naturally 
suggest a repetition of the theme at other 
intervals (as in counterpoint), and also in 
other keys. The two elements of a fugue 
which separate it from the higher forms of 

( 179 ) 


counterpoint are, first, the enunciation of the 
subject by itself, without harmony ; next the 
stretto or drawing of subjects and answers 
more closely together. The former is not 
properly included in counterpoint, as point 
(or note) is no longer against point when one 
part is heard alone ; nor is the latter trace- 
able among the various devices of the art of 
counterpoint proper. 

Fugues have been divided into many classes 
according to the point from which they have 
been regarded. 

(i) By number of parts ; as, a fugue in 
two, three, four parts, &c. (a 2, a 3, a 4, 

(2) By number of subjects ; as a double 
fugue, having two subjects ; a triple fugue, 
three subjects, &c. 

(3) By the relation of subject and answer; 
as a fugue by inversion, when the answer 
moves by the intervals of the inverted sub- 
ject ; by augmentation or diminution, when 
the answer has notes of double, or half 
the length of those of the subject respec- 

(4) By the scale-relation of subject and 
answer ; as a tonal fugue, when the answer 
is modified according to prescribed rules, so 
that it shall remain within a given compass, 
or, within a given key ; a real fiigtie when 
the answer is at a measured interval to the 
subject note for note. 

(5) By its adhesion to, or neglect of, the 
laws of fugue form ; as a free fugue, a fugue 
•in which strict form is occasionally, or for 
(the most part disregarded. 

(6) By its scale, or the scale which pre- 
daminates in it ; as a Doric fugue, when the 
subject, and perhaps also development, is in 
the Doric mode ; a diatonic fugue, in which 
diatonic harmony prevails ; a chromatic fugue, 
when chromatic passages abound. 

The chief elements of a fugue are : — 
(i) The subject. Dux, propositus, (Lat.) 
guida, (It.) antecedent, &c. 

(2) The counter-subject, or, contrapuntal 
harmonization of the answer by the part 
which has finished the enunciation of the 

(3) The answer. Comes, Responsio {Lat.) ; 
consequenza (It.) ; consequent, &c. 

(4) Episodes. 

(5) The stretto. 

(6) The pedal point — point d'orgue (Fr.) ; 
Orgel-punkt [Ger.) 

The whole of these are bound together into 
perfect unity, from the fact that the answer 
is either identical with, or a prescribed imita- 
tion of the subject ; the counter-subject or 
fragments of it are of frequent use as the 
material of episodes ; the stretto is usually 
founded on the subject or counter-subject ; 

and the pedal point forms the basis of in- 
genious treatments of the subject or answers, 
and sometimes even as the basis of the 
stretto. The first giving out of subjects and 
answers is called the Exposition ; and when 
repeated with a different arrangement of the 
parts, the Counter-exposition. 

It can be seen from the above, that handled 
by a genius, fugue may be infinitely plastic 
in regard to form. But it must not be 
forgotten that in its earliest existence it was 
wretchedly mechanical, as the following direc- 
tions how to compose a fugue in two parts 
from Fux (Welcker's English Translation) 
will prove. " First choose a subject suitable 
to the key you intend to compose in, and 
write down your subject in that part where- 
with you intend to begin. This done, and 
having first examined your subject whether 
it be comformable to your key ; if so, repeat 
the same notes in the second part, either in 
the fourth or fifth, and whilst the second 
part imitates the first wherewith you have 
begun, put such notes in the first part as 
will agree with your imitating part according 
to the directions given in the figurate or 
florid counterpoint, and after having con- 
tinued your melody for some bars, regulate 
the parts thus, that the first cadence may be 
made in the fifth of the key. Then resume 
your subject mostly in the same part you 
have begun with, but by another interval, 
after having first put a rest of a whole or 
half bar, which however may be omitted in 
case there should happen to be a great skip 
instead of it. After this, endeavour to bring 
in 5'our second part after some rest, and that 
before the subject of the first part draws 
towards a conclusion, and having carried on 
your subject a little longer, make your second 
cadence in the third of the key. Lastly, in- 
troduce your subject again in either part, and 
contrive it so that one part may imitate the 
other sooner than at first, and, if possible, 
after the first bar, whereupon both parts are 
to be united, and the fugue finished by a 
final cadence." 

The musical example which he then gives 
as embodying the result of all this learning, 
is as follows : 











^^i^i^^ ^-H^tt^ iN 

( 180 ) 








I ( 

^■? — I ^ g)- 







But the art of fugue was not long to remain 
thus Hfeless. The successive improvements 
made by great masters have exalted it to 
the highest perfection, and have made it one 
of the noblest walks of the art of music. 

The best way of showing the construction 
of a fugue will be to describe i,n detail the 
nature of the six constituent parts just now 

(i) The subject should not be very long if 
it does not contain any modulation, because 
a lack of interest may result. On the other 
hand, if it be very short, its treatment in the 
stretto will be difficult. It generally com- 
mences on the tonic or dominant of the scale. 

Subjects may be broadly divided into dia- 
tonic and chromatic. Of course, a vast 
number of fugue-subjects lie between these 
two boundaries, but by a diatonic subject must 
be understood one on which an author in- 
tends to construct a fugue whose interest 
shall arise from genuine contrapuntal treat- 
ment and device, and simple modulations from 
key to key. By a chromatic subject is meant 
one which a composer takes with the avowed 
intention of constructing a fugue whose in- 
terest shall result from a complicated inter- 
weaving or frequent contrasting of changing 
key-tonality, with ordinary development of 
the subjects. The simplest form of diatonic 
fugue-subject is that which lies in a compass 
of a fifth, e.g. : 

J. S. Bach. 


J J • J ,^ 

Ex. 2. 


^^ g^=cr^ 


/t:; . 

— ^z — 


— i-r: :^ 

^ g g— 


Tu Rex glo - ri - «e, 

Or, when it reaches the compass of the 
sixth, e.g. : 








*^ I I 


In glo -ria De - i Pa-tris, 




J. S. Bach. 





Ex 6 


^"^1 J_'j'j'^ * ^"J " *"l ^ - 

Ex. 8. 

m -^^r^^Ji-^ 






Cum Sanc-to Spi - ri - tu 

The following is given in order to show a 
grand subject in this compass, although not 
strictly worked out : 

Ex. 9. Beethoven. 

Cum Sanc-to Spi - ri - tu 

Diatonic subjects may, however, reach a 
very extended compass, especially in instru- 
mental music : 

Ex 10 


The following is remarkable both for il3 
extended compass and length : 

Ex. 11. {Fuga a tre voci con licenza.) Beethoven. 




Scale passages, or such as move up or 
down an octave, have always been largely 
used as subjects, both in the major, e.g. : 

Ex. 12. Benevoli. 

And in the minor, e.g. : 

J. S. Bach. 

( 181 ) 


Sometimes the octave compass of a subject 
lies between the fifth above and fourth below 
the tonic, both in the major, e.g. : 

Ex. 13. 




And also in the minor, e.g. : 

Ex. 14. 


^j^^ ^^ jz^ r-fiwY pr^ g ^^g! 

Chromatic subjects are also of varied ex- 
tent and difficulty. The following, which is 
capable of much contrapuntal treatment, is 
commonly met with : 

Ex. 15. Sala. 



-J — BJ=^=i^ 
— ^^ I — U 

More elaborate chromatic subjects are often 
found, e.g. : 

Ex. 16. 



F^ ^^^Jg ^g^^lgBSg 



Ex. 17. ^^^^ J. S . Bach. 

Sometimes both diatonic and chromatic 
passages are included in the subject, e.g. : 

Ex. iS, 

f^ =§ Sgg^j^g|i^ 

The interval of a diminished seventh has 
always been a favourite element of fugue sub- 
jects, e.g. : 

Ex. 19. ^ ^ ^ B^^^_ 




Ex, 20, 








Ex. 21. 

fe^ ^jife^g - 

J. S. Bach. 

Ex. 22. 







Ex. 23, 






J. S. Bach, 





i i j- j'j^^^ 

Subjects most commonly begin the key- 
note or its fifth, but there are exceptions to 
this rule, e.g. : 

Ex 25. (O n the Sec ond of the Scale. 


Ex 26. (On the Third.) 


^^ J J I J^^ 


Ex^ 27. (On th e Fourth .) 



Ex 28. (On the Sixth ) Mattheson, 




Ex. 29. (On the Seventh.) 

sK * ''' =3- 


^ ' i J la^^^^:J3g:^ 







As a rule, the answer enters before the sub- 
ject is finished, but exceptions are frequent. 
" He trusted in God " (Handel) may be cited 
as a well-known case. Sometimes after the 
subject has finished, a few notes are intro- 
duced to link it to the answer. These few 
notes are called a subject-coda or codetta. 
The name is also applied to the short passage 
sometimes connecting the answer and coun- 
ter-subject with the re-introduction of the 
original subject (see Exs. 43 and 68). 

(2) The counter-subject is primarily an 
accompaniment of the answer, and in a 
secondary sense, of the subject; but as such, 
must be according to the laws of strict coun- 
terpoint. It is usually written according to 
the laws of double counterpoint, in order that 
it may be used both above and below the 
subject or answer. Of course, the counter- 
subject may be in any species of counter- 
point, but it most commonly is figurate, or 
florid, e.g. : 


Ex. 30. 


-O— ^ 











But when the counter-subject is in simple 
counterpoint it generally happens that it is in 

( 182 ) 


notes of greater length than those of the sub- 
ject in a rapid fugue, e.g. : 



And vice versa, shorter notes of counter-sub- 
ject to those of the subject: 



Ex. 32. Subject. 

Counter subject. J. S. Bach. 

p = pU^J3 







But something more is required of the 
counter-subject than to be a mere accessory 
to the subject and answer ; it is very often 
used as an episodal theme, either just as it 
stands, or in a shghtly modified form. In 
the following example the counter-subject of 
Bach's beautiful E major fugue is given : 

Ex. 33. Subject. 

W fi-^^—^ 



A •^.- ^ 





^^Mr-^r±£ ^^-f^fcg 

Counter subject. 

Before the development of the Fugue has 
proceeded far, this (from *) is used as the 
subject of an episode, e.g. : 

Ex. 34., 


3 ^=fa:ji^ 




T •' 1 1 f 


:ll J J ' SX 


If, therefore, the counter-subject is intended 
for separate use and treatment, it is necessary 
that it should be melodious in itself, as well 
as capable of forming good counterpoint in 
combination with the answer. In speaking 

of a tonal fugue it will be shown that the 
counter-subject sometimes has to undergo a 
change in order to suit both subject and answer. 
The term counter-subject is often applied 
in a manner which leads to much confusion. 
If in a fugue with two subjects the second 
subject is given out at the same time as the 
first, thus forming an accompaniment to it, 
it is by some called the counter-subject, instead 
of the second subject, e.g. : 


Ex. 35, Subject or ist Subject, 








rr ^ J 


Counter subject or 2nd Subject, 

It were well if this use of the word counter- 
subject for second subject could be dispensed 
with, the former being limited to the significa- 
tion of that counterpoint added to an answer 
or subject by a part which has already gone 
through the subject or answer. Nothing is 
gained by limiting the use of the words 
second and third subjects to such as are intro- 
duced separately. 

(3) The answer of a fug^e is one of the 
most important parts of its construction. If 
the subject be wrongly answered, the effect 
and success of the whole composition is 
marred. For not only does a wrong answer 
compel the construction of a false counter- 
subject, inasmuch as the counter-subject must 
be the accompaniment of the answer whether 
it be right or wrong, but also, it overthrows 
those episodes founded on the counter-subject, 
and not unfrequently the stretto too, as being 
founded on a close combination of subject and 

The large class of fugues called tonal, are 
so termed because the answer undergoes some 
slight modification in order to prevent a de- 
parture from the key-tonality of the subject. 
Roughly speaking, all answers are a fifth 
above or a fourth below the subject. If this 
relation of answer to subject were strictly 
carried out, a modulation in every answer 
would be inevitable. The answer is, however, 
often purposely made at strict intervals to the 
subject ; in which case, the fugue is called 
strict or real. These two classes of fugues 
must be considered carefully. 

First as to tonal fugues. 

The idea which underlies all tonal treatment 
of answers is, that the scale is equally divided 
into two parts, namely, from the tonic up to 
the dominant, one part ; from the dominant 
up to the octave-tonic, the other. But as a 
matter of fact the first half, tonic to dominan<- 
contains five diatonic steps, while the second, 
dominant to tonic, only contains four. This 

( 183) 


is the source of the whole difficulty of making 
a correct answer to any given subject, e.g. : 



Now when the subject proceeds from tonic 
to dominant direct, the answer must proceed 
from dominant to tonic, e.g. : 





and vice versa, e.g. 



Ejirr-R^J^ i^ i 4 ^=t^ EsJ;^ 

But if notes lying between the tonic and 
dominant are introduced, or if the subject 
exceeds the compass of a fifth, it is not 
easy to say that any uniform principle 
governs the relation of answer to subject, 
except that two notes must be represented by 
one, e.g. : 





r z , <S- 


The following examples show how tonic is 
answered by dominant, and dominant by 
tonic : 

Ex. 36. 





; ^-b^ ^ 





' ^r^Jj I- -" rg j^ 

Ex, 37. 








T=rT=^ ^ 


and, by the next it will be seen, that the sub- 
dominant also is answered by the tonic : 

Ex. 38. Subject. 









Ex. 39. Subject. 














Ex.40. Subject. 




The following illustrates the application of 
the same principle in a case where the subject 

proceeds down to the dominant and then 
passes above the tonic : 

Ex. 41. Subject. 

W^ 1 ^ m I ^-l-H 4^H 






The application of this principle to subjects 
in the minor key is much less easy than in the 
major. When, as formerly, fugues were often 
composed in the church modes, the position 
of the (so-called) dominant and final of the 
mode largely influenced the relation of answer 
to subject, but, although these complications 
do not lie in the path of the modern student, 
yet there is still much uncertainty and dis- 
crepancy as to the particular treatment of the 
sub-tonic of the minor. This arises from the 
fact that several sorts of minor scale are still 
in use, and the composer naturally frames his 
answer in accordance ^either to that kind of 
scale most congenial to him, or to that most 
capable of bringing into prominence the 
melodic form of his subject. Minor subjects 
are often too very chromatic, a fact which 
adds to the difficulty of forming a correct 

In its simple state, a minor subject is in 
effect answered by a modulation into the 
minor key a fifth above (or fourth below), eg. : 

Ex. 42. Subject. Key of F minor. 








Answer. Kev of C minor. 






I ^ J 


^^— tt^- 


and the following shows the method of return 
to the original key, sometimes called a 
codetta : 

Ex. 43. 





Another instance is here given 

Ex. 44. Subject fC minor). 


^^= ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 



Answernere modulates into G mmcr 

It is not an easy thing to connect two minor 
keys a fifth apart in a pleasing manner ; it 
takes some little time to accustom the 
ear to the sound of the minor third of the 
new key ; but the leading note of the old key 
must, of necessity, be discarded before the 

{ 184) 


re-entry of the subject. In the fugue just 
quoted Bach inserts two bars between the 
close in G minor, as above, and the re-entry 
of the subject, namely : 

Ex. 45. (Codetta.) 


Re-entry of Subject. 

As minor subjects naturally lead to a modu- 
lation in the answer, it happens, as might be 
expected, that the minor fugues are chiefly 
real : for if a modulation must take place at 
all, it may as well include the whole of the 
subject as its closing portion, tonal alterations 
of the answer are therefore rendered to a 
certain extent unnecessary. 

But in strictly chromatic fugues the tonal 
answer is very common, as the following ex- 
amples will show, although it will be observed 
that, in some cases, the answer, before many 
notes are past, becomes a mere transcript 
at a fifth above or fourth below of the original 

The next example is purely tonal : 


Ex. 46. Subject. 



J J J I J fj I '-^^iw-i=-y 









The following is mixed, being partly tonal, 
partly at a strict interval : 


Ex 47. Subject (8ve. lower). 



They loathed to drink. 

|£ t , J-iJ4^]^ ^E£^ 

The tonal alteration of the answer to minor 
subjects often extends no further than the first 
note, e.g. : 

Ex. 48. Subject. 


In major subjects this also happens, e. g. : 

Ex. 49. Subject. Bach. 







g=3-r- ^.i4^4. 




^ r^^p^+i?^^ ^ 


This is more noticeable in short chromatic 
subjects, e.g. : 

Ex. 50. Subject. Answer. 




Ex. 51 Subject. 







± ^- l]r: y , I gcgg: 

Enough has been said to show the general 
force of the laws of tonal answer. Study and 
experience are the only means of cultivating 
a true perception of this peculiar relation of 
subject to answer. Many writers have at- 
tempted to draw up a regular code of laws, 
but the exceptions which persistently come 
forward render them almost useless. 

A real or strict fugue is one in which the 
answer is throughout at the interval of a fifth 
above or fourth below the subject, e.g. : 

Ex.52. Subject. _. ^-m--m- Bach. 

^r^^- fr^fr . 


Ex. 53. Subject. 













It is unnecessary to give more examples of 
this exact and constant distance between sub- 
ject and answer. 

The question naturally arises. How is it to 
be known when an answer ought to be tonal 
or real ? It is only possible to answer this in 
the most general way. If a subject has one 
or more direct melodic progressions from tonic 
to dominant or dominant to tonic it is difficult 
to make the answer real or strict without 

• Made one octave lower to suit tne compass of ordi 
nary tenor voices. 

( 185 ) 


p;iving an unpleasant effect of unnecessary 
change of key ; whereas, if the subject consist 
of a series of grades of the scale, it is difficult 
to make the answer tonal, without producing 
the effect of unnecessary alteration of melody 
(inasmuch as two notes have to do duty for 
one, and vice versa). This is all that can be 
said, except that special prominence of the 
subdominant in the subject seems to demand 
a strict answer, e.g. : 

Ex. 54. Subject. 

In cases where a fugue has more than one 
subject, if the second subject partakes of the 
tonality of the expected answer, and is intro- 
duced in the position ordinarily occupied by 
the answer, the answers of both first and 
second subjects may take place at the octave, 
sometimes without any alteration of the posi- 
tion of the parts, e.g. : 


Ex. 55. 





















The subjects are as often answered in the 
octave, but in inverted positions, e.g. : 

Ex. 56. 



^ m^^ ^ 


* j2 


r -1 r q: 



r^^^rrgf^g^ ^ 


m^^ — ^ 

r 1 

^ ^ — ' - ^ j > - ^ - ^ — ^r- 

It has already been stated that the counter- 
subject is often written in double counterpoint, 
so that it may be used without grammatical 
error, both above and below the subject. 
What has been said of a counter-subject 
applies with equal force to a second subject, 
as the above example (56) shows. 

But the first and second subject are given 
out very frequently, each at its own proper 
tonal distance, e.g. : 


Ex. 57. 

I I 





Et vi - tam 

I 1 J 








-^jjj^,-^^.i i: 





Sometimes the second subject appears after 
the first subject, but is not answered in the 
position expected, an answer to the first sub- 
ject taking its place. 

Ex 58. 


TTTh ^ 



J ^ ' J -^-f^^-'^ -J ^^^-^ 









In other cases, the first subject is, after its 
first enunciation, set aside for a lengthy treat- 
ment of the second subject, the first being 
reintroduced when the development has been 
proceeded with. 

The above examples of fugues with two 
subjects, have tonal answers ; but this is not 
always the case, as the following example of 
strict answer shows : 



g 1 ^ 

^ r=^ 









( 186) 



In fugues having three or more subjects, 
there seems to be no rule whatever as to the 
order or position of their entry. Sometimes 
they are enunciated in their order immediately 
after, or overlapping, each other ; e.g. : 


Ex. 60. 

3rd Sub, Cherubini. 


and Sub.p-- 
ist Sub. 







Quam o-lira A-bra-hae 
1st Answer. 







2nd Ans. 






3rd Ans. 

They are not unfrequently introduced and 
developed separately, at long intervals of time, 
and only brought together towards the close 
of the work ; in this case, of course, the 
answers are each true to the subject as de- 
livered, and the fugue has the form of two or 
more separate developments which are capable 
of coalition ; e.g. : 

ist Subject. 

Ex. 61. ist Subject. ^'^^tr. 



g^~^ ^^j^ B^ 


tr 30 bars. 

In some cases the subjects are given out 
one by one, without any development being 
attempted till all have been heard, as in the 
well-known movement, " Let old Timotheus," 
from Handel's "Alexander's Feast," in which 

the four following subjects are given out suc- 
cessively by solo voices : 

Ex. 62. 

1st Subject. 


ft-m P ■ m 

r 1 

2nd Subject 

ij ^ect. ^ 

g ^^-^T"^ 

Some fugues have what is called a free part ; 
that is a part whose sole function it is to 
support or supplement those constructed in 
the prescribed fugue form. Such examples 
generally take the shape of a regularly con- 
structed fugue, accompanied by and built upon 
a separate bass, or 60550 continuo : 

Ex. 63. Bach. 





Through Je 









f l > ■ _ rp J J j - 



men, A - men. 





j — J — ^ ^^ f ps:^^ 






Other orchestral parts sometimes accom- 
pany a fugue, e.g. : 

Ex. 64. 


( 187) 





Ky - ri- e 










I I h 


f ijj 





^J * ^ =J 

From the two preceding examples, it will 
be seen that free accompaniment may take 
place, whether the fugue is tonal or real, or 
whether it has but one, or more than one, 

A chorale is not unfrequently introduced 
into a fugue as a free part, as the well-known 
chorus, " But our Lord," in Mendelssohn's 
"St. Paul." There can be little doubt that 
the freedom of writing which distinguishes 
later fugues, was largely brought about by 
the habit of writing free parts on a ground- 

When the answer of a fugue is an inver- 
sion of the subject, the fugue is said to be al 

rovescio, e.g. 

Ex. 93. 




To our great God. 




To our great God. 

J J' ' ■ 

i^ — r- 





To our great God. 

To our great God. 

J. -I > ^ 

- ^ » m »- 





Fugues "by inversion," like all other kinds 
of fugues, are sometimes accompanied by free 
parts, e.g. : 

E.x. 66. 





-|ft ^ 


Ky - ri 
Free Bass.^~- 




Episodes are passages introduced into a 
fugue, in which the actual development of the 
subject or subjects is for a time suspended in 
order to give some variety and relief to the 
ear. But it is important that episodes, while 
affording variety, should not disturb the 
character of the fugue of which they form 
part. To effect this object, they are generally 
made up of free or imitative treatments of a 
fragment of the subject, or of part of the 
countersubject, or of the coda connecting 
subject and answer, or of some new subject 
not dissimilar in style to one of these. An 
example (34) has already been given, of an 
episode formed on the countersubject. The 
following is an episode formed on a fragment 
of the subject given in Ex. 49 : 

Ex. 67. 










The following is an example of an episode, 
founded on a coda : 

Ex. 68. Subject. 


"T (• i^ 

^ ^r r r p r 

( 188) 


Coda connecting close of answer with re- 

entry of subject : 

4^, * J j ^^-W-^ 

Episode founded on the figure of the above 
coda : 


Episodes founded on a theme not part of 
subject, countersubject, or coda, are verj' 
commonly met with ; in the following example 
the theme is quite congruous with the sub- 

Subject. ^_ 





He trust - ed in God 
Episodai subject. 
I ? ^ I * • * --^= 




let him de-liv- er him. 

A fine example of episodes of a totally 
different character to the fugue into which 
they are introduced is to be found in Bach's 
organ-fugue : 

Ex. 69. Subject. 



3E ^^gp3:g ^ i , J \J i 


? g ^l^ 













The stretto is that part of a fugue in which 
the subject and answer are drawn or pressed 
closer together (Lat. strictiis from stringere). 

In nearly all carefully constructed fugues the 
entry of the subject and answer is brought 
closer together from time to time, as the 
development proceeds, but the word stretto is 
only applied to that special passage in which 
the whole of the parts, or as many as possible, 
take up the subject at as short an interval of 
time as possible. The simplest illustration 
of a stretto will be found in the treatment of 
some simple diatonic subject such as the 


Ex. 70. Sub. 





Fg > fi -r< g 



It not unfrequently happens that the subject 
and answer cannot be brought closer together 
than their original distance, owing to their 
harmonic inaptitude for such treatment. In 
such cases, an altered form of the subject, or 
a part of the coda, or part of the counter- 
subject, or even an entirely new subject, may 
form the theme of the stretto. In many 
fugues there is no one passage which can be 
pointed out as the stretto, but the interest of 
the development is sustained by various other 
contrapuntal devices, or modulations. 

The masterly stretto (stretto maestrale) is 
formed in strict canon. If the subject is not 
capable of such treatment it may be slightly 
altered for the purpose. 

It is not necessary that the same intervals 
should be observed between the parts forming 
a stretto as are absolutely necessary in the 
enunciation of subject and answer, e.g. : 


Subject. ^ ^. 


Strettos are often constructed on the pedal- 
point, an example of which will shortly be 


( 189) 


Stretto, by augmentation or diminution, is 
when the subject, or subject and answer, are 
simultaneously introduced in notes of longer 
or shorter length, e.g. : 

Ex. 72. Subject. 












- . m 



-J J J 


-VI U 

^^• =»-)^ 

1 — »rr r 

-f= = ^^;- 

1 |- 1 - 






- bJ J , J 



A pedal-point is a long-sustained note, gene- 
rally the dominant, on which imitation, sub- 
ject and answer (simply or by augmentation 
and diminution), or even the stretto itself, are 
constructed. It is not always found as an 
essential part of a fugue, a vast number of 
fugues, especially for the pianoforte, are 
without it. But in vocal fugues with accom- 
paniment, and in fugues for the organ, it can 
always be introduced with fine effect. Modern 
composers have not neglected this interesting 
element of the art of fugue, as the next 
example shows : 

Ei. 73- Subject. 






-m * 


Et ip - se re - di-met Is - ra - el, 

C'l- ^">'^ \ ^ 




* » 


Stretto on the pedal-point. 


I I 

I 1 I 


•* I* f 



I I I I V 1 I 

-m- -m- -»■ J . J* I A 



* ^ 


J ! J- -I. 




I I I 






.■ g V 


41 0' i 


s I ^^^^^ 


J 1- 




V I- 

-<& — =- 

^-^^ \ :^mWrT^ ^ 





-»• I* 


j? J J 4- 


1 — r 


^ I e? — 1 m \ m m' m \ ^ ' * ■ 





-^ N \ I-— N J I N ( 

-9- -»■ -m- -m- -m- -m- . -m- -m- 


T^C: :^ 

m • 0'. 

Sometimes the stretto precedes the pedal- 
point, sometimes it follows it. An episode 
introduced after the last close-imitation, or 
after the stretto, is called a coda to the fugue. 
It often is introduced on a tonic pedal, or 
worked into a prolonged plagal cadence. 

A few general remarks are necessary in 
conclusion. The whole structure of a fugue 
points out that it is a work intended to be of 
constantly increasing interest, from the first 
exposition of subject and answer to the final 
bar. Out of this fact grow all the common 
rules for its formation, such, for instance, as, 
" no perfect cadence shall be heard till the 
end." A perfect cadence in any key gives a 
certain feeling of repose, and this feeling is 
alien to the spirit of the work. The only 
exception to this rule is when a fugue, with 
more than one subject, is broadly divided 
into two parts, as in Schumann's fugue No. 6 
on the name Bach. Half -closes are not un- 
common under similar circumstances, as in 
" Egypt was glad " (Handel). 

Again " contrapuntal devices should be 
introduced in the order of their interest or 
ingenuity, beginning with the simplest, 
and the most complicated being introduced 

Enough modulation should be introduced 
into a fugue to make it pleasing, and to avoid 
the tame effect of one continuous key-tonality; 
but, on the other hand, too much modulation 
would lead the hearers to believe that the 

work was intended to be made interesting as 

( 190 ) 


a specimen of modulation, and so take away 
iheir attention from the treatment of subject 
and answer. Hence, fugue-modulation is in 
a general way limited to related keys. The 
same object is kept in view by the rule, " if 
there is a tonic pedal-point, it should never 
be heard before the dominant pedal-point." 
Of course a breach of this rule would entirely 
undo the wonderful effect which the massive 
imitations or stretto have, when heard over 
the dominant, for dominant harmony always 
causes a yearning for tonic-harmony, and 
when the tonic is at length reached, then it 
is time to add yet more to the delay by 
multiplying superposed tonic harmonies. 

A glance at the subjects of fugues given in 
the examples will show that there is not much 
room for originality left to modern writers. 
The more the vast literature of fugues which 
has come down to us is studied, the more 
apparent does this fact become. It is indeed 
almost impossible to write a short diatonic 
subject, capable of easy handling, which shall 
be in any sense original. The true lesson to 
learn from this is, that the modern treatment 
of fugue subjects should at least be original, 
and the composer who now sets about writing 
a fugue, should feel himself compelled, as an 
artist, to make use of all the freshness and 
novelty which modern chords, key-relation- 
ship, and rhythm are capable of producing. 

It maybe objected, that such a modernized 
fugue ceases to be a fugue at au. But the 
history of fugue clears away such objections. 
Starting from the early time when fugue had 
barely commenced a separate existence from 
counterpoint, the word fugue meant nothing 
more than the subject, hence fuga composita, 
or fuga recta was, when the subject moved 
about by single degrees, or in conjunct 
motion ; and ftiga incomposita was when the 
subject had skips in it, or proceeded by dis- 
junct motion. Again, when the subject went 
upwards from the tonic it was called ftiga 
aiithentica ; when it went downwards from 
the tonic it was called fuga plagalis. Such 
expressions point out a very elementary stage 
in the art of fugue. What would now be 
almost distressing to us, namely, a fugue 
without any episodes, one in which subject 
and answer never cease to be heard, was at 
one period considered the perfection of a 
fugue. It was called fuga ricercata. Again, 
it is easy to trace the gradual introduction of 
episodes, and modulation, and the discarding 
of the complicated laws which bound subjects 
and answers to the tonality of the ancient 
church modes. 

Then, again, an extension both of the com- 
pass and length of subject gave new scope to 
composers, while *' licences " in counterpoint 
became of more frequent occurrence. In short, 


the fugue has gradually developed from an 
unartistic music-puzzle into a noble and 
splendid form, and it behoves modern com- 
posers to add their special share to its possible 
future development. It is quite true that a 
very large number of fugues, more or less in 
the old style, are at this time issued by so 
called scientific composers, and are considered 
clever, and favourably received by those who 
are not familiar with any music but that of 
the igth century ; but, were it worth the 
labour, such modern-antique fugues, could be 
proved to be mere rescripts and collections 
of what has been written long ago, not only 
once or twice, but scores of times. Having 
carefully examined the various periods in the 
life and history of fugue, and having accus- 
tomed himself to treat with respect the rules 
which fence in its earlier rudimentary forms, 
the student who reads aright will unhesitat- 
ingly endeavour to make fugue-form the 
handmaid of modern music, and so avoid the 
too common error of wilfully casting aside all 
that accumulation of experience and progres- 
sive improvement, which we happily possess, 
and should learn how to use. 

Fugue renversee {Fr.) An inverted fugue. 

Fiihrer {Ger.) (i) Subject of a fugue. 
(2) A leader, director. 

Full anthem. An anthem in which there 
is neither solo nor verses. [Anthem.] 

Full cadence. A perfect cadence. [Ca- 

Full chord, (i) A chord, some of the 
essential notes of which are doubled. (2) A 
chord for the full power of an instrument, 
orchestra, or voices. 

Full score. A score in which all the 
parts for voices and instruments are dis- 
played. [Score.] 

Full service, (i) A setting of the Canticles 
for voices in chorus, with or without organ 
accompaniment. (2) An Office in which music 
is used to the fullest extent allowed by the 

Fiillstimmen {Gcr.) Additional chorus 
parts —rcmplissage {Fr.), ripieni {It.) — either 
of voices or instruments. 

Full stop, (i) In lute playing, a full 
chord followed by a pause. (2) A chord in 
which all available fingers are occupied in 
stopping the strings. 

Fundamental bass. [Harmony.] 
Fundamental tones. The tones from 
which harmonics are generated. [Acous- 
tics, § ic] 

Funebre {Fr.)\ Funereal, mournful, in the 
Funerale {It.) \ style of a dirge ; as, viarche 
funlbrc. a funeral march. 

Fiinffach {Ger.) Five-fold. Often applied 
to a mixture stop of an ox g2Si— having five 




Funfstimmig [Ger.) In five parts. 

Funzioni [It.) Functions, duty. The 
general title for services, oratorios, and other 
musical compositions performed in the Roman 

Fuoco, con ; fuocoso {It.) With fire, 
spirit, dash. 

Furia, con ; furibondo, furiosamente, 
furioso {It.) With fury, energy, vehemence. 

Furlano (7^.) A dance. [Forlana.] 

Furniture. The name of one of the mix- 
ture stops in an organ. 

Furore, con {It.) With fury, passion, en- 

Fusa {Lat.) A quaver, ^ 

Fusee {Fr.) Rapid division, shake, or 

Fusella {Lat.) A semiquaver, J^ 

Fuss {Ger.) Foot, (i) The part of an 
organ pipe below the mouth. (2) The measure 
by which the pitch of organ stops is deter- 
niined ; as, 8 fussig, of 8 ft., or unison pitch. 

Fz. Abbreviation for forzando. 

( 192 ) 



G. (i) The note Lichanos in Greek music. 
The third, or fore-finger string of the lyre. 
[Greek Music] 

(2) The first note of the church mode called 
Mixo-Lydian. [Plain-Song.] 

(3) The lowest note of the grave hexachord ; 
in the Guidonian system, gamma ut. 

(4) The fifth note of the normal scale of C, 
called Sol. 

(5) The lowest or fourth string of a violin, 
the third of the viola and violoncello. 

(6) The key-note of the major scale, having 
one sharp in the signature. 

(7) The letter-name of the treble clef. 

G. abb. for gauche (Fr.) Left; as, ni.g., 
with the left hand. 

Ga. The fourth syllable in the system of 

Gabel (Ger.) A{oTk;Sthnmgabel, atuning- 
fork ; Gabelton, the note A, as given for the 

Gagliarda (7^.) [Galliard.] 

Gai (Fr.), Gajo (it.) Lively, merry, gay. 

Gaillarde (Fr.) [Galliard.] 

Gaiment (Fr.), Gajamente (It.) Gaily, 
cheerily, merrily. 

Galantemente (7^.) Gracefully, in good 
taste, bravely. 

Galliard, Gaillarde (Fr.), Gagliarda (7^.) 
An ancient dance, so called because of its 
gay rhythm and motion. It is said by some 
to have been similar in character to the 
Cushion dance, and is described by Sir John 
Davis as: 

" A swift and wandering dance, 

With passages uncertain to and fro, 

• » » » • 

With lofty turns and caprioles in the air, 
Which to the lusty tunes accordeth fair." 

Like the minuet, of which it was probably 
the parent, the galHard was danced by a lady 
and gentleman. If more than one couple per- 
formed the dance, they did so independently 
of other dancers. 

The tune was generally written in triple 
time. " Hence," says Butler (" Principles of 

Musick," 1636), " the triple is oft called gal- 
liard time ; and the duple, pavan time." 

Brawls, corantos, and galliards were danced 
at court from the reign of Queen Elizabeth 
to that of Charles I., as country dances and 
minuets were in later time. Dowland's 
beautiful and well-known melody, " Now, 
O now," published, with words, in the " First 
Booke of Songes or Ayres, of foure parts," 
1597, had been known before that date as a 
dance tune, under the name of the "Frog's 
Galliard." It is usually written in I time ; 
but as it is of slow pace, the subsidiary accent 
might be made a primary one, and so bring 
it within the general character of the measure 
of the galliard. 

The composers of the early part of the 
17th century frequently employed the rhythm 
of the galliard as a vehicle for " fancies," 
with florid passages for the virginals. A 
good example of this form of writing may 
be seen in " Parthenia, or the Maydenhead 
of the first musick that ever was printed for 
the Virginalls," 161 1. The following tune, 
by Girolamo Frescobaldi, 1637, will show the 
measure of the dance : 


















f^ fTf=^P ^^ 


( 193 ) 




^^ ^rTfff^ f^ f^Vf^^ ^ 

J \. 

jzid yj-j:! 

T t-n 




^^-^ r • r r r-f^ff 








Sir John Hawkins says that " the tune for 
the gaUiard consists of five paces or bars in 
the first strain, and is therefore called Cinque- 
pace,'' but the existing galliards do not justify 
this description. 

Some writers say that the dance came in 
fashion about the year 1540. It had a reign 
of popularity extending over a hundred years, 
after which time composers ceased to employ 
the title. [Country Dance.] [Pavan.] 

Galop, galopade (Fr.) A lively dance in 
2-4 time, originally a separate and indepen- 
dent dance, but now also forming a portion 
of a set of quadrilles. 

Galoubet (Fr.) A small flute of a primi- 
tive character with three holes, similar to the 
Picco pipe. 

Gamba, Viol da (7;^.) A stringed instru- 
ment of the viol sort, with six strings, weaker 
in tone and smaller in size than the violon- 
cello, so called because it was held between 
the knees of the pla3-er. [Viol da Gamba.] 

Gamba, or Viol da Gamba. An organ- 
stop, the pipes of which are, in continental 
organs, generally cylindrical, of small scale, 
and well cut up ; but sometimes are conical 
in shape. Its tone is pungent and not unlike 
that of a violin or violoncello. In England 
the Bell Gamba is more commonly met with. 
[Bell Gamba.] 

Gamme {Fr.) Gamut. [Notation.] 

Ganz (Ger.) (i) Entire, whole ; Gaw^io??, 
a whole tone ; Ganzenote, a semibreve, &c. 
(2) Very, as ganz langsam, very slow. 

Garbo, con (7^.) With grace, politely. 

Garlands. A general name for collections 
of ballads, and other inferior literature upon 
given subjects. [Ballad.] 

Garrire (7^) To warble, to chirp, to 

Gassatio. A word of varied meaning. 
Some writers use it to describe a street 
serenade, " hergeleitet von dem Herum- 
spazieren auf den Gassen um den Jungfern 
ein Standichen oder Hoferecht zu machen;" 
others say it is a " familiar expression for 
instrumental compositions generally, sjtti- 
phonies as well as quartetts." Others as- 

suming that the word comes from the Italian 
Cassatio or Cassazione, describe it as meaning 
a farewell or final piece, whether in a 
programme or as part of a whole composition. 
The word Gassaten or Cassatio is often made 
to do duty in describing the whole thing of 
which it only forms part, and thus it is that 
Suites or Sonatas of the earlier composers 
are sometimes called Cassazioni when final 
movements ought only to be so called. 
[Suite.] [Serenata.] 

Gassenhauer. [Ger.) The name given 
to one of the dance tunes in Wolf. Heckel's 
" Lautten Buch," Strasbourg, 1562, which 
contains many songs and pieces ; " Auch vil 
faltige Newe Tentz, sampt mancherley 
Fantaseyen, Recercari, Pavana, Saltarelli, 
und Gassenhawer, &c." The word is collater- 
ally related to Passacaille, which is from the 
Spanish Passa calle (" qui court les rues "). 
The subjoined is a translation into modern 
notation, from the Tablature in the book 
referred to above, of the melody of this dance, 
which it may be perceived is capable of bear- 
ing a ground bass, like the chaconnes or 
passacailles, to which class it unquestionably 

Wolf. Heckel's "Lautten Buch," 1562, 






-+- 1- 

^ ^--Tji^ J-J|a:^^*^Jb^ 




f '*>. 

-\— r 

*m* ' 






^^ ^ I J*^ 

'*^* =f!aE 

J l -Jjjlj 




J I I — i—i- 


* J-jl 




Gauche (Fr.) Left ; as, la main gauche, 
the left hand. 

Gavot, gavotte, or gavote [Fr.) Gavotta 
{It.) A dance tune of a lively yet dignified 
character, said to be of French origin, and to 
take its name from the Gavots, " Peuples 
montagnards du pays de Gap, ont donne le 
nom a cette danse que nous appellons gavote.' 
The description of the dance, " a brisk round 
for as many as will," identifies it with the 
country dance, and the form of the tune sup- 

( IQ4) 


ports this resemblance. The gavot seems to 
have been more popular as an instrumental 
piece than as a dance, and to have been a 
favourite movement in suites, lessons, and 
sonatas from the latter part of the 17th cen- 
tury, the time when the word appears to 
have been brought into use. 

The descriptions of the measure and rhythm 
of the dance are many, and slightly different, 
one writer maintaining that it should begin 
" with two crotchets, or the half of a bar, with 
a rise of the hand in beating, ending also 
with two crotchets that begin the last bar." 
Another says, " It may begin with an odd 
quaver, as that in the gth of Corelli's concerto 
does ; or with a whole bar, as the same com- 
poser shows us in Sonata i, Op. 2." 

Hawkins says that the dance is in triple 
time, of two strains of four and eight bars 
respectively, the first ending in the key of the 
dominant; and quotes Walther, who states 
that the first strain should have its cadence 
in the third or fifth of the key ; "for that if 
it be in the key-note itself, it is not a gavot, 
but a rondeau." It would be easy to produce 
numerous examples of gavots by well-known 
composers, in which the conditions mentioned 
above are not present. The following ex- 
amples, selected originally with the intention 
of showing some early specimens of this 
dance, will also be interesting as bearing 
upon the question : 

Gavot in Gamut, by Dr. John Blow, 1700. 

^ ,: ^^miz^^^t^^ ^ 

^ ^' ^ w ^ r 












rrfTr \TT r= ^ 










Mi-cCj-rg r-r^-SrS 


RbTr , ^ f^ 

^r ^ '^ 






f^^ M^^^^^ 












I. I 

r -»--•• r I* — 





^^r^.TN^-Cjj^ ^^i^ 







Jean Phillipe Rameau, 1716. 

i ^^^^ 



-» w 



i3 ^ ^ ^-^ 










■^J J H- 

-I — =t 






fft^r r r^^fd^Ac^t 

iJ r r 1 

— » — ^5= 

"!• m 

1 — U 


ff — ^ 

1 *• 


-=1 — 


r=- \ 


_tJ-j-=^ — 

^ 1 

m — 

— ^ 




ffr . f y . f rn-^-^ 

. ^ 





Francois Coupkrin, 6. 1668, d. 1733. 

i 195 ) 






ist time. 









4. J. 






w w 

isi /jw!e. II 2«rf. I 










Corelli, Bach, Handel, and others who have 
written gavots, do not always adhere to the 
so-called rules of this form of composition, but 
display some remarkable deviations from it, 
which those interested in the subject may dis- 
cover for themselves in the works of those 
writers. Like the galliard, the gavot, as an 
instrumental composition, had a limited period 
of popularity, for there are very few examples 
of later date than about the year 1760 to be 
found in the sonatas and suites. As a dance, 
the gavot was taught until a few years back, 
but the tune employed was different to those 
found in the compositions of the last century. 
Many of the old gavots are being restored 
to favour at the present time, and the com- 
posers of school-music are exercising their 
imitative powers in writing pieces after the 
manner of the old composers, to supply the 
demand made in consequence of the revived 
popularity of the melody and rhythm of this 
form of dance. 

Gavotta (It.) Gavotte (Fr.) [Gavot.] 

G clef. The treble clef, a character placed 
at the beginning of a stave to indicate the 
pitch of the notes. [Clef.] 

G dur (Ger.) The key of G major. 

Gebrochene Akkorde (Ger.) Distributed 
harmony, or arpeggio. [Arpeggio.] 

Gedackt or Gedeckt {Ger.) Covered 
with a lid; closed. [Decke, § 2.] 

Gefahrte {Ger.) The answer to a fugue 
subject (Fiihrer). [Fugue.] 

Gefiihl, mit (Ger.) With feeling, expres- 

Gegenbewegung {Ger.) Contrary motion. 

Gegengesang {Ger.) Antiphonal music. 

Gegenpunkt {Ger.) Counterpoint. 

Gegensatz {Ger.) Counter-subject. 

Gehalten {Ger.) Held, sostenuto. 

Gehend {Ger.) Andante {It.) Lit., Going ; 
at a moderate pace ; etw as gehend, andantino. 

Geige {Ger.) A violin. Geigen-blatt, the 
finger-board ; Geigen-bogen, the bow ; Geigen- 
harz, resin; Geigen-saite,?vd6\e-%\.r\ng', Geigen- 
sattel, bridge ; Geigen-wirbel, peg. 

Geist {Ger.) Spirit, genius, soul. 

Gelassen {Ger.) Calm, tranquil. 

Gemessen {Ger.) Measured, i.e. not too fast 

Gemshorn (Ger.) (i) An instrument made 
of the horn of the chamois goat. (2) An organ 
stop, of conically-shaped pipes of tin, narrow 
at the open end, with ears at the broad end 
or mouth, to regulate the tuning. The tone 
is peculiar and pleasant. It is generally of 
8-ft. tone, though sometimes of 4, and in the 
pedal organ of 16, 

General -bass {Ger.) Thorough bass ; 
basso continuo {It.) 

Generator. A ground note, fundamental 
bass, root, derivative. 

Genere {It.) Genre {Fr.) (i) Manner or 
style. (2) Kind or class (of scales) ; as, dia- 
tonico, croiiiatico, enarmonico. 

Generoso {It.) Nobly, with dignity. 

Gentile ; gentilezza, con {It.) Noble, 
with dignity. 

Genus {Lat.) Sort or class, especially used 
with reference to scales; as, the diatonic, 
chromatic, and enharmonic genera. [Greek 

Gerade-bewegung {Ger.) Similar motion. 

Gerade-taktart {Ger.) Common time. 

German flute. [Flute.] 

German sixth. [Extreme sixth, chord of.] 

Ges {Ger.) The note G flat. 

Gesang {Ger.) Singing, song, cantata, 
hymn, &c. 

Geschwind {Ger.) Quick, rapid. 

Ges dur {Ger.) The key of G flat major. 

■Gestossen {Ger.) Staccato. 

Getern, Getron {Old Eng.) Guitar. 

Getragen {Ger.) Lit., drawn, legato. 

Ghazel {Arab.) A term used by Dr. 
Hiller to describe a piece in which a simple 
theme is constantly recurring. The name is 
suggested by those Eastern poems in which a 
word or sentence either forms the ending or 

( 196) 


commencement of the lines. The following 
is a short "ghazel," written by Dr. Hiller on 
the theme, G, A, B : 













I I I 

I J jJgJ--gJ- 




Ghiribizzi f/^.) Fantastic devices. 

Giga {It.), Gigue {Fr.) Jig. 

Gigelira (/^.) Giga vel lira. A name given 
to the strohfiedel. [Ligneum Psalterium.] 

Gingras. A small ancient flute, of Phoe- 
nician origin, afterwards adopted by some 
European nations. 

Gingrina [Lat.) [Gingras.] 

Giochevole {It.) Merry, jocose. 

Giocondamente {It.) Joyfully, merrily. 

Giocondezza {It.) Mirth, jocundity. 

Giocondato {It.) Happy, joyful. 

Giocondo {It.) Jocund. 

Giocosamente, giocoso {It.) Sportively, 

Giojante, giojosamente, giojoso {It.) 
With mirth, joyfully. 

Gioviale (7^.) Jovial, pleasant. 

Giovialita, con {It.) With jollity. 

Giraffe. An ancient form of the spinnet. 

Gis {Ger.) The note G sharp. 

Gis moll {Ger.) The key of G sharp 

Gittern. [Guitar.] 

Gittith {Heb.) This word, which is found 
in the titles of Ps. viii., Ixxxi., Ixxxiv., is by 
some supposed to signify a musical instru- 
ment (perhaps as used at Gath) ; by others, a 
vintage-song, or well-known tune, to which 
the Psalm could be sung. Various other 
explanations have been offered, which it is 
unnecessary to give here. 

Giubiloso {It.) Jubilant. 

Giustamente (7^.) Strictly, accurately. 

Giusto (7^.) Strict, correct, moderate ; a 
tempo giusto, at a moderate pace. 

Glass. Musical instruments of this ma- 
terial are of two kinds, percussion and fric- 
tion ; the first consists of a series of small 
plates of graduated sizes, supported on tapes 
secured in a wooden box, the several tones 
being regulated by the size of the glass : this is 
a mere toy. For a description of the best of 
the second class see Armonica. Another 
form of a glass friction instrument is made of 
a number of tubes of various lengths, and as 
the tone is brought out by stroking the length 
of the several tubes with flannel or india- 
rubber, it is only capable of producing slow 

Glee. A composition for voices in har- 
mony, consisting of two or more contrasted 

movements, with the parts so contrived that 
they may be termed a series of interwoven 
melodies. It may be written for three or more 
voices, either equal or mixed ; but it is neces- 
sary that there should be only one voice to a 
part. It maybe designed with or without in- 
strumental accompaniment, and set to words 
in any style — amatory, bacchanalian, pas- 
toral, didactic, comic, or serious. As a com- 
position, the glee appears to have historically 
followed the catch, and to have had its origin 
at the time when part-singing began to be 
revived. But when musical skill was at a 
very low ebb, a satisfactory performance 
of existing vocal compositions for combined 
voices was neither possible nor desirable : not 
possible ; because the madrigal, to be effec- 
tive, required many voices to a part ; and not 
desirable, because the words set to the catches, 
the other sort of secular part-music, were not 
of a character which fitted them for the ears 
of decent folk. The earliest glees, so called, 
were set to words of a pastoral character. 
One of the first, if not the very first, printed 
composition for voices to which the title 
was attached, was " Turn, Amaryllis, to thy 
swain," by Thomas Brewer, included in the 
second book of Hilton's "Catch that catch 
can," 1652. The most ancient collection in 
which glees are specially mentioned, was pub- 
lished by Playford. It is called, " The Musi- 
cal Companion, in two books : the First Book 
containing Catches and Rounds for Thiee 
Voyces ; the Second Book containing Dia- 
logues, Glees, Ayres, and Songs for two, 
three, and Four Voyces," 1673. The com- 
positions contained in these books can only 
be regarded as exhibiting the qualities of pre- 
liminary attempts to fix and form the style, 
which afterwards became known as the " glee 
style." Many other species of musical works 
have grown to their present proportions by 
slow degrees ; but the glee seems to have 
started into existence in its modern form all 
at once, and not to have been the result of a 
series of developments. From the time when 
Playford's book was published until between 
the year 1760 and 1770, the specimens of 
part-writing to which the authors attached the 
word " glee," are somewhat rare, the terms 
" ode," or " three, four, or five-part song," 
being preferred for vocal compositions in 

Sir John Hawkins does not mention the 
word once in his " History of Music," pub- 
lished 1776, although institutions for the 
encouragement of glee-writing were already 
established in his time. 

The period of the existence of the glee, as 
we now understand it, was about seventy 
years, namely, from 1760 to 1830 ; the most 
successful of the glee-writers during that time 

( 197 ) 



were S. Webbe, Dr. Cooke, Dr. Callcott, 
R.J. S. Stevens, Reginald Spofforth, J. Stafford 
Smith, W. Horsley, Sir Henry Bishop, Charles 
Evans, and to this list must be added, Sir 
John Goss. 

The compositions of these writers, with a 
few by their contemporaries, form the Whole 
literature of this class. The so-called German 
glees are, for the most part, simply harmo- 
nised melodies, and belong to the order of 
part-songs rather than to that of glees. The 
application of the term to this class of com- 
position is correct philologically, but not 
formally. The old word glee meant harmony 
or combination ; and, therefore, all composi- 
tions for voices in harmony may be rightly 
designated by the term. But the word 
is understood to signify a special sort of 
vocal harmony, and if the pieces so called do 
not fulfil the conditions of the character, 
already described above, they ought not to 
be called by the term. 

The glee, like the anthem, is of English 
growth, and has never been successfully imi- 
tated by foreign writers. The increase of 
musical taste has led to the formation of large 
choral societies, by whom the master-works 
of the great composers are given with effect; 
but it has also led to the neglect of private 
social musical gatherings, and, consequently, 
to the disuse of one of the most delightful 
musical pleasures, the performance of the 
glee. Glee-singing is almost a lost art in 
England. The tradition has not been pro- 
perly maintained, and we are in the somewhat 
anomalous position of a people in the posses- 
sion of a special literature, which we cannot 
rightly interpret or appreciate. 

A few remarks upon the origin and mean- 
ing of the word Glee may not be considered 
uninteresting or out of place here. The 
word comes from the Anglo-Saxon " gle," 
meaning music, or the performance of music. 
For example, the " Story of Genesis," written 
about 1250, and reprinted by the Early Eng- 
lish Text Society, has the following words : 

" Jobal is bro'Ser song and glew, 
Wit of music well he knew." 

Chaucer, in his " Troilus and Creseide," uses 
the word with a like meaning : 

" For though that the best harpair upon live 
Would on the beste sounid jolly harpe 
That evir was with all his fingers five 
Touch aie o string, or aie o warble harp 
Were his nailis poincted nevir so sharpe, 
It shulde makin every wight to dull 
To here his gle and of his strokis full." 

In the " Promptorium Parvulorum" (1440), 
the same word, spelt glu, probably in accord- 
ance with the provincial pronunciation of 
the writer, is translated armonia, minstrelsy. 
Some modern writers suppose the word to 

come from gligg, the Anglo-Saxon term for 
joy or merriment ; or from gleek, which signi- 
fies to scoff, sneer, or banter. Neither of 
these derivations point to the musical use of 
the word ; for the majority of glees are of a 
character too serious to be called merry, and 
too earnest to be called bantering. 

The early writers of glees frequently used 
a qualifying term with the word, as " serious 
glee," " chearfuU glee," &c., a practice which 
might be considered superfluous if the word 
only meant merriment. It may be, therefore, 
gathered, that they attached a meaning to the 
word similar to that found in the writings of 
the early poets and others, namely, combina- 
tion. That glee meant consort or harmony 
is implied in the following extract from a poem 
by Robert Manning, of Lincolnshire, in the 
reign of Edward L, c. 1303 : 

" Yn harpe and tabour and symphan gle 
Worship God in trumpes ant sautre ; 
Yn cordes, yn organes, and bells ringying, 
Yn all these worship the hevene Kyng." 

and in Davie's poem, the Life of Alexander, 
[temp. Ed. II.] 

" Orgues, chymbes, uche maner gle ***•••• 
Withouten the toums murey ; " 
(Organs, chimes, all manner of harmony 
Outside the town's wall). 

[Catch.] [Madrigal.] [Part-song.] 

Gleek. [Glee.] 

Gli {It.) The ; as gli stromenti, the instru- 

Glissando, glissato, glissicato, glissi- 
cando {It.) (i) Playing a rapid passage in 
pianoforte music, by sliding the tips of the 
fingers along the keys instead of striking each 
note with a separate finger. (2) A rapid slur 
in violin playing. 

Glisser (-Fr.) To slide. [Glissando.] 

Glockenspiel {Ger.) An instrument made 
of bells tuned diatonically and struck with 
hammers, or by levers acted upon by a key- 
board. It is occasionally employed in the 
orchestra, notably by Mozart in his opera, 
"The Magic Flute." [Bells.] [Carillon.] 
(2) An organ stop of two ranks. 

Gloria {Lat.) [Mass.] 

Glottis. [Larynx.] 

Glottis {Gk.jyXojTTic); Lat., Lingula. The 
reed used in some of the ancient flutes. These 
reeds were moveable, and were carried about 
in a little box called yXwcjtjoKOfieiov. 

G moll {Ger.) The key of G minor. 

Gnaccare (7^.) [Castanets.] 

Gong, (i) A pulsatile metal instrument, 
generally circular and shallow, formed of 
copper and tin mixed in the proportions 
80 : 20. (2) A rod of metal bent into a plane 
spiral, used instead of a bell. (3) Flat bars 
of metal placed over resonators. (4) Bell- 

( 198) 


shaped metal vessels with the mouth partially 

Gong Drum. A bass drum shaped like 
a tambourine. 

Gorgheggi, Gorgheggiare (It.) Trills, 
quaverings, warblings. 

Gosba. An Arabian flute. There are two 
sorts of the gosba, the one with three holes 
in the lower extremity, producing four sounds 
which with their harmonics at the fifth complete 
the octave. The instrument is employed to 
guide the voice of a singer. The other gosba 
is larger and pierced with six holes, with a 
double hole at the back. 

Grace notes. [Graces.] 

Graces. A general term for ornamental 
notes or short passages, introduced as em- 
bellishments into vocal or instrumental music, 
not actually essential to its harmony or melody. 
In former times, in vocal music, the selection 
of graces was left to the judgment of the 
performer to a great extent, but in instru- 
mental music numerous signs have from time 
to time been used, explanations of which will 
be found under their distinctive names. Harp- 
sichord and lute music was always lavishly 
ornamented, and in lesson books for these 
instruments, much care and space is often 
given to a full explanation of their force and 
meaning. [Harpsichord.] Music for viols 
was also graced in various ways, but never to 
so great an extent as that above named. As 
all these instruments are now obsolete it is 
unnecessary to enter further into the subject. 
In our own time a reaction has taken place 
against the absurd embellishments indulged 
in by our forefathers, and it has become 
fashionable to sing and play music just as it 
is written. This is perhaps to be regretted, 
as those who are rendering music should 
carefully consider whether the writer wished 
ornaments to be excluded, or, omitted to write 
them under a belief that they would certainly 
be introduced in performance. [See Cadenza.] 

Gracieux (Fr.) Graceful ; in graceful style. 

Gracile {It.) Small, thin ; as, voce gracile, 
a thin voice. 

Grad (Ger.) A degree or step of a scale. 

Gradation (Fr.) Gradazione {It.) Grada- 
tion, by degrees of the scale. 

Gradevole, gradevolmente {It.) Grate- 
ful, gratefully. 

Graditissimo {It.) Most grateful. 

Gradleiter {Ger.) A scale. 

Grado (7^.) Degree or step of a scale; as, 
di grado, by conjunct motion, as opposed to 
di salto, by a skip. 

Graduale {Lat.) A gradual. A piece of 
music performed between the reading of the 
Epistle and Gospel in the Roman Church. 

Graduellement {Fr.) By degrees. 

Gradual modulation. A change of key 
by diatonic progression. 

Graduate in music. One who has taken 
a degree in music at a university. 

Gran cassa {It.) Grosse caisse {Fr.) The 
big drum. 

Grand {Fr.) Grande {It.) Large, great, 
complete ; as, grand bourdon, a double bour- 
don ; a grande orchestre, for a complete band. 

Grand barre {Fr.) A position in guitar 
playing, the object being to alter the pitch of 
the instrument by making a temporary nut of 
the forefinger laid lengthwise across the 
strings. [Guitar.] 

Grande mesure a deux temps {Fr.) 
Common measure of two beats. 

Grandezza {It.) Grandeur. 

Grandioso {It.) Grand, in a lofty manner. 

Grandisonante {It.) Loud, sonorous. 

Grand jeu {Fr.) The power obtained by 
the use of the whole of the stops in an organ, 
or by the employment of a stop so called in 
the harmonium which calls into use the whole 
of the available registers. 

Gran gusto (7^.) Elevated taste or ex- 

Grande orgue (Fr.) (i) Full organ. (2) 
The great organ. 

Grand pianoforte. [Pianoforte.] 

Gran tamburo {It.) The big drum. 

Grappa (7^.) Lit., a stem ; a brace which 
connects staves. 

Grave {Lat., It., Fr., Bug.) (i) Deep in 
pitch ; as, grave hexachord, the lowest hexa- 
chord in the Guidonian system. (2) Slow in 
pace, solemnly. 

Gravecembalum {Lat.), Gravicembalo 
(7^.) [Harpsichord.] 

Gravement {Fr.) Slow, and in a solemn 

Gravity, con (7^) With dignity, weight, 

Grazia, con (7^.) With grace, elegance. 

Graziosamente, grazioso (7^) Grace- 
fully, elegantly. 

Greater. Belonging to the major scale ; 
as, a greater third, a major third, as C to E ; 
greater sixth, a major sixth, as C to A. A 
piece of music, said by the old writers to be 
in any key with the greater third, was in the 
major mode ; with the lesser third, in the 
minor mode. 

Great octave. The sounds lying be- 



represented, according to one system, by 
single capitals, C, D, E, &c. ; in another, by 
double capitals, as CC, DD, EE, &c. [Pitch.] 
Great organ. [Organ.] 

( 199 ) 


Greek Music (Systems of ancient).* From 
the time of Homer down to that of Terpan- 
der, who seems to have flourished some 300 
years after Homer, the lyres of the Greeks 
had but four strings. At that early date the 
instrument could only have been used for the 
purposes of a pitch pipe, just as orators sub- 
sequently employed it to regulate the pitch of 
the voice. No tune could be drawn from 
four notes. 

Terpander raised the number of strings 
from four to seven, for the service of the 
Gods. The following two lines, from one of 
his hymns, are preserved in the Introdicctio 
Harmonica, ascribed to, but evidently not 
written b}', Euclid. f 
"'H/jeIc Tol rerpayepw airoarip^avTeQ aoilfiv, 

'ETrrarorw (popfxiyyi riovQ Kt\ali](TOjjLev v^vovq^X 
— (p. ig, edit. Meibom.) 

This scale of seven notes was formed by 
connecting the first tetrachord, or series of four 
notes, with a second series of four, by one 
sound common to both. To represent these 
sounds in modern notes, they would be as E, 
F, G, A, and A, B flat, C D united by the A 
in the middle, which was the key note to the 
two. The Greeks had the same number of 
perfect fourths in a scale that we have, but 
when they formed their scales by tetrachord s, 
or fourths, they selected that position of the 
fourth, in which the semitone came between 
the lowest two strings — as E, F, G, A. The 


LYRE was then as follows : — 

(d. Nete (shortest string, giving 

the highest sound). 
c. Paranete (beside Nete). 
b flat. Paramese (beside Mese). 
a. Mese (middle string and key 
note, connecting the two 
G. LiCHANOS (forefinger string). 
F. Parhypate (beside Hypate). 
\E. Hypate (longest string, giv- 
ing the lowest sound). 
The above are names of the strings of the 
lyres, and not of notes of a fixed pitch. The 

* " The Systems of Ancient Greek Music compared 
with Modern Music," abbreviated from Chappell's 
History of Music. 

•f- Two treatises on music are ascribed to Euclid, the 
Introductio Harmonica and the Sectio Canonis. The 
second is a mathematical treatise quoted by Porphyrins 
as Euclid's, but the first is an Aristoxenian or practical 
musician's treatise in a different school. (It is none the 
less valuable, whoever may have been its author.) 
With this reservation both will hereafter be quoted 
as Euclid's, to abbreviate references. Proclus says 
only that Euclid wrote on the elements of music. 

I But we, loving no more the four-toned song, 
Will sing aloud new hymns to a seven-toned lyre. 



same names would have been retained if the 
lyre had been tuned one, two, or three notes 
higher. The longest string was called Hypate, 
although it gave the lowest sound. If pitch 
had counted for height instead of mere length 
of string, the order of Nete and Hypate would 
have been reversed. 

The lower four strings of the lyre were 
played by the thumb and three fingers of 
the left hand, the string that fell under the 
forefinger being called lichanos (the licking- 
up finger), and the thumb upon the key 
note or Mese. The three treble strings were 
played upon by a plectrum, which was a 
piece of ivory, ebony, horn, or any hard 
wood. This was held in the right hand, 
and its use being only occasional, the right 
hand was in a measure left free for action 
in addressing the auditors. 

The next improvement in Greek music is 
connected with the most important of all dates 
in Grecian History — that at which Egypt was 
thrown open to the Greeks by Psammetichus 
the First, King of Egypt. From that event 
sprang the rapid advances of the Greeks in 
science, in art, and in literature. Philosophers, 
law-givers, historians, astronomers, mathe- 
maticians, musicians, architects, physicians, 
and alchemists — indeed all who were intent 
upon the acquisition of learning — sought it in 
that world of ancient civilization. It was 
there that Thales learnt to measure the height 
of a temple or of a pyramid by the length of 
its shadow — there to divide the year into 365 
days. It was there that one of the philosophical 
re-discoveries of the last and of the present 
century, viz., that sounds may be both too 
high and too low to reach the human ear, was 
known thousands of years ago. 

Until the reign of Psammetichus the 
Greeks had been going on a wrong road to 
music. The seven strings could produce 
nothing worLhy of the name of tune with 
such a scale as they had ; at least so long as 
the middle string remained the key note of 
that scale. All the ancient fables of Orpheus 
and Amphion must rest upon their skill in 
poetical recitation, which was one branch of 
music in the Greek sense. As to Amphion, 
he, no doubt, sang in such lively rhythm as 
to expedite the builders in order to keep time 
to it, and hence the fable of his having raised 
the walls of Thebes by his lyre. 

Psammetichus I. began his reign in 664, 
B.C.§ He was the first of the Pharaohs who 

§ In Dr. W. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Biography, the date of Psammetichus I. is given as 671, 
B.C., and to this is added a note that Boeckh dates 
his reign as 654, B.C. As Eg^^ptian dates can be 
carried back with tolerable certainty from the conquest 
of Egypt by Cambyses, and the above is rather vague 
for a matter of such importance especially when early 

( 200 ) 


cultivated the friendship of the Greeks ; he 
invited them as settlers, and engaged Carian 
and Greek mercenaries in his army. It was 
the change in Egyptian policy that enabled 
Pythagoras to go to Egypt, where he is said 
to have lived 22 years. He is the reputed 
discoverer of the octave system of music, 
which was certainly known in Egypt at least 
a thousand years before his visit. 

The popular myth of the Egyptian Hermes 
and the lyre, is that, when walking by the 
banks of the Nile, he accidentally kicked the 
shell of a dried tortoise, in which there was 
nothing remaining but dried sinews, and that 
it emitted musical sounds, and thus suggested 
to him the idea of forming it into a musical 
instrument. The Egyptian name of the 
God was Thoth. The instrument was the 
Egyptian nefer, in hieroglyphics nfr (without 
the vowels), so sometimes translated nofra or 
nefru. This musical instrument is found 
in hieroglyphics at as early a date as the 
building of the second pyramid. The 
meaning expressed by the hieroglyphic is 
" good." 

The difference between the Greek lyre and 
the Egyptian lute was that the former had no 
neck, against which the strings could be 
pressed. A lyre with an open back could 
give but one sound from each string, but 
when the same string was pressed against a 
finger-board it would produce notes in every 
variety, according as the vibrating part of the 
string was shorter or longer. The first lesson 
to be learnt from it was that the half of a 
string would produce the sound of the octave 
above the whole length; next, that, by stop- 
ping one-third of it, the remaining two-thirds 
would sound the musical interval of a fifth 
above the whole length ; and that by stopping 
a fourth part, the remaining three-fourths 
would sound the interval of a fourth above 
the whole. In this way the Greeks learnt to 
produce every note of a scale, as well as the 
relation between geometrical proportions and 
musical sounds. 

At the time of this discovery Greek lyres 
had only been made, on theTerpander model, 
to carry seven strings, so that, on learning 
the octave system, which required eight, they 
were obliged to leave out one of the notes. 

authorities differ also by ten years in the length of his 
reign), the assistance of Samuel Birch, Esq , LL.D., 
F.S.A., keeper of the Antiquities in the British Museum, 
was sought for to decide between the discrepancies, 
and most kindly given in the following words : — " The 
highest monumental date known of Psammetichus I. 
is 54 years, according to the Apis tablets of the Sera- 
peium, which agrees with the statement of Herodotus. 
The date of 664, B.C., is the lowest probable date of 
the accession of Psammetichus, which might be a year 
or two higher, and Boeckh's date is inadmissible." 

After new lyres had been made to carry eight 
strings the entire octave was included upon 
the instrument. The old system of tuning 
the lyre was then called Synaphe or Conjunc- 
tion (cruva^^),* and the new, or octave, system 
was called Harmonia {ap^iovla), the " fitting 
in " system, because it fitted in the lesser 
consonances of the fourth and fifth into the 
greater consonance of the octave. (Verb. 
apjuio^eiy, and the participle, used as an adjec- 
tive, iip^oafjiivoQ.) When the principle was 
fully established, harmonia became a syno- 
nym for music, in our sense of the word, 
for the Greek word, Mousike, embraced all 
the arts and sciences over which the Muses 

The old dissonant seventh (from E to d) 
was made into an octave (from E to e) by the 
interposition of a tone between the two, 
previously, conjoined fourths or tetrachords. 
This interposed tone was called the dia- 
zeuktic tone, or tone of disjunction [tovoq 


The following is the scale for the reven, 
and for the eight stringed lyre upon the 
Egyptian or Octave System. It is here 
printed in the Greek " common" musical 
scale — our A minor with a minor seventh : — 

Seven Stringed Lyre. 



(t. Nete. 
d. Paranete. 
c. (omitted.) 
h. Paramese or Trite, 
a Mese (key note). 
G. Lichanos. 
F. Parhypate. 
E. Hypate 

Eight Stringed Lyre. 


(e. Nete. 

d. Paranete. 

c. Trite, 

b. Paramese. 

The tone of Disjunction or Diazenktic tone. 

[a. Mese (key note). 
Lower Jg. Lichanos (or Diatonos). 

Tetrachord. ' F. Parhypate. 
,E. Hypate. 

In the eight stringed lyre Paramese and 
Trite were no longer the same string. Para- 
mese took its proper place, next to Mese, and 
Trite was third from the top, as its name 

By this system the player had a fifth up- 
wards from his key note and a fourth below 
it, so as to allow scope for recitation both 

Bacchius, Senr., p 20. 

( 201 ) 


above and below. He could then produce 
something more Hke to a tune than was pos- 
sible upon the old scale. Before that time 
any Greek chant would have sounded to 
modern ears as never ending, for their key 
note would be to us as the third of the key, 
because we have a major scale (which the 
Greeks had not), and we could associate such 
recitations with the key of F major through 
the B flat. The scales of the Greeks were all 
in minor keys, and the nearest approach they 
had to a major scale was one of five tones, 
which might be extracted from the chromatic 
scale, of which hereafter. 

The reason why Pythagoras preferred to 
omit C, which was a major third from the top 
on the seven stringed lyre, and a minor third 
above the key note (a), was because, at that 
time (but not after Didymus, Claudius 
Ptolemy, and other mathematicians had re- 
vised the scale) Greek thirds were not only 
esteemed as discords, but were so. They 
were so because, at first, the Greeks used 
only major tones in their scales, and there are 
less than six major tones in an octave. It is 
not proposed here to enter upon the mathe- 
matical divisions of scales, which, after the 
introduction of "equal temperament" (alias, 
equal putting out of tune), few, especially they 
who have their pianofortes tuned for them, 
seem to care about. But still a very easy 
experiment may be recommended to prove 
the case. 

A major tone is the difference by which a 
fifth overlaps a fourth. Therefore, tune a 
perfect fourth from C down to G (or ask the tuner 
to do it), and then a perfect fifth up from G 
to D. There will be a major tone from C to 
D. Repeat the same, but beginning from D, 
a perfect fourth down to A, and a perfect fifth 
up to E. There will be another major tone 
from D to E, and the two will form an old 
Greek ditone, or third, from C to E. Try it 
by the ear, and it will be understood at once 
why the Greeks and the early writers upon 
church music (who had the worst of Greek 
divisions of a scale through the imperfect 
treatise of Boethius) for a long time treated 
thirds as discords. 

Harmonia, which thus had primarily the 
meaning of " The Octave System of Music," 
came to signify "The Science of Music" and 
"Music" generally, because Pythagoras had 
limited the doctrines of the science to the 
sounds which are included in an octave,* 
so Harmonia and the later word Harmonica 

* Hvdayopaar S'6 (refivoQ . . . rri Z^avaXoyinri 
apjioviq. ' avrapKEQ Tei'Ofiii^e f^ixpi tov did iratribv 
arfjaai rrtv Trjg luovaiKrJQ tiriyvwaiy. — Plutarch, De 
Music a, cap. 37. 

(op^ortKjy) had the same meaning. The Pytha- 
gorean writers on music were called Har- 
monici (dpfioyiKoi),i and some of them, before 
the time of Aristoxenus, had given such exclu- 
sive preference to the seven-stringed system^ 
coupling with it the enharmonic division of 
the octave, and calling this enharmonic branch 
of the system "harmonia," that the word was 
not infrequently used, instead of enharmonia, 
for a long time after. This, however, was 
not the original meaning, as the following 
extract from Philolaos, who first published 
the Pythagorean doctrines, will show. It 
refers to the seven-stringed octave, so Trite 
is B, not C, which it became on the eight- 
stringed lyre. 

§ ' Apjioviaq 2f [xiyedog kvri avWa(ih koX dio^eidv 
■ TO ds hi6i,£idy fX£il!^ov rag (TvXXaj3dQ CTroySo'w * 
ecTTi yap diro vTrarag eg p-iaav avXKafih, ano ht 
jiicrag ttotI vtarav hi6l,tid.v ' ciTro ht vtarag eg 
Tpirav (TuXXa/3a * airo ^e Tpiraer eg virnTap SiS^eidv ' 
TO d'iv i^iiau) fiiaag kui TpiTaa tTvoyhoov, 'A Be 
(TvWajSd iiriTpiTOV ' to de dio^eidv rjfJiioKiov ' to 
hid. iracrdv de dnrXoov. OvTwg dpfxovia "^ivTe 
liToydoa Koi dvo dieaieg, dio^eidv de Tpikiroydoa 
(Cat dietng, avWafod de dveiroydoa Koi die(JLg.\\ 

In the above extract the distinction between 
Harmonia (the octave system) and Diapason 
(the octave) is clearly drawn. The use of 
the word diesis for the interval which Aris- 
toxenians, or practical musicians, called a 
semitone, or rather hemitone (fifxiToyiov), and 
Pythagoreans, or mathematical musicians, 
more accurately called a limma or remnant 
(Xe'i/j-na), proves that Philolaos refers to the 
diatonic scale, or scale of tones and semi- 
tones, and not to the enharmonic scale which 
had quarters of tones instead. When the en- 
harmonic system came more into use the word 
" diesis " was transferred to its quarter tones, 
and to thirds of tones (when they were used) 
in one of the chromatic scales. The semitone 
was then no longer called diesis. 

t Ot KaXov^eyoi dpfioyiKol, says Aristoxenus con- 
temptuously, p. 40 and again p. 37. 

t aXXa TTEpl avT&y jjoroy rwv iTrra^opow*', a 
eKoXovy apjxoyiaa, Tt)y £7ri(7K£i^u^ enoiovyTO (p. 27.) 

§ " The extent of the octave system is a fourth and a 
fifth ; but the fifth is greater than the fourth by a tone 
of the proportion of 9 to 8 ; for [the interval ) from the 
lowest [string E] to Mese [the key note A] is a fourth, 
but from Mese to Nete [the upper e] is a fifth; from 
Nete [down] to the third string is a fourth ; from the 
third to the lowest is a fifth ; between the key note and 
the third string is a tone of 9 to 8. The fourth is in 
the ratio of 4 to 3 ; the fifth in that of 3 to 2 ; and the 
octave [diapason] of 2 to i. Thus the octave system, 
Harmonia [contains] five tones and two limmas [or 
semitones], the fifth [contains] three tones and a 
semitone, and the fourth two tones and a semitone. 

il Philolaos, edit., Boeckh, p. 66, Svo.; Berlin, 1819. 

( 202 ) 


Mese, which means middle, had also the 
office of key note at the time when it only 
connected the two fourths in the old seven- 
stringed system. It retained the name in the 
latter sense, as the centre and turning point 
of the system, when the lyre had eight or ten 
strings, and consequently no middle ; for 
" eight has no middle," says Aristotle, re- 
ferring to it.* " Systems without mutation," 
{afi£Ta(3o\a) says Aristides Quintilianus (in 
other words, "Systems in one key") are 
those with one Mese : Mutable systems (jiera- 
fiaWofieya) have several Meses,"t No lyre 
could have several middle strings, so he can 
only mean key note. An endless number of 
quotations might be given to the same effect. 
Mese was not only the key note to all Greek 
scales; it is to this day the key note of our 
minor scales, which we derived wholly through 
the Greeks. 

Although the Greeks had now arrived at 
the only true system of music, yet their old 
one was not allowed to die away. There 
were, no doubt, ancient hymns to the Gods 
upon that system, and so they continued to 
use it. Terpander, who first added a second 
tetrachord to the lyre, was a hymnologist, and 
more than 200 years after him. Ion of Chios, 
another hymnologist, added a third conjoined 
tetrachord, and so increased the number of 
strings from seven to ten. The following 
extract from one of Ion's hymns is preserved 
by Euclid : — | 

— Tj/v BcKajSafiova ra^iv £-)(^ou<ra 
Tag av^<pu)vov(TaQ ap/jLoriag Tpto^ovg. 
Hpiy fiei' aeTTTCiTOvov \\/aXkov ^la rirraapa 7rd»'r£c 
RWiji'SQ, (Tiraviay fiovaay aeipafxeroi.^ 
Ion produced his first tragedy (according to 
Suidas), B.C. 453, and died B.C. 421. It is 
clear that he here refers to the old system, 
and not to the new, by naming only three 
harmonies or concords {avfifwriac) from ten 
strings, and from their meeting or conjunc- 
tion ; for the middle tetrachord of the con- 
junct system was united by its extremes to 
the other two. This system of Ion's was 
called Episynaphe, or Conjunction upon Con- 
junction [tTri(Tvva(p-n]. \\ 

After the time of Ion, the original Greek 
scale received only one more string, the 
eleventh, which was added at the base to 
make an octave to Mese, thus borrowing from 
the octave system. It was a great improve- 
ment, for in this form it gave an octave of 
the Hypo-Dorian or common Greek scale (our 
A minor with a minor seventh) from A to a, 
and an octave of the Dorian scale (our D 
minor with a minor seventh) from D to d — 
the last through having the b flat in the upper 
part of the scale. 

In this, its completed form, it becam.e "The 
lesser perfect system" of the Greeks, until 
Claudius Ptolemy disputed the claim of such 
a scale to be called "perfect." The defect he 
saw in it was that it did not include the 
twelfth or fifteenth. 

The Lesser Perfect System. 

The Synemmenon Tetrachord 


or Conjunct Fourth. 

The Meson Tetrachord 


or Middle Fourth. 

The Hypaton Tetrachord 


or Lowest Fourth (added by Ion). 

The acquired note 
not included in any Tetrachord. 

id. Nete 

c. Paranete 

bb. Trite 

ra. Mese 

G. Lichanos 

F. Parhypate 

;E. Hypate 

D. Lichanos 

C. Parhypate 

B. Hypate 

A. Proslambanomenos. 



The original seven strings had seven dif- 
ferent names, but no new ones were given to 
those added by Ion, so it became necessary 
to distinguish between the new and the old 

* Problems, 25 and 44 of Sect. 19. 

f Arist. Quint., p. 17. % Euclid, Int. Harm., 

§ Having the ten-note scale 
With three musical consonances conjoined 

p. 19. 

by adding the name of the tetrachord, or 
fourth, to which they belonged. Thus the 
original Hypate (E) became Hypate-Meson 
{i.e. lowest of the middle tetrachord) and the 

Till now with seven-stringed 

Greeks hymned thee, 
Upraising stinted song. 

Bacchius, Senr., p. 21. 

fourths all the 

( 203 ) 


new Hypate (B) became Hypate-Hypaton, 
or lowest of the lowest tetrachord. And now, 
to quit the lesser perfect system and revert to 
the greater, and more important one. 

Many have written of Greek music without 
distinguishing between the two systems, and 
as one instance, we may name Dr. Burney. 
He mixes the two into one as " the great, 
the perfect, the immutable system . . . com- 
posed of Jive tetrachords" (p. 3), and then 
says : " after ascending regularly thus, up to 
D, by three conjoint tetrachords, the fourth in 
the great system is begun by descending a 
minor third to B natural . . . Something of 
this dodging kind is to be found in the scale 
of Guido" (note to p. 5, vol. i). This is 
altogether a mistake, there is no "dodging." 
The d, to which he refers, is the highest note 
of the lesser system, which was perfectly dis- 
tinct from the greater. 

Another difficulty of Dr. Burney's and of 

other writers, has been to understand Greek 
octaves. It was very natural to suppose that 
a Greek octave scale would begin and end 
like one of two octaves, viz., upon the key 
note ; but it was not so. The Greek octave 
scale took from the middle of the two-octave 
scale, and began a fourth below the key note 
and ended a fifth above it. In other words, 
when the octave scale was increased to two 
octaves, it was by the addition of a new 
tetrachord or fourth at each extreme, and 
then joining on at the base, the " acquired 
tone " to make an octave to the key note, 
Mese. So that, whether they had a one 
octave or a two octave lyre, the key note was 
in or near the middle, and a Greek could 
recite or sing at least a few notes above, as 
well as a few notes below it. 

The following is the "disjunct," two octave 
system complete. 

The Greater Perfect System. 

{av(jri]jxa reXeioy) 

The extreme, or Hyperboleon. 

The disjunct, or Diezeugmenon 


The tone of disjunction, or Diazeuktic tone 

(toi'Oq Sia^evKTiKOc) 

The middle, or Meson 



The lowest, or Hypaton 


The acquired tone not belonging to any 

'a. Nete Hyperboleon. 
g. Paranete id. 
f. Trite id. 

(e. Nete 

d. Paranete Diezeugmenon. 
c. Trite id. 

b. Paramese id. 

a. Mese (key note). 
G. Lichanos (or Diatonos) Meson. 
F. Parhypate id. 

E. Hypate id. 

D. Lichanos or (Diatonos) Hypaton. 
C. Parhypate id. 

,B. Hypate id. 

A. Proslambanomenos. 

This two-octave scale is at least as old as 
the fourth century B.C., and it was a sliding 
scale, to be taken to the extent of an octave 
higher. Aristoxenus speaks of the highest 
of the above tetrachords in one of his extant 
fragments, as well as of the art of writing 
down music (pp. 39, 40). He also enumerates 
the six different modes of tuning the lyre, viz., 
two diatonic, three chromatic, and one 
enharmonic (p. 50 et seq.). Of these here- 

When the Greeks changed from one genus, 
or kind of scale (ycVoc) to another, they never 
altered the tuning of more than the two inner 
strings of each tetrachord. The Lichanoses 
and Parhypates of the lower octave, and the 
Trites and Paranetes of the upper were alone 
moveable (Kwovfxivol or fepo/iivoi). Of these 
it was only in the enharmonic genus that 
both second and third string of each tetra- 
chord were tuned differently. In the Chro- 
matic the third from the top (Trites or Parhy- 

( 204 ) 



pates) remained as they were. The extremes 
of tetrachords and the "acquired tone" (Pros- 
lambanomenos) were fixed sounds (iorwrec). 
This did not prevent the re-tuning of the 
whole lyre to any other pitch. 

A comparison of the greater with the lesser 
system will show that the lower octave is the 
same in both. It is only from the key note up- 
wards that any change is made. In the lesser 
system, after a, it goes to b flat, c, d, and stops ; 
while the greater system carries up a second 
octave of the same kind as the lower one. 

The Greeks had in all fifteen Diatonic 

scales, viz., five Principal scales, Dorian, 
lastian or Ionian, Phrygian, iEolian, and 
Lydian. Each of these had its attendant 
Hypo and Hyper, or Dominant and Sub- 
Dominant. The Hypos were a fourth below 
their principals (which gives the same scale 
as the fifth above) and the Hypers were a 
fourth above. 

When they modulated from one key to 
another they did it as we do, by some sound 
common to both, and the greater the con- 
nection between the two scales, the better 
was the modulation esteemed.* 

The Fifteen Scales of Alypius are 

(A.) Hypo-Dorian. 
(B!?.) Hypo-Ionian 
(B.) Hypo-Phrygian. 
(C.) Hypo-iEolian. 
(C Jf.) Hypo-Lydian. 

(D.) Dorian. (G.) Hyper-Dorian or Mixo-Lydian. 

(E|7.) Ionian. (Ai? .) Hyper-Ionian. 

(E.) Phrygian. (A.) Hyper-Phrygian. 

(F.) ^olian. (Bb.) Hyper-^olian. 

(FS.) Lydian. (B.) Hyper-Lydian. 

It will be observed that the classical Lydian 
was F sharp, and not F, as in church scales. The 
true Lydian was a tone above the Phrygian. f 

In Pindar's time the Hypo-Dorian scale 
was called iEolian ; the above arrangement 
of intervals between scales is therefore less 
ancient than his date. 

The Greeks had no fixed pitch — neither 
have we at this present time. The only 
directions about it are to tune the lyre from 
the lowest distinctly audible tone of the voice, | 
and every man had a different voice. Instru- 
ments made to be played together would 
necessarily be at one pitch; but there was no 
fixed rule for them. 

The Greeks had, in the fifteen scales, one 
beginning upon every semitone of the octave 
and two beginning beyond it. The five Hypos 
extended from A to C sharp, the five princi- 
pals from D to F sharp, and the five Hypers 
from G to b. 

The three highest Hypers were therefore 
the same scales as the three lowest Hypos, 
only taken an octave higher. These double 
names for the same keys were unnecessary, 
except in relation to their principals. 

Dr. Burney says "That the ancients had 
no G sharp or E flat" (p. 26, vol. i); but at 
p. 41 of the same volume he shows by a 
table of the modes that they had both. This 

* Euclid, p. 21. 

■f- All Greek writers are agreed upon this ; see, for 
instance, Bacchius, p. 12. 
J Gaudentius, p. 22, &c. 

curious instance of self-contradiction remains 
in his second edition. 

As all Greek scales were tuned with per- 
fect fourth, fifth, and octave, and all (till about 
the birth of Christ) with major tones only, 
there could not possibly be any musical differ- 
ence, other than that of relative pitch, between 
one scale and another, if the lyre was tuned 
for each scale. Differences of character be- 
tween one key and another arise from one 
key being less perfectly in tune than another. 
But inasmuch as certain metres were asso- 
ciated with particular scales, and the character 
of the music would correspond with the spirit 
of the verse, there might be as much differ- 
ence between them as between a hymn and a 
march. The difficulty is that Greek authors 
were not agreed upon the character of any 
scale but the Dorian. That was to be severe, 
grave, and manly. But as to Phrygian, while 
Plato esteemed it as smooth and fit for prayer, 
Aristotle speaks of it as enthusiastic and 
bacchic. These contradictory estimates have 
been collected by Boeckh in his Metres of 
Pindar (lib. iii. c. 8.) 

The usual way of tuning the lyre was to the 
Dorian, the central scale of the seven, and 
esteemed as the true Greek system. This 
preference for the Dorian is proved by all the 
accounts of the Greek octaves. The seven 
principal scales are therefore presented in 
that form, showing what notes would come 
upon the octave lyre (within the cross lines) 
and upon the two-octave lyre. 

( 205 ) 


Scales for the Lyre. 

Mixo-Lydian, orl 
Hyper-Dorian, f ^ minor. 



Octave Lyre. 
^ hr^ ^ -Q- 


-^ o ^ - > 


Id < ' ^ 

Lydian. Fl! minor. 

/ ■■ . IL — i(" ^ 



<^ 1^- 










Phrygian. E minor. 




-«S> <=2_ 




M t'-^ ° 


Dorian. D minor. 







■^O C-L 



Hypo-Lydian. Ci minor. 







Hypo-Phrygian. B minor. 







Mese. M 


Hypo-Dorian. A minor. 









In the above diagram the sharps and flats 
are marked to the notes (as well as at the 
signature) only for the purpose of showing to 
the eye, at a glance, which of the strings 
must be retuned to change from one key into 
another. The Dorian, being the centre scale, 
has its entire fifteen notes ; but the three 
scales above it want one, two, or three of 
their upper notes, while the three below it 
want one, two, or three of their lower. The 
octave lyre has its series complete. 

Supposing a Greek singer to begin in the 
Dorian, and to wish to take in the Hypo and 
Hyper (or Dominant and Sub-Dominant), 
he would require either to re-tune one string 
for each, or else to have a ten-stringed lyre. 
All the other strings serve for the three con- 
nected keys, and it would be the same in any 
other key. Thus, in the key of C we require 
but F sharp and B flat for its Dominant and 
Sub-Dominant. A ten-stringed lyre would 
include the principal and its two connected 
scales. Hence the importance of a ten- 
stringed lyre, or a ten-stringed psaltery, such 
as we read of in the psalms. It was not the 
mere addition of an upper note or two, which 
was a great objection, in the public eye; as 
likely to lead to extravagances in declamation. 
After the Greeks had once discovered the 
octave system, they might have added an- 
other octave with the same facility as another 

The preceding (as well as the following) 
diagram will explain that most ancient puzzle, 
the Greek octaves. The root of the difficulty 

has been this. Although the Greeks had 
different signs {ar]jj.ela) for writing down musi- 
cal notes, and they wrote down music in the 
4th century B.C., they had no fixed name 
for any note. Some readers may remember 
that there was an old plan of teaching singing 
in England (which has been partially revived), 
in which the key note was always called Do, 
and consequently every modulation or change 
of key made another Do. Just so with the 
Greeks, only instead of Do read Mese. Every 
string was tuned to Mese, and if a Greek knew 
the Mese he could tell the distance of any other 
note. So, when Euclid and others* say that 
the Mixo-Lydian octave begins upon Hypate 
Hypaton, they mean that it begins upon the 
lowest note but one of its own scale, just as 
it does in the preceding example. The key is 
G minor, with a minor seventh, and the octave 
lyre begins upon A. The great mistake has 
been to take the names of the strings for fixed 
sounds, and so to make a Mixo-Lydian octave 
in a Hypo-Dorian scale, instead of in its own 
scale. This error underlies all the old music 
called Gregorian (although in the time of S. 
Ambrose and S. Gregory there was no such 
peculiar music), and in consequence of this 
misapprehension "Gregorian tones or scales" 
have wrong key notes. 

When Bacchius asks "What are the names 
of the three scales, if only three are used?" 
he answers for himself, commencing with 
the scale of highest pitch, " Lydian, Phrygian, 

* Euclid, p. 15; Gaudentius, p. 19; Bacchius, p. 19; (S:c. 

( 206 ) 


Dorian." And "when seven?" "Mixo-Lydian, 
Lydian, Phrygian, Dorian, Hypo-Lydian, 
Hypo- Phrygian, and Hypo-Dorian." These 
are the seven in the preceding example. 

Claudius Ptolemy proposed to reduce the 
entire number of fifteen scales to the above 
seven, thinking them sufficient, and he pro- 
posed another very desirable change, viz., to 
transpose them all a fourth lower for the lyre, 
so as to bring them all within the reach of 

ordinary voices. Dr. Burney says that many 
persons imagined Ptolemy to have proposed 
to raise them a fifth higher (History, vol. I,, p. 
45, line 4V That would have made them im- 
possible for men. They were decidedly very 
high for men at the ancient historical pitch. 

Ptolemy gives precisely the same rule for 
transposing these scales that any musician 
would give to-day, and the following is the 
result: — 

Scales for the Lyre transposed a fourth lower, by Claudius Ptolemy. 

Mixo-Lydian or") -, „• Octave Lyre. 

■u T\ • } •U minor. •' 

Hyper-Donan. j 






-^i ^- 



Lydian. C4 minor. 


-^o— i :^ 








• r^ — \ ^ 

Phrygian. B minor. 




Mese. M 





Dorian. A minor. 







-4^i — Q- 

-«5>- -"^^ 

Hypo-Lydian. Gjfc minor. 

Si* ' 




-r^ — \ '^ 

Mese. „ 

1^- %^- 

Hypo-Phrygian. F;|; minor. 











f^ -^- 

Hypo-Dorian. E minor. 









-e- ^ -« 

It will be observed that the key notes occupy 
the same positions as before; therefore the 
succession of intervals must be the same, for, 
as with us, the key note determines the suc- 

And now, quitting the diatonic scale which is 
by far the most important of all, and the only 

one which the Romans adopted, we turn to 
the Chromatic Scale. 

The Greeks had three kinds of Chromatic 
scale, of which only one was much used. 
Aristoxenus calls it the Chroma tonaion 
{xpiLpLaTovaiov). It ascended the tetrachord by 
semitone, semitone, and minor third, as below. 

On the Octave Lyre 
A being the key note 
it stood thus — 



Or in our octave 
scale, thus — 

The outside notes of tetrachords are here 
marked in minims, and the inner notes in 
crotchets, only to be more readily distinguish- 
able. Of the inner notes it is only the higher 
of each two that differs from the diatonic scale. 

This chromatic scale is of interest in the 
history of music as being the first approach 
to a major scale among the ancients that has 
yet been discovered. It enabled them to play 

five tones in minor and to change them to 
five in major, but we have no proof that they 
ever made that use of the scale. There are 
the necessary F sharp and the C sharp for the 
key of A major, and, as the seventh of the 
scale is altogether omitted, the G sharp, which 
would be required in a complete scale, is 
not called into question. Five of the tones 
make a major scale, wanting the fourth and 

( 207) 


seventh of the key — in other words it is a scale 
ot the five tones without the two semitones. 
If the major scale were played in the Lydian 
mode, beginning on F sharp, the succession 
of notes would be the same as the five short 
(and usually black) keys of the pianoforte. 
An enthusiastic Irishman or Scotchman 

might think this sufficient evidence that the 
five-toned Irish and Scotch tunes (we might 
add English, for there are many of them) are 
to be traced back to ancient Egypt. Proof 
would be wanting, but imagination sometimes 
goes a long way as a substitute. Divide the 
scale into major and minor and it runs thus : 

Key of A minor. 


Key of A major. 

There could not be a complete major scale 
among the Greeks, because they had a musi- 
cal law that the seventh of the scale must be 
at least a tone below the key note. It might 
be more, but it could not be less. 

This chromatic scale was of very simple 
formation on the lyre. It required but to 
lower the forefinger string (lichanos), and 
such others as occupied the like position in 
the upper tetrachords, half a tone ; and so to 
make a skip of a minor third down, instead 
of only a tone, between it and the highest string 
of the tetrachord, as from A to F sharp instead 
of from A to G. 

The Enharmonic Scale was of the same 
kind as the chromatic, but made a skip down 
of a major third, as from A to F, instead of 
the minor third from A to F sharp, as in the 
chromatic. But the whole tetrachord only 
extended one semitone below F, viz. to E, 
and as there was a string already on E, and 
that a fixed sound, which could not be altered, 
the otherwise useless intermediate string was 
tuned to a quarter tone between E and F, and 
was occasionally used as a grace note. Such 
was the simple origin of quarter-tones in a 
Greek scale. They could not be harmonized. 

Olympus, who seems to have flourished a 
short time after Terpander,* is said by Plu- 
tarch, on the authority of a lost work of 
Aristoxenus, to have discovered the enhar- 
monic scale by merely passing over the 
lichanos, or forefinger string, in preluding — 
but that he did not use the quarter-tones. 
It was a later idea to utilize the unemployed 
string. The enharmonic of Olympus might 
have been played upon any lyre which had 
the ordinary tuning, for all the notes it re- 

quired were common both to the Diatonic and 
to Chromatic scales. 

The quarter tones were sometimes employed 
both in and before the time of Aristoxenus 
for he says that a singer could neither sing 
them with certainty nor the hearer judge of 
them.f He also says that no one could sing 
three quarter-tones in succession. | 

Other scales but little used. 

Euclid, at the commencement of his treatise, 
(p. 3) names only the preceding principal 
scales, but afterwards recapitulates them to- 
gether with others less used (p. 10). Although 
he gives but the tuning of one tetrachord of 
each he thereby explains the entire octave, 
because the octave (as we view it, i.e., begin- 
ning from the key note) was made up first by 
the diazeuktic tone, or tone of disjunction (next 
above the key note), and then of two conjoined 
tetrachords above it. It would have been 
the same if begun from Proslambanomenos, 
the octave below this diazeuktic tone. A 
tetrachord, or fourth, consists, in Aristoxenian 
phrase, or roughly speaking, of two tones 
and a semitone. To show the divisions of 
the tetrachord we adopt Claudius Ptolemy's 
plan of explaining them (lib. i. c. 13) in pre- 
ference to that of Aristoxenus and of Euclid 
(p. II and 12). 

Aristoxenus and Euclid represent the semi- 
tone by 6 and the tone by 12, making the 
whole tetrachord 30. Ptolemy counts a diesis 
or quarter-tone for 6, a semitone for 12, a 
tone for 24, and the entire tetrachord as 60. 
Thus he avoids fractions. The following is 
the Complete List of Greek Scales : — 

1. The Tonal Diatonic (already given) 

2. The Soft Diatonic 

3. The Semitonic Chromatic (already given) 

4. The Soft Chromatic 

5. The Sesquialteral Chromatic 

6. The one and only Enharmonic (already given) 

Ziaroror avrrovov 

. 12, 

24, 24 = 

= 60 

liarovoy fxaXaicor 

. 12, 

18, 30 = 

. 60 

')^pu>fxa TOvaiov 
Xpwjua fxaXaKoy 
)^(3aiyua ijfiioXioi' 

. 12, 

. 8, 

• 9. 

. 6, 

12, 36 

8,44 = 
9,42 = 

6, 48 = 

= 60. 
= 60. 

* " Olympus must have flourished a short time after 
Terpander." Mueller's Literature of Greece, p. 202. 
M. Fetis most amusingly attributes this invention to an 
imaginary Olympus, who is said to have "lived about 
two centuries before the siege of Troy." The learned 

writer is as liberal with his thousands of yeais for the 
Greeks as if they were but ynille francs. [Histoire 
Generale de la Mvsique, I. 131, 8vo., i86g.^ 

t Aristox., p. 14, 1. 20 

+ Aristox., p. 28. 

( 208 ) 


Aristides Quintilianus describes also six 
enharmonic modes which, according to him, 
are of " very ancient " origin.* These scales 
are not mentioned by any other writer on 
music, neither is there any kind of allusion 
to the use of any second description of en- 
harmonic scale elsewhere. Even Aristides 
himself says that the enharmonic scale is 
indivisible (at p. 133), and it must have 
been indivisible because the quarter-tone was 
the smallest interval employed in Greek music. 
The only two moveable sounds were already 
quarter-tones. These " very ancient" scales 
can therefore be nothing more than mixed 

The version of them given by Meibomius, 
who first published the treatise of Aristides, 
has been hitherto accepted without question. t 
The text that Meibomius followed was un- 
doubtedly very faulty, but, when he attempted 
to amend it, he patched it in the wrong places. 
Scales were a great trouble to him, and he 
even failed to give the conjunct scale of three 
tetrachords correctly, t 

The following are the scales as printed by 
Meibomius The figures i, 2, 3, relate to 
tones, and thei to quarter-tones. 





* Ate lifii 01 Tzavv rraXaiOTaroi npog rde apfxo- 
ricii; cej^pr/vrai (p 21.) 

f As by Boeckh in his Metres of Pindar, and by the 
late learned writer of the article "Musica" in the 
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, edited by 
Wm. Smith, LL.D. 

+ See his notes upon Euclid, p, 63. He has omitted 
Hypate at the bottom of the lowest tetrachord (but 
Hypate was a standing sound, and could not be omitted), 
and commenced it upon Parhypate, which is one of the 
inner moveable sounds. All his tetrachords are there- 
fore wrong. The origin of this mistake is that he has 
made Trite and Paramese into two strings, whereas in 
the conjunct scale they were never other than one, B 
flat. There should have been no Paramese in the scale, 
because it is the conjunct scale of Ion, and so dating 
more than 200 years after the octave system had been in 
use, Paramese then belonged only to the octave system. 
At some long previous time the names of Paramese and 
Trite had been indiscriminately applied to B flat in the 
conjunct scale, but never as separate strings in that 
system. It is singular that an editor of the Greek 
writers upon music should not have been able to write 
out a scale, and perhaps equally singular that such 
errors should have passed for 200 years unobserved. It 
is desirable to draw attention to them because these 
are by no means solitary errors in Meibomius. One 
instance more : in his notes upon Aristides Quinti- 
lianus (p. 209, column I, line 6) he says that the two 
most ancient tetrachords were joined together by a 
string common to both, and that that string was called 
hypate meson. This is an entire mistake; the string 
was Mese. It is singular that he did not know it, even 
by the position of the tone of disjunction. How strange 

kthat so eminent a man should have edited the Greek 
authors upon music and yet not have mastered the 
Bcaie system. 





Mixo- Lydian . . ^ 







I i: 






J- 2 


In the above, the key note of the Dorian is 
in its right place as the central scale, and, in 
that, it agrees with the manuscript. It has 
the diazeuktic tone next above it. The Phry- 
gian, however, is in the wrong place. It 
ought to be a string above the Dorian. Mei- 
bomius has added a quarter -tone to this 
scale, to make it agree with the quantity 
stated in another line of the text ; but he 
should have placed the added quarter-tone 
on the left instead of on the right of the key 
note. The figure 2 must be found wherever 
the key note or Mese is placed ; but as it 
now stands, Dorian and Phrygian have their 
key note on the same string, which was im- 

The scale above called " Mixo-Lydian " 
proves that these are mixed scales. There 
could be no interval of three tones with- 
out omitting both the key note and the dia- 
zeuktic tone — two fixed sounds — and there 
could not be a sequence of one tone after 
another in the enharmonic scale. 

As to the scale here called Syntono-Lydian 
it is simply Hypo-Lydian, and nothing else. 
This is proved by its having its key note on 
the third string, and in that it accords with 
the manuscript. There was no such enhar- 
monic scale as Syntono-Lydian, nor could 
such a prefix as Syntono be applied to any 
enharmonic scale whatever.§ 

The true positions of the key notes will be 
best exemplified by subjoining the enhar- 
monic scales in their proper order on the 
octave lyre. 

( 209 ) 

§ (TvvTUVd), to draw together. In the enharmonic 
scale the moveable sounds, instead of being drawn^ tight, 
were relaxed to the extreme. " SviTOvwrarij liarovoq 
t(TTiv" says Aristoxenus, p. 25, line 11, and again 
p. 26. Further he says, '' KadoXov yap /japurarat f^er 
al hupfiorioi Xixaroi ^aar, ExofJicyai- ^£ «' XP*^/^"" 
rifcat, avyTorwruTai de al BiaTOvoi, p. 24, lines 22 
to 25. The enharmonic was TrvKyoTaror , and its lichanos 
ijapvTarov the very opposite to (rvrTorwrarov—TrvKyov 
5' iffrai TO £K Suo hii(7EU)v ivapfJLOviojy Kai-)(^pu)fj.aTiKutv 
iXa\i<mi)v. Aristox. p. 24, lines 17 to 19. 



TiJE Greek Enharmonic Scale. 



1 1 

1 1 

4 i 

4 2 I 


• • • 

1 1 

2 i 

1 1 


T T ^ ? ¥ 

2 I i 


Phrygian . . . i 2 i ^ 2 i :i ^ 

Dorian ....2||2i^i2 

Hypo-Lydian . . ^^ i 2 i ^ ^ 2 i 


2 I 

1 1 o 1 1 


T 4 

A 2 -i 

J. -^ ^ 

4 4 

. 2 I 

1 1 

1 1 

4 4 -^ ¥ ¥ 


Hypo-Dorian . 

The diagonal line shows the key note of 
each scale with its tone of disjunction next 
above it. The other figures of 2 are the high- 
est notes of other tetrachords. lastian (or 
Ionian) has no place in these scales, because 
it would require the position of one of the 
above seven, and it was for such reasons 
Claudius Ptolemy proposed to reduce the 
number of scales to seven. As to the Syntono- 
Lydian of the manuscript, it is clearly a mis- 
take for Hypo-Lydian. It may seem strange 
that I should have to correct a Greek writer, 
but this is an unmistakable case, and one in 
which he was only speaking of something 
"very ancient," of which he had no intimate 
knowledge. The date of the writer has been 
clearly over-rated, and the manuscript of his 
treatise is exceedingly corrupt. In order to 
make one line of the text agree with another, 
Meibomius twice changed the word "tone" 
into "ditone" in the Lydian scale; he added a 
diesis, or quarter-tone to the Phrygian, the 
same to the Mixo-Lydian, and the final ditone 
to what is called Syntono-Lydian. All these 
additions and alterations will be seen by com- 
paring his Latin translation with the Greek 
text (p. 21), and they are admitted and justi- 
fied in Meibomius's notes. 

Meibomius was the first to publish the 
work of Aristides Quintilianus, and he seems 
to have been desirous of magnifying such an 
acquisition to literature, by ascribing to the 
author as remote a date as he could guess. 
Meibomius overlooks his having copied from 
Claudius Ptolemy (the numerical estimate of 
60 for a tetrachord is taken from Ptolemy) 
and thinks that Martianus Capella (who lived 
about the end of the fifth century), copied 
from Aristides. The numberless petty differ- 
ences between the two upon a common sub- 
ject seem greatly to militate against the 
theory, and Meibomius's own notes afford the 
evidence. Aristides had evidently studied 
Latin, because he quotes Cicero ; he passes 
judgment upon Spaniards, Celts, and Thra- 
cians. They are either wild, brutal, or drunken. 

but Greeks are every thing that is good (pp. 
72 and 73). Clearly he was a Greek. But even 
if he lived under the Roman empire, the 
Romans used no other scale than the one 
diatonic, so that all others were matters of 
history. We may meet in society a man of 
large general information, and yet if we ask 
him to define a " sackbut," he may fail; 
although he has probably seen one every time 
he went to opera or concert, and the name 
of the instrument was only changed in the 
last century. Or, we might even ask an 
accomplished musician to define a scale of 
Chaucer's time, and he might fail; so, like- 
wise, may Aristides Quintilianus have failed. 
The corrections are supplied by his own an- 
cestors. The passage referred to by Aristides 
is in the third book of the Republic of Plato.* 
The prefix of "Syntono" is usually unneces- 
sary, because it rneans the ordinary Lydian, 
and therefore is rarely expressed, but Plato 
employs it, because he wishes to distinguish 
it from the Malakon (or laxly tuned) Lydian, 
to which also he adverts in the text. 

Aristides Quintilianus is not the only Greek 
writer of comparatively late date, whose works 
require testing by those of his ancestors. 
The two Lexicographers, Hesychius and Sui- 
das, explain musical terms indifferently, and 
the difficulties that have been found in trans- 
lating certain passages of Plato and Aristotle, 
are in a measure due to reliance upon their 
imperfect definitions of technical words relat- 
ing to the art. 

Gregorianischer Gesang {Ger.) Gre- 
gorian chant. [Plain song.] 

Gregorian. [Plain song.] 

Griffbret {Ger.) Finger-board of a stringed 

Groppo (7^.) A bunch or group of notes. 

Gros Fa. The square notation used in 
old church music. 

Grosse {Ger.) (i) Major, applied to in- 
tervals. (2) Grand, or great ; a.s grosse Sonate, 
grand sonata. (3) Double in pitch ; as, 
grosse Hazard, a quint, an organ stop, an 
octave belowthe twelfth ;^ro55(2 Quinte, a pedal 
stop of lof ft. in length. 

Grosse caisse {Fr.) The big drum. 

Grosse {It.) Great, full, grand ; as con- 
certi grossi, grand concertos. 

Gros tambour {Fr.) The big drum. 

Grottesco (7^.) Grotesque, comic, hum- 

Ground Bass. Basse contrainte {Fr.) 
Basso ostinato {It.) Bassthema {Ger.) A 
bass passage of four or eight bars in length, 
constantly repeated, each successive time 

* MtsoXvSiorr/, £0?;, fcai (rvvToroXv^KTrl 

TipEQ ovv jxaXaKai n Koi avjinoTLKai rwt' apuoviwi' ', 
laari, ?)»' 0' 6q, Kai XvckttL Lib. 3, p. 399a. 

( 210 ) 


accompanied with a varied melody and har- 

The idea of this peculiar form of composi- 
tion was probably suggested by the practice of 
singing a varied descant upon a given plain song. 

The old writers contemporary with, and 
immediately succeeding Palestrina, frequently 
made use of the church-tones as themes 
for counterpoint, but did not always give 
those themes to any one particular voice, but 
assigned them to all by turns. This form of 
writing was called by them " Falso-bordone." 
Monteverde in his opera "Orfeo," represented 
at Mantua 1607, has a Moresca, a dance 
written upon a sort of ground bass in a form 
that may be said to be the connecting link 
between one form of the falso-bordone and 
the basso ostinato. Strictly speaking, in this 
case, it is an imitated bass, as it appears each 
successive time in a new key, but the intervals 
are imitated throughout. It is repeated four 
times. The first time it is in G major, the 
second in C major, the third in A minor, the 
fourth time in D minor, each section ending 
with a major chord. 




- g ' ^J 















g- S'== 

















The employment of a ground bass as a 
regular musical device became more general 
later in the same century. In the works of 
the composers of that period, pieces with 
ground basses are frequently found, either 
strictly continued or with short digressions. 
They were employed for compositions in all 
styles, for the church, for the stage, or for the 
chamber ; for movements jn suites, arias, 
dance tunes, &c. Many famous musicians 
furnished " grounds" for the purpose of ex- 

tempore performance. Well known "grounds" 
were often selected by composers for a species 
of writing called folias or follias. Thus Fari- 
nelli's or Fardinel's ground was used by 
Corelli, Vivaldi, and others. 

Grounds by Purcell, Tollit, Moteley, Pe- 
pusch, and others, are often found as the 
bases of many compositions published, even 
so late as the latter part of the last cen- 
tury. The practice of performing upon a 
given ground bass gave rise to treatises pro- 
fessing to instruct the ambitious in the art. 
One of the most famous of these works, 
" Chelys Minutionem, or the Division Viol," 
by Christopher Simpson, 1665, gives, as far 
as possible, all the necessary rules, with many 
examples. His description of the method of 
performing " division on a ground," is inter- 
esting, and may not be out of place here. 
He says that " Diminution or division to a 
ground, is the breaking either of the bass, or 
of any higher part that is applicable thereto. 
The manner of expressing it is thus — a 
ground, subject, or bass, call it what you 
please, is prick'd down on two several papers; 
one for him who is to play the ground upon 
an organ, harpsichord, or whatever instru- 
ment may be fit for that purpose; the other 
for him that plays upon the viol, who, having 
the said ground before his eyes as a theme 
or subject, plays such variety of descant or 
division in accordance thereto as his skill and 
present invention do then suggest unto him." 
As the " grounds " given were very short, 
and the compass of the viol was in those days 
limited, this quaint sort of extempore descant 
was perhaps not difficult, neither could it 
have been very varied or interesting, except 
perhaps, to those immediately concerned. 

The kind of ground bass given in the 
" Chelys " may be seen by the subjoined 
specimen : 



There are also several " Divisions " on this 
ground given, which it is not necessary to 

The opera "Dido and ^neas," written by 
Purcell in his 22nd year, contains a very good 
example of a song written on a ground bass. 
The melody is beautiful and plaintive, and 
the harmonies rich and appropriate. 

' Dido and /Eneas," 1680. 





( 2H ) 



When I am laid, am laid ... in . earth, may my 

■^- ^•^ 



— I — 1 — f 


l^l_Llt:!^J F3^ 




r- Q. f> -^^ 




f^ I * I 




wrongs ere - ate no trou - ble, no trou-ble in thy 




rrrrr M^ 


Re-member me, 





■ ^ ^ 

V^fW ^ KZF~f~F 











mem-ber me, 

but ah! for - get my 



-s) — &- 


^i ^r ^^ zj^ 







f^fg^r r r i- ^ 



fate. Re-member me but ah ! . . for - get my 

-J ^ 



l> gj 








^j ■=^ 



^: I; r. | |p j^g j iy^, i.;g 

Chaconnes, and Passacailles or Passacaglios, 
were generally written on ground basses, and 
the ingenuity and skill displayed in many 
existing examples are both interesting and 
instructive. There are Passacailles and 
Chaconnes by Couperin and Rameau, Bach, 
Handel, and others, too long to quote here. 
Handel, whose sixty-two masterly variations 
on a ground bass in his famous Chaconne 
are well known, has shown also how the 
like artifice may be effectively employed in 

choruses, as those in "Saul," "Susanna,' 
and other works sufficiently prove. 

Group, (i) A series of notes, of small 
time-value, grouped together ; a division or 
run. (2) The method of setting out ban; 
parts in score. 

Grundstimme {Gcr.^ The bass part. 

Grundton {Ger.) (i) The bass note. (2) 
Fundamental bass. 

Gruppetto, gruppo (It.) A series of notes 
grouped as a cadenza, division, or ornament. 
Playford (Introduction to the Skill of Musick) 
gives the name Double relish to the gruppo 
and the following directions for its per- 
formance : 

Gruppo, or double Relish. 

by which it would appear to have been similar 
to the grace now called a " shake." He 
writes the latter as follows : 

Trill, or plain shake. 



S S S V - 

^S ,S ,^^^ 


G String. The name of the first string on 
the double bass, the third on the violoncello, 
viola, and guitar, and the fourth on the violin. 

G Schliissel (Ger.) The G or treble clef. 

Guaracha. A lively Spanish dance in g 
or I time, usually accompanied on the guitar 
by the dancer himself. 

Guddok (J??^S5.) A Russian fiddle. [Violin, J 

Guerriero {It.) Warlike, martial. 

Guet (Fr.) A flourish of trumpets. 

Guida {It.) (i) A guide, a direct. (2) The 
subject of a fugue. [Fugue.] [Direct.] 

Guide-main (Fr.) A hand-guide, a mecha- 
nical contrivance for regulating the position 
of the wrist in pianoforte playing, invented 
by Kalkbrenner. 

Guidonian syllables. [Aretinian syl- 

Guidonian system. [Notation.] 

Guimbarde {Fr.) [Jew's Harp.] 

Guitar. Giiitare {Fr.) Chitarra {It.) 
Guitarra {Sp.) A stringed instrument, 
played by plucking or twitching the strings 
with the right hand while the left is engaged 
in forming the notes by " stopping " or pres- 
sing the strings against the frets on the finger 

The modern, or Spanish guitar as it is 
called, has six strings, the three highest 
of gut, the three lowest of silk, covered 

( 212 ) 


with a fine wire, 
follows : 

(Sounding an octave lower.) 

, \ 

The accordatura is as 




The guitar is but little used now in England, 
though at one time it was very fashionable. 
Other nations who still employ it, call it by 
several names, most of which will be described 
hereafter. The guitar is rarely, if ever, em- 
ployed as an orchestral instrument, but is 
very valuable as a portable means of accom- 
paniment. The existence of frets upon the 
guitar limits the number of modulations 
capable of being performed in the normal 
tuning. When it is desired to make a com- 
plete change of key the capo tasto screwed 
over the finger-board alters the tuning at any 
desired point, or a temporary change is made 
by the grande harre, that is by laying the 
forefinger of the left hand completely over the 
strings, the remaining fingers being engaged 
in stopping a chord. In the classification of 
musical instruments it is convenient to speak 
of three general sorts, wind, string, and 
pulsatile. The guitar belongs to the second 
kind, and may be said to represent a very 
large family universally distributed, bearing a 
variety of names according to the tongue of 
the nation by which it is used. All instru- 
ments may be considered as belonging to the 
guitar family, which possess a resonance 
body or sound box, together with a finger- 
board, against which the strings with 
which they are furnished may be pressed or 

Following the course of history, we find 
that instruments of the guitar kind are of 
great antiquity, as well as of general use by 
people of all nations. 

The kinnor and nebel, mentioned in the 
Bible, were stringed instruments, of the guitar 
or harp family, but of their exact nature it 
must be confessed little is known, though 
much is conjectured. 

Egyptian Nefer. 

The Egyptian frescoes and other paint- 
ings, valuable as showing the frequent use 
of musical instruments, include several 
specimens of the harp and guitar family. 
The Nefer, one of the latter class, had a 
neck, sometimes with a carved head, and 
was furnished with three strings, and had 
a resonance box. Upon the neck, or fin- 
ger-board, frets were tied or fastened, as 
in the modern guitar. Each string is 
said to have been able to produce two 

The three strings were supposed to cor- 
respond with the seasons of the Egyptian 

Grecian writers, describing Egyptian in- 
struments, do not afford much real information 
concerning them, and all attempts to reconcile 
their statements only lead to confusion ; for 
conjecture is not conviction. Too much trust 
has been placed in the accuracy of sculptured 
and painted images, and various theories have 
been founded upon the character of musical 
instruments as deduced from their represented 
forms. As with ancient, so with modern 
musical instruments of far away countries, 
travellers' tales have too often been trusted, 
and their statements received as conclusive, 
when in the majority of instances they 
are confessedly ignorant of the subject 
upon which they give " authoritative judg- 

Philology does not, after all, furnish the best 
assistance towards determining relationships 
in this matter, and, as a rule, the picture 
of an instrument offers but a little help or 
guide in the matter. References to musical 
instruments by the poets of several ages 
offer no aid whatever, but on the contrary, 
often tend to mislea,!. If they were trust- 
worthy, it might reasonably be assumed that 
no other instruments but the lyre and harp 
were ever employed to " assist the muse." 
But colloquial terms — often despised by clas- 
sical poets — are of most value to the historian, 
and it is therefore found that the common 
names applied to a stringed instrument with 
a finger-board, kissar, cittern, zither, kitra, 
kithara, geytarah, guitar, point to a common 

There is no question but that the guitar 
was introduced into Europe after the Crusades. 
The name, purely Eastern, has been adopted 
with only such a variation in spelling as 
European use demands. The modern Egyp- 
tians call it " gytarah barbaryeh," the guitar 
of the Berbers, the people who are the direct 
descendants of the ancient race of the country; 
and as names and words in the East vary in 
the course of ages less than those in the 
West, it is likely that the word is of high 

( 213 ) 


This " gytarah," or kissar is of the following 
form : 

Nubian Kissar. 

It is usually mounted with four strings tuned, 
according to Engel,as below : 



Its form is not unlike some of the instruments 
represented on ancient Egyptian and Assyrian 
monuments, and although the name would 
imply some connection with the modern 
guitar, its shape would identify it rather as 
belonging to the lyre kind. But there are 
other stringed instruments used by Eastern 
people more in the form of the modern guitar. 
The kitra or kuitra popular in Morocco 
sometimes has the resonance-box or body 
made of a tortoise shell, after the manner that 
Hermes is said to have constructed his lyre. 

Tunisian Kitra. 

Kitra or Gunibry. 

The resonance-body of the Gunibry is 
made of a bottle-pumpkin cut longwise, and 
covered with sheep skin. Its two strings are 
of catgut. 

The sitar, choutarah, or tamboura of Hin- 
dostan had originally but three strings of 
wire — as the name sitar implies — which were 
aftervvards increased to four or five. The 
body is made of a gourd, the neck of cocoa 
wood furnished with pegs. The strings are 
played with a plectrum of twisted wire called 
by the name of mizrab, worn on the fore- 
finger of the right hand. There is another 
form of Hindoo guitar of a somewhat peculiar 
construction called Vina or Bina, which has 
a gourd at each end. [Bina]. 

Hindoo Guitar. 
The Chinese, though a people of a different 
stock, have an instrument called Yue-kin or 
moon guitar, having four silken strings ar- 
ranged in pairs, each pair being tuned in 
unison, and the two pairs a fifth apart. The 
instrument has been called by travellers fol- 
lowing the method of pronouncing the name 
in Canton, gut-kum, which may or may not 
be philologically related to guitar. The gut- 
kum, yue-kin, or moon guitar, has inside its 
resonance box some pieces of loose metal which 
are occasionally shaken during performance. 

Chinese Yue-kin or Moon-guitar. 

The lute, another member of this family, also 
comes from the East, the name is the Euro- 
pean method of spelling its title " el 'ood." 
The pandore, bandore, pandoura, and mando- 
line are simply other names for a lute or 
guitar, arising from fancy or accident. 
The mandola or mandoline, for example, 
derives its title from the almond shape 
of the resonance-body. The Italian word for 
almond is mandola. Variety of names for 
the same thing, together with slight differences 
in form, often tend to confuse the enquirer. 
The method of performance, the shape, the 
mounting, the material of which they are con- 
structed, and various other causes, are often 
taken into consideration in the naming of 
instruments. If these reasons are lost sight 
of, a certain amount of confusion naturally 
arises in the classification of musical names 
and titles ; and things are treated and spoken 
of as dissimilar, which are really closely con- 
nected. If, for example, we were five thou- 
sand years older, and no specimen of a piano- 
forte or of its musical literature existed, and 
we were left to judge of the form and use of 
the instruments called by the several names 
applied to it, we might say with good autho- 
rity out of existing documents, that our ancient 
English ancestors were accustomed to listen 
for hours to a performance upon a broad wood, 
probably an extensive forest or a wide plank, 

( 214) 


as the acute future critic would say. Further, 
it might be inferred that our German contem- 
poraries were enraptured with the skill of 
one who was able to produce similar effects 
from a fliigel, the wing of a bird. The con- 
nection between a forest and a bird's wing 
might suggest some very ingenious comments. 
In cases where titles are given independently 
of those already applied to certain things, and 
detailed descriptions are wanting, the differ- 
ence becomes apparently wider each succes- 
sive age until all ends in chaos. If the 
ancient Eastern title geytarah had not been 
adopted with the instrument by the Spaniards, 
and by other nations following them ; the 
changes in the form of the instrument might 
have been held as indicating many origins. 
There seems to be no connection between the 
words nefer, nebel, pandoura, lyre, and 
kithara, still it is not utilikely that they had 
a common start-point. 

An instrument of a form like the Egyptian 
Nefer is found depicted upon Assyrian monu- 
ments, but strange to say there are no repre- 
sentations of a finger-board instrument among 
the Greek antiquities. That the Greeks 
knew of the pandoura is evident from the 
fact that it is mentioned by Nicomachus, and 
subsequent historians. The modern conclu- 
sion that they preferred their own instruments 
without necks, "although they adopted the 
system of the Egyptians for the subdivision 
and measurement of strings," is very doubt- 
ful, for the one could not have been done 
without the aid of the other. For if we are 
to believe that the strings of the Egyptian 
Nefer had a compass of two octaves each, 
those two octaves must have been obtained 
by means of a finger-board, and if the Greek 
instruments were without finger-boards, and 
the strings were open from end to end, without 
a backing along their lengths, how were they 
stopped, or how could a string be subdivided? 
It is therefore probable if Greek music was as 
perfect as it is said to have been, that finger- 
toards, fretted or otherwise, were known and 
used, and poets and sculptors, disdaining to 
employ common forms, gave fancy shapes to 
musical instruments. 

The ancient Greek kithara [KiQapa) is ad- 
mitted to have been portable ; and Mr. Chap- 
pell (" History of Music," p. 37) says, " the 
lower strings of the kithara were played by 
the fingers of the left hand, and the higher 
strings by the plectrum held in the right hand." 
And again, that the instrument "was held on 
the left side of the body, with the left arm 
behind the instrument, for the purpose of 
reaching the base strings which were furthest 
from the player." Now, the difficulty of per- 
forming upon an instrument of the lyre or 
harp kind under the conditions above set 

forth, must have been great. If the descrip- 
tion be amended thus : " The lower part of 
the strings of the kithara were stopped by the 
fingers of the left, and the higher part of 
the strings played by the plectrum," &c., the 
whole matter becomes perfectly clear, and the 
kithara shows its relationship to the guitar, as 
well as its power of sounding octaves on each 
string like its Egyptian prototype. 

When the drawings of ancient performers 
on stringed instruments are examined, it will 
be found that if, as they are represented in 
the majority of cases, a modern player were 
to hold his instrument in a similar fashion, 
he would be unable to support and play it at 
the same time. As the human form appears 
to have been pretty much the same in old time 
as it is at the present day, it is more than 
likely that the artists "evolved" the represen- 
tations out of their " inner consciousness," 
and, therefore, that they are not to be confi- 
dently trusted. 

Plato, quoted by Hawkins (p. 91, Novello's 
Ed.), " advises to train up children to use the 
right and left hand indifferently." In some 
things, says he, "we can do it very well; as 
when we use the lyre with the left hand, and 
the stick with the right." Unless some other 
occupation than that of merely holding the 
instrument were intended, such a piece of 
advice would be superfluous. The cithara is 
mentioned by Ovid, Horace, Virgil, and othei 
Latin authors, with but little reference to the 
manner of performing upon it, other than that 
it was held in one hand, while the other struck 
the strings with a plectrum. 

The number of strings upon the guitar has 
been varied from time to time in Europe ; and 
since its introduction, the instrument has been 
more or less popular. By the name of gittern, 
gittron, gitteron, &c., it is spoken of by the 
mediffival poets ; and as the lute, it was familiar 
during the i6th and 17th centuries. 

In France, Spain, and Italy, the guitar is 
employed as an accompaniment for the dance 
as well as for the voice ; and at one time, 
during the last century, it was so popular in 
England that the sale of pianofortes was inter- 
rupted, until an ingenious maker bethought 
him of a plan by which to weaken and ulti- 
mately to destroy its popularity. There is an 
extensive literature of guitar music, called 
into existence by the revival in favour of the 
instrument, brought about by the number of 
Spanish refugees resident in England during 
the Carlist rebellion of 1834-1839. But in the 
present day, the instrument is but little culti- 
vated ; in fact, it may be said to have become 
undeservedly neglected. 

Gusto, con; gustoso (/^) With taste 
and expression. 

Guttural. Tones produced in the throat. 

( 2x5 ) 




H. The note B natural in the German 
system of nomenclature, the letter B being 
used only for B flat. 

Hackbrett (Ger.) [Dulcimer.] 
Hadan or hadan (Egyptian). The call to 
prayer sung by the mueddins from the towers 
or minarets of the mosques, thus given by 

^ ^^^rr^^^^^ ^^^^^ 


Al-la- hu ak-bar, 

Al - la - hu ak-bar, 





Al - la - hu ak - bar, 

Al - la 

^r-f T I f - Tf :h° 7r r ft^^^^ m 


hu ak-bar. 






an la i - la - ha il-la - 1 - lah, 




an la i - la - ha il-la-1 - la 


fifi ppr r^ir^ m 

- - - h. Ash-hadu an-na Mo-ham-mj 

w"r C ' 




dar ra-soolu-l - lah, 

g^F p s 

Ash-hadu an-na Mo-ham-ma- 




dar ra-soolu-l - la 

t /7\ 


-«— #- 

fE^me^^^^m ^^ 


Hei-ya 'a-la-s -sa- lah, Hei-ya 'a-la-s-sa - la 


h. Hei-ya 'a-la-1-fe- lah, 


Hei-ya 'a-la-1 - fe - la 







Al-la - hu ak - bar, 


Al-la - hu ak 



g -^^— P-^-p ig 




la - ha i-1 - la-1 - lah. 

which means : — God is most Great ! (repeated 
four times), I testify that there is not a deity 
but God ! (twice). I testify that Mohammed 
is God's Apostle ! (twice). Come to prayer ! 

(twice). Come to security ! (twice). God is 
most great ! (twice). There is no deity but 

Halbcadenz (Ger.) Half-cadence, or half- 
close. [Cadence.] 

Halbnote (Ger.) A minim. 

Halbton (Ger.) A semitone. 

Half cadence. [Cadence.] 

Halfnote. (i) A minim. (2) A semitone. 

Half shift. 'A position of the hand in 
playing on instruments of the violin family. 
It lies between the open position and the first 
shift. [Shift.] 

Hallelujah. [Alleluia.] 

Hailing. A Norwegian dance, somewhat 
of the character of a country dance. 








-)• \ — ! I y h- 



Hals (Ger.) The neck of an instrument. 

Hammer. (1) A piece of wood having a 
padded end or a nob, with which strings are 
struck. In the case of the dulcimer the 
hammers are held in the hand ; in keyed 
instruments the hammer is acted upon by 
leverage from the end of the key. [Dulcimer.] 
[Pianoforte.] (2) The iron or wood striker of 
a bell. According to Denison, the weight of 
the hammer should be a fortieth part of a 
bell whose diameter is equal to twelve times 
the thickness of the sound bow. But the 
distance the hammer is made to rise for the 
blow must of course influence the weight of 
the hammer. 

Handguide. [Guide-main.] 

Hardiment (Fr.) Boldly, daringly. 

( 216 ) 



Harfe (Ger.) [Harp.] 

Harmonica. An instrument, the tones of 
which are produced by striking rods or plates 
of glass with hammers, either held in the 
hand or acted upon by keys. It has a compass 
of about two octaves from middle C or D 

Harmonica. A name sometimes given to 
a mixture stop on foreign organs. 

Harmonic Flute. [Harmonic stops.] 

Harmonichord. An instrument played 
like a pianoforte, but sounding like a violin. 
The tone is produced by the pressure of the 
keys, which sets a revolving cylinder of wood, 
covered with leather, and charged with rosin, 
in action over the strings. It has also been 
called piano-violin, violin-piano, tetrachordon, 

Harmonici. The followers of the Pytha- 
gorean system of music as opposed to that 
taught by Aristoxenus. They were also 
called Canonici. The Aristoxenians viewed 
music as an art governed by appeal to the 
ear ; the Pythagoreans, as a science founded 
on physical laws. 

Harmonicon. An instrument only used 
as a toy, which consists of free reeds enclosed 
in a box in such a way that inspiration pro- 
duces one set of sounds, respiration an- 

Harmoni-Cor. An instrument invented 
by Jaulin of Paris, consisting of a series of 
free reeds similar to those used in the Har- 
monium, placed in a tube shaped like a 
clarinet. The compass of the instrument is 
two octaves with intermediate semitones, the 
keys are arranged in a manner similar to 
those of a pianoforte, that is to say, all the 
notes of the normal scale are in one row and 
the chromatic notes in another. The wind is 
supplied by means of a mouth-piece. 

Harmonics. The sounds produced by a 
vibrating string or column of air, when it is 
subdivided into its aliquot parts. [Acous- 
tics, §10.] 

Harmonic scale. The scale formed by a 
series of natural harmonics. [Acoustics, §io,] 

Harmonic stops. Organ stops, both flute 
and reed, having tubes twice the normal 
length, but pierced with a small hole in the 
middle. Harmonic flute stops are of great 
purity and brilliancy, they are of 8 ft. or 4 ft. 
pitch. Harmonic piccolos are of 2 ft. pitch. 
Harmonic reed stops (tromba, tuba, trumpet, 
&c.,) are generally on a high pressure of wind, 
one of the great advantages of all harmonic 
stops being that they will take a very strong 
pressure of wind without overblowing. The 
fact is, that the harmonic-tube, having two 
synchronous vibrating columns of air, par- 
takes of the nature of a pipe already over- 
blown to its first harmonic, the octave. 

Harmonie-musik (Ger.) Music for wind 

Harmonique. (Fr.) Harmonic. 
Harmonist. One who can sing or play 

in harmony. 

Harmonium. A keyed wind instrument 
whose tones are produced by the forcing of 
air through free-reeds. The better class of 
harmoniums have several sets of vibrators of 
different pitch and of various qualities of tone. 
The stop called expression is a mechanical 
contrivance by which the waste-valve of the 
bellows is closed, so that the pressure of the 
foot has direct influence on the intensity of the 
sounds produced. A tremolo is produced by 
causing the wind to quaver as it passes 
through the reeds. The Vox Angelica gives 
a delicate undulating tone which is produced 
by two sets of vibrators to each note tuned 
slightly apart. [Reed.] 

Harmony. In its earliest sense among 
the Greeks this word seems to have been a 
general term for music, a sense in which our 
own poets often use it. But from its meaning 
of " fitting together" it came to be applied to 
the proper arrangement of sounds in a scale, 
or, as we should say, to " systems of tuning." 
Whatever opinions may be held as to the 
antiquity of harmony in the sense of sym- 
phony or " sounds in combination," it is quite 
certain that among the ancients the art of 
harmony never advanced beyond the use of 
accompanying chords. Treatises on music, 
which we in these days call on "harmony," 
dealt (among the Greeks) with the following 
subjects : — The divisions of the monochord, 
the three genera, the sounds proper to the 
different modes, the shape and position of 
the letters representing musical sounds, and, 
to a Hmited extent, the art of tune-making, 
about which, however, but little is known. 
Boethius, who turned into the Latin tongue 
all the most important elements of Greek 
music, writes, on the rudiments such as 
sound, interval, consonance ; on the ratios of 
intervals ; on letter-notation ; on the modes ; 
on the discussions arising from the use of 
the monochord. When this work was written 
(in the early part of the sixth century) there 
had already been growing up for a consider- 
able period a school of church music, probably 
started by Ambrose in the fourth century, 
whose function it was to form a practical 
school of music rather than scientific. But 
notwithstanding this fact, writers thought it 
either fashionable or necessary to found all 
their works on the then defunct Greek system. 
Even in the eleventh and following centuries, 
when the Hexachord system had rendered a 
study of the Greek scales practically useless, 
their discussion formed an important part of 
every treatise. Under the word Descant will 

( 217 ) 


be found a short description of the different 
stages through which early forms of harmony 
passed. But although a treatise on Descant 
and Counterpoint in one sense is a "treatise 
on harmony," yet, a very different meaning 
is carried by the word in its more modern 
sense — it signifies, in fact, a statement of the 
system of forming chords with an account of 
their proper movement or progression accord- 
ing to key-relationship. 

The authors of the earliest treatises upon 
harmony, in the sense just described, seem 
to have laboured to reconcile the old teaching 
with new discoveries, and though ostensibly 
treating with harmony, they began with ratios 
and proceeded into counterpoint, avoiding 
harmony in its proper sense altogether. In 
some cases the writers quietly and cleverly 
avoided the main question, giving apparently 
elaborate descriptions of the subject, which 
after all amounted to nothing. Thus Bateman, 
who in 1582 published an edition of Trevisa's 
translation of " Bartholomseus de proprieta- 
tibus rerum," gives to posterity the accepted 
signification of the word harmony in his own 
time, for although he is supposed only to 
have translated into more modern English 
the work of Trevisa, written in 1400, he 
actually altered and added to the text in such 
a fashion that his changes are as valuable as 

the original : 

" De Armonya. 

" Armonya Rithmica is a sownynge melodye, and 
comyth of smything of stringes, and of tynklyng other 
ryngyngeof metalle. And dyverse instrumentis seruyth 
to this manere armonye, as Tabour, and Tymbre, 
Harpe, and Sawtry, and Nakyres, and also Sistrum. 

" And the melodye of musyk is nemdnyd and callyd 
by the names of the nombres. Dyatesseron, Dyapente, 
and Dyapason have names of the nombres whyche 
precedeth and gooth tofore the begynnynge of those 
sayd names. And the proporcion of theyr sownes is 
founde and had in those said nombres, and is not founde, 
nother had, in none other nombres." 

One of the earliest books printed by its 
author on the subject of harmony was the 
" Theorica Musics " of Franchinus Gafifurius, 
Milan, 1480. The doctrines taught are essen- 
tially the same as those of Boethius, and as 
this has been described already nothing more 
need be said. It may here be noted, that the 
examples of harmony by Franchinus are 
more modern in style than those of other 
writers contemporar}' with or previous to him. 

The next writer of any note among the 
scores of authors who wrote upon music was 
Andreas Ornithoparcus, whose " Micrologus," 
written in Latin and printed at Cologne in 
1535, was translated into English by John 
Douland, and published in i6og. His chapters 
on harmony (concentus) show no advance of 
thought notwithstanding the fact that some 
modern writers claim a place for him in that 

part of the Temple of Fame devoted to dis- 
coverers. The majority of the treatises ot 
the 1 6th century were very learned and 
doubtless very clever, but they add nothing 
to literature not already known. Neither 
Salinas " De Musica," Salamanca, 1577; 
Calvisius " Melopeian," Erfurth, 1595 ; Zar- 
lino,"InstitutioneHarmoniche," Venice, 1592; 
Valerio Bona, " Regole di Contrappunto," 
Milan, 1595 ; Zacconi, " Prattica di Musica," 
Venice, 1596 ; Bottrigari, " II Melone," Fer- 
rara, 1602; Cerone, "El Melopeia," Naples, 
1613; nor the multitude of lesser writers of 
the period in which the above named authors 
existed, do anything but repeat the received 
theories, in a more or less wordy manner, 
rather increasing the confusion into which 
the knowledge of the science of harmony had 
fallen by their controversies and partisanships. 
While the Writers of Italy, Spain, and Ger- 
many were adding to the " learned ignorance," 
our countryman, Thomas Morley, was not 
a whit more far-seeing than his contem- 
poraries. If the state of music could be 
judged by the treatises alone, it might reason- 
ably be considered that no new musical dis- 
covery had been made for centuries, and the 
constitution of music was such that new 
discoveries were impossible. But while the 
theorists sought to confine all music to certain 
" proportions and ratios," practical musicians 
were quietly finding out new and forbidden 
combinations of chords, to the utter confusion 
of the theorists, who gradually had the con- 
viction forced upon them in such wise that 
they were compelled, reluctantly however, to 
confess that, " II senso d'udito e stato e sara 
sempre il solo legislatore dell' arte musica." 
The more daring musicians were supported 
by a large, and to a certain extent, an in- 
fluential crowd of admirers who delighted in 
the unscientific pleasures the new music 
brought to the ear. We read of Claudio 
Monteverde, in the year 1600, being engaged 
in dispute with " some of the ablest musicians 
of his time," in consequence of his use of 
certain dissonances which were employed in 
an unprecedented manner. Also of Ludovico 
Viadana, about the same time, inventing or 
rather perfecting the system of musical short- 
hand now known as " thorough bass." And 
in later years Frescobaldi, following the path 
laid open by Monteverde, boldly introduced a 
series of progressions in his works, which 
were against all accepted rules. By this 
time — the first quarter of the 17th century — 
writers on theory silently abandoned the 
" proportions and ratios." Though it is easy 
to trace the effects of the old teaching, even 
when it is not expressed openly. 

The principles of harmon}' or composition, 
as set forth by Dr. Thomas Campion, 1620, 



and later by Christopher Simpson, 1678, treat 
of nothing more terrible than such common 
chords as could be formed out of the unaltered 
notes of the scale. Throughout the whole of 
the works by these authors the chord of the 
seventh on the dominant is introduced but 
sparingly, and when it is used, its " dis- 
cordance is softened as much as possible." 
There is little, if anything, entirely new 
in these books, nothing at all to account 
for the new chords that musicians were occa- 
sionally introducing into their compositions. 
As Simpson's " Compendium " had a con- 
tinued and steady sale, running through 
many editions, teaching the same old and 
worn-out principles, while Purcell was writing 
with all the hardihood of enthusiastic youth 
such chords and progressions as those found 
in the song quoted in the article " Ground 
Bass " theory running in a widely different 
direction from practice, did not hesitate to 
condemn these inventions ; and, moreover, to 
wonder " how any judge of correct and pure 
harmony could tolerate such licences." It 
was probably owing to the fact of this diver- 
sity of opinion between the laws that were 
made for composers and those they made for 
themselves, that there are but few treatises 
on harmony belonging to the latter part 
of the 17th and the early part of the i8th 
centuries. The many editions of Simp- 
son's "Compendium," Elway Bevin's " Briefe 
and Short Introduction," Morley's " Plaine 
and Easie Introduction," show how little 
improvement had been effected, and how 
rare a thing a new idea on the subject 
was. This state of things continued for 
some years more, when the publication of 
Rameau's "Trait6 d'Harmonie," Paris, 1722, 
turned all thinking minds into the direction 
suggested by that book. Looking at it by 
the improved light of the 19th century, it 
difficult at first to trace the cause of 
popularity of the work, and 
influence on all classes of 
theorists. The plan is very simple but incom- 
plete, accounting for a part, but not attempting 
to grapple with the whole science of harmony. 
The eagerness with which it was received 
and imitated, goes to prove how ripe men's 
minds were for the subject, and how willing 
they were to receive that which attempted to 
account for some, if not for all the intricacies 
of their art. The marrow of the whole work, 
the plot of the whole scheme proposed by 
Rameau, is comprised in the following words, 
according to the English edition of 1752 : — 
" All notes that carry the perfect or common 
chords may be deemed key-notes, and all 
notes that carry the chord of the seventh 
may be deemed governing notes, with this 
difference, that the governing note of the 


the enormous 

its powerful 

key must have a sharp third. These two are, 
as it were, the only chords in harmony." 

The main principle of this book, the re- 
ferring all harmony to a regular fundamental 
bass on which chords are constructed after 
the above plan, led its author into some 
errors, which were copied and increased by 
subsequent writers. In order to make the 
theory fit into and agree with practice, 
Rameau considered suspensions as essential 
chords, chords by supposition as he calls 
them. His desire to derive all the chords 
of modern harmony from a construction of 
third upon third was a praiseworthy one, and 
nearer the truth than many other theories. 
He avoids the chord of the ninth, calling it 
a secondary seventh, speaks of the fourth as 
an eleventh, admits that the judicious use of 
discords gives greater liberty to composers, 
states F and D to be the fundamental bass of 
the same chord, the chord now known by the 
name of the added sixth, and adds one or 
two other peculiar notions needless here to 

The following is a figured bass passage 
with the fundamental bass, as given by 
Rameau : 



6 5 





— iS^ 





^ r, ^ 

c^ — 





iial Bass. 

^ — 1 


— *" 



— £5^ 


4 4S 6 

6 6^ 

4 5 4}; 6 



SJL—'zk _cii_ 

1 1 £>_I U 

The chords marked *, though really the 
same, are derived from different roots by 
Rameau. Godfrey Keller (" Rules for a 
Thorough Bass," London, 173 1) proceeds 
upon a somewhat different plan to Rameau. 
He makes no mention of the fundamental 
bass, employs many new chords, including 
those now known by the names of the major 
and minor ninth, e.g. : 



"5 43 

( 219 ) 


He allows that "the composer (especially in 
few parts) may compose as many sixes either 
ascending or descending by degrees as he 
thinks fit," but he does not lay claim to 
novelty in suggestion, though he might have 
done so safely. 

The next writer on harmony, Roussier 
(" Traite des Accords," Paris, 1764), simply 
copies Rameau without acknowledgment. 
Following a rough chronological order, 
Marpurg next demands attention. In his 
"Handbuch bey dem General-Bass," Berlin, 
1755, he professedly agrees with Rameau, but 
differs from him throughout by making the 
added thirds, which are to form chords by 
supposition, fundamental notes contrary to 
Rameau's teaching. Tartini, in his " Trattato 
di Musica," Padua, 1754, and " De' Principii 
dell'Armonia Musicale," Padua, 1767 ; Kirn- 
berger, in his works, " Die wahren Grundsatze" 
and "Die Kunst des reinen Satzes," pub- 
lished in Berlin in 1773 and 1774, considered 
suspensions and all interruptions as no real 
part of a system, but, as the last named 
writer regarded them, " as clouds may be 
considered in astronomy, viz., as occasional 
occurrences, which must be tolerated when 
there, but which are passed by as if they 
had not been there at all." A very con- 
venient, if not a satisfactory, method of 
getting over a difficulty. Twenty years later, 
Kollman (" Essay on Musical Harmony," 
London, 1796) endeavoured to found an 
entirely new system or theory ; the gist of 
his arguments is that " No interval, or chord, 
ought to be judged of or treated according 
to its individual appearance alone, but accord- 
ing to the proofs of a regular connection," 
which is almost the same idea as that pro- 
pounded by Rameau seventy years before. 
Our own countryman, William Shield (" In- 
troduction to Harmony," 1800), does not 
progress a single step in a new direction, 
butWeber("Versucheiner geordnetenTheorie 
der Tonsetzkunst," Mainz, 1817) does ad- 
vance, for he says that " The harmonical 
truths are by no means (as many have 
thought, or affected to think"), as in a philo- 
sophical science, deducible from one mde- 
pendent superior principle, and subordinate 
one to another, as it were in a tabular 
manner," and therefore every combination is 
explained according to its individual appear- 

Harp. Harpe {Fr.),Arpa {It.), Harfe (Ger.) 
A stringed instrument of triangular form, fur- 
nished with gut strings. It has a compass 
varying from three to six octaves and a half, 
according to the size of the instrument. There 
are several kinds of harps still in use : 

(i) The triple or Welsh harp, with three 
rows of strings, two rows tuned diatonically 

in unisons or octaves, the third or inner row 
arranged to supply the accidentals, sharps or 
flats. The strings are thin, and the tone is 
consequently consonant with the character 
of the strings. " It is simply impossible to 
modulate upon this instrument farther than 
to touch an occasional accidental from among 
the inner row of strings." This harp is de- 
rived from, and is almost identical with, the 
Irish harp, of which more will be said pre- 

(2) The- double harp {arpa doppia) with 
two rows of strings is less inconvenient but 
equally imperfect ; all alterations of the pitch of 
the strings having to be made with the thumb. 

(3) The single-action pedal harp, with one 
row of strings, containing a compass of nearly 
six octaves: 




in the scale of E flat. There were seven 
pedals which altered the pitch of the note to 
which each pedal belonged, a semitone. The 
imperfection of the mechanism of the pedals 
involved the player in many difficulties, and 
rendered some keys perfectly useless. 

(4) The double-action pedal harp, the in- 
vention of Erard. The compass of this in- 
strument : 



Zva. bassa. 

six octaves and a quarter, and the power of 
the pedals to change the pitch of each note 
two semitones, made it almost equal to the 
pianoforte in facility of modulation. This 
last-named harp is the one now generally 
employed for concert or orchestral purposes. 

The invention of pedals to the harp has 
been variously attributed to Hochbrucker, of 
Donauworth, in 1720, and to Paul Velter, of 
Niirnberg, in 1730. The harp in use before 
those times was generally tuned according 
to the key of the piece it was required in. 

In the single harp passing modulations 
were made by stopping certain strings with 
the thumb, for continued change of key, all 
the notes in the new scale not in the ordinary 
tuning of the harp were made by turning the 
wrest pins during the progress of the music 
of all the notes required to be altered. Music 
for the harp is written on two staves. The 
instrument is capable of playing a melody 
with accompanying harmonies similar in 
character to pianoforte music. Successions 
of staccato chords have a fine effect upon the 
instrument, but broken chords (arpeggio) are 
better and more characteristic. The harp 
has been introduced into the orchestra with 

( 220 ) 


good effect, by several modern composers, 
Wagner and Gounod more especially. There 
is at present but little variety in the manner 
in which it has been used, arpeggios accom- 
panied by violins playing on the high register 
tremolo with or without mutes, whenever 
angelic voices or exalted or heavenly ideas 
are intended to be presented. 

The harp, like the guitar, may be traced to 
a very remote ancestry ; it has, likewise, been 
subject to many vicissitudes of fortune. A 
favourite instrument with kings, it has also 
been the companion of beggars. Inspired 
strains have been sung to its strings, and it 
has accompanied verses neither pious nor 
inspired. By turns cultivated and neglected, 
it has never been wholly without a witness in 
the several ages of the history of music. 

Engel, in " The Music of the Most Ancient 
Nations," says, that many Eastern nations 
have harps of different sorts, names and 
methods of stringing. The Burmese harp, 
called saun, has thirteen silken strings wound 
round a curved bar at one end in a way 
which admits of their being pushed up or 
down to be tuned. The harp is called chang 
in Persian, a.ndjunk in Arabic. The Negroes 
in Senegambia and Guinea call it boulou or 
ombi, and use strings made of fibre. 

The harp in its primitive form is supposed 
to have been suggested by the warrior's bow. 
Many barbarous tribes preserve this form 
with some slight degree of variation. The 
" Nanga," or Negro harp is of this kind, as 
will be seen in the subjoined figure. 

Nanga or Negro Harp. 
It is said that some savage tribes still use 
their bows in times of peace as musical instru- 
ments. The harp of the Ossetes and Indo- 
Germanic tribe of the Central Caucasus have 
an instrument which supplies the connecting 
link between the form of the Nanga and the 
harps represented on ancient monuments. 
It is furnished with twelve strings of horse- 

hair, each string composed of six or eight 
hairs. It is about two feet in height, and 
has no forepillar. A specimen of this kind 
of harp is preserved in the South Kensington 

The harp is mentioned in the authorised 
version of the Bible, Gen. iv. 21, "The father 
of all such as handle the harp and organ." 
The word in the original, ^' kinnor," appears in 
thirty-six other places in the Old Testament: 
in every case it is translated " harp." But 
while there is reason for believing that the 
Hebrews were acquainted with the harp, it is 
not certain that the word kinnor really means 
harp. The form of the kinnor is a matter of 
much uncertainty. 

Kalkbrenner, who is considered as an 
authority on the subject of Hebrew music, 
in his Histoire de la Musique, Paris, 1802, 
makes no attempt to describe it, but merely 
contents himself with a commonplace remark 
after quoting the early writers who speak of 
it. " Le kinnor, en grec kinnyra, qui d'apr&s 
la description de Saint Jerome, avoit la figure 
d'un A et qui etoit monte de 24cordes; 
I'autre description hebraique du livre Schilte 
Haggeborin, donne au kinnor 32 cordes, 
tandis que I'historien Joseph et beaucoup 
d'autres ne lui en attribuent que dix ; quelles 
contradictions!" These contradictions may 
be reconciled by supposing that the kinnor, 
like the Egyptian boiina (both of which words 
are translated " harp "), was of various sizes, 
variously strung. 

There are numerous representations of 
harps upon the Assyrian bas-reliefs, from 
which it would appear that the instrument 
consisted of a slightly curved frame acting 
as a resonance body and as a stay for the 
strings at one end, while at the other they 
were secured to a horizontal bar. There was 
apparently a sort of tassel, supposed to be 
made of the unstretched ends of the strings. 

( 221 ) 


A slight difiference of form may be seen in 
the various sculptures, but the general cha- 
racter of the Assyrian harp is the same as 
that shown above. It will be seen that there 
is no front pillar such as modern harps pos- 
sess, by which it may be assumed that these 
harps were similar in construction to the 
Egyptian harp. The ancient Egyptian harps 
were of many sizes, and according to the repre- 
sentations preserved were strung with various 
numbers of strings, from three upwards. The 
player stood, knelt, or supported his instru- 
ment upon a stand while performing. Of the 
scale to which these harps were tuned, or of 
the manner in which they were kept in tune, 
no reasonable idea can be formed. 

Egyptian Harp. 

Egyptian Harp. 

If they were kept in tension by the simple 
process of twisting with the finger and thumb 
round the horizontal bar, it is difficult to 
realise the idea that anything like a pre- 
arranged melody could be performed upon 
them. It is, moreover, probable that the 
greater part of the time of the performer was 
engaged in tightening the strings which his 
gripping had stretched. These views are 
grounded upon the assumption that the 
Egyptian and Babylonian artists have been 
as accurate in their delineations as they are 
said to be. But it was shown in the article 
" Guitar," that ancient artists are not always 
trustworthy as regards their pictures of lutes, 

for the drawings and sculptures often deli- 
neate a performer actively engaged in playing 
upon an instrument in a position in which it 
cannot possibly be supported. But admitting 
them to be correct in form, and acknowledg- 
ing that the artist may have omitted to show 
the means by which the performer steadied 
his instrument, it is doubtful whether the 
ancient harps had either power or sweetness ; 
for the ornament which overloads many of 
the depicted musical instruments must have 
greatly interfered with the tone. 

The Greeks, who borrowed all their musical 
instruments, and, as some say, even the very 
names from foreign nations, must have known 
the harp, but they do not appear to have 
chosen it as a subject for representation, 
either in their paintings, sculpture, or pottery. 
The famous vase now in the Munich museum, 
dating from the time of Alexander the Great, 
offers one of the few instances in which it is 
depicted. The instrument is in form like the 
Assyrian harp. 

Grecian Harp. 

The most favoured instrument in Grecian 
art was the lyre, which like the harp is des- 
cribed, in Greek literature, as having different 
numbers of strings, and to have been mounted 
occasionally on stands. The Pektis, the 
Simekion, and the Epigoneion, are supposed 
to have been actual harps. The first had 
only two strings, the others thirty-five and 
forty respectively. There was another instru- 
ment, the Phorminx, usually understood to 
be a lyre, which is sometimes translated harp. 

The monuments of ancient Rome show 
very few examples of the harp in the forms 
familiar in those of Assyria and Egypt. The 
word " cithara," which is translated, harp, 
lyre, lute, guitar, &c., indifferently, offers no 
help in clearing away the cloud obscuring all 
knowledge of this matter. The claim of the 
Irish, asserted by Vincentis Galilei, in his 
" Dialogue Delia Musica," 1581, to the in- 
vention of the harp cannot now be supported 

( 222 ) 


since the discovery of the Assyrian remains, 
but there is no doubt that they were ac- 
quainted with it at a very early period of 
the world's history. They had four kinds of 
harp — (i) the clar-seth, clar-scat, or clar-seach ; 
(2) the Keir-nine ; (3) the cionar-criiit ; (4) the 
cream tine emit. 

The first was brought to Ireland by the 
Celto-Phoenicians, the second was similar to 
the Eastern Kanoon, and like it, was played 
with plectra. The third had ten strings 
stretched over a resonance-body ; and the 
fourth was the same as the Crwth, had six 
strings, four of which passed over a finger 
board, and could be stopped at the will of the 
player, the two others formed a drone. The 
clar-seth, also called •ced'clojn (pronounced 
Tealoin, or Telin), was the instrument of the 
ancient Celts. The word teVui is derived 
from tel, what is straight, stretched, or drawn 

Irish Harp. 

Vincentino Galilei (p. 143 of his " Dialogo 
della Musica Antica e Moderna," Florence, 
1602), speaking of ancient instruments, says : 
" Ci e prima mente I'Harpa, la quale non e 
altro che un' antica Cithara di molte corde ; 
se bene di forma in alcuna cosa differente, 
non da altro cagionatagli dagli artefici di quei 
tempi, che dalla quantita di esse corde & 
dalla loro intensezza ; contenendo I'estreme 
graui con I'estreme acute piu di tre ottaue. 
Su portato d'Irlanda a noi questo antichissimo 
strumento (commemorato da Dante) doue si 
lauorano in eccellenza & copiososamente ; 
gli habitatori della quale isola si esercitano 
molti & molti secoli sono in essa, &c." By 
which it will be seen that the Welsh were not 
the only people who adopted the harp from 
the Irish. The old Italian harp had two rows 
of strings, arranged after the manner of the 
old Irish harp, from which it is supposed to 
be derived. An instrument of this sort, an 
" Arpa doppia " is mentioned as one of the 
accompanying instruments in Monteverde's 
" Orfeo," 1607. 

The harp was a favourite instrument among 
the ancient Britons. The old laws of Wales, 
the Triads, if they are to be trusted, specify 
the use of the harp as one of the three things 
necessary to distinguish a freeman or gentle- 
man from a slave. Pretenders were discovered 
by their unskilfulness in " playing of the 
harp." The same laws forbade a slave to 
touch a harp, either out of curiosity, or to 
acquire a knowledge of it, and none but the 
king, his musicians, and other gentlemen 
were permitted to possess one. The harp 
was exempt from seizure for debt, as it was 
presumed that he who had no harp lost his 
position, and was degraded to the condition 
of a slave. 

The harp was a familiar instrument with 
the Anglo-Saxons, as many references in 
existing chronicles prove conclusively. The 
harp-player was respected for his skill, 
whether he was known or unknown. Harp 
in hand he might wander scot and scathe 
free even in the camp of an enemy. Colgrin, 
the son of Ella, when besieged in York, 
about 495, received assistance from his 
brother, who went through the camp of the 
besiegers disguised as a harper ; an artifice 
also adopted by King Alfred four hundred 
years later. 

Bede states that it was the custom at festive 
meetings to hand the harp round for each of 
the company to sing and play in turn, and 
mentions the fact that Caedmon, the poet, had 
so neglected his studies in this respect in the 
pursuit of more serious knowledge, that at an 
assembly where he was present, and the harp 
was sent round, he being unable to play, rose 
from the table in shame, and went home to 
his house. " Surgebat a medea coena, et 
egressus, ad suam domum repedebat," or as 
King Alfred has rendered it into Saxon, 
" Thonne aras he for sceome fram tham symle, 
and ham yode to his huse." 

Performers upon the harp of special skill 
were notable before the reign of William the 
First. The services rendered by Taillefer, 
the harper, on the battle field are well known 
matters of history, as also is the foundation 
of the priory and hospital of St. Bartholomew 
in Smithfield, by Rahere, harper to King 
Henry the First. 

Musicians were courted and respected in 
olden times, the harp was a sure passport 
everywhere, and a warrant of welcome in 
every society from the highest to the lowest, 
among kings or churls, among friends or foes. 
Where other men failed, the minstrel suc- 
ceeded ; admission to a house or castle was 
granted to a " gleeman," which was denied 
to all else. The existence of this privilege 
is frequently taken advantage of by writers of 
the old ballads, romances, (%c., who often 

( 223 ) 


describe a luckless lover or chivalrous adven- 
turer, gaining access to some giant's fortress 
or enchanted castle, in the garb of a minstrel 
or harper : 

" Horn sette him abenche 
Is harpe he gan clenche 
He made Rymenild a lay." 

The Romance of Horn and Rymenild. 

Well-known historians and poets, besides the 
anonymous ballad writers of mediaeval times, 
make frequent mention of the harp, thus 
showing its continued popularity. The intro- 
duction of the guitar made the harp less 
cultivated by private people, and as lutes, 
viols, and other more easily portable instru- 
ments became known, the harp was more and 
more disused. That which the guitar and 
viol had begun, the clarichord, virginals, and 
harpsichord completed, and the harp became 
rarely seen and still more rarely used. It 
never became wholly silent, but was to be 
heard in rural districts played in the same 
style, strung in the same fashion, and tuned 
after the same mode, as when it belonged to 
a more remote generation. It was a sort of 
a Rip van Winkle among instruments, living 
through many changes, yet unconscious of 
them. Older than all of the existing members 
of the great family of musical instruments by 
which it was surrounded, but uninfluenced 
and untouched by the progress towards per- 
fection which all else were making. Before 
Hochbrucker's invention, the harp had been 
unchanged for centuries, remaining in the 
condition it had been left by the ancestors of 
the various peoples with whom it was found. 
When Handel's oratorio "Esther" (written 
in 1720) was produced at the request of the 
Duke of Chandos, harp parts to one of the 
choruses, for two Welsh players of the name 
of Powell were inserted by the composer. 
The harp they used was the old Welsh harp 
already described. Even after Hochbrucker 
and Velter had made their improvements, 
and rendered the harp more available as an 
orchestral instrument, it was rarely employed 
as such, all harp effects being made by pizzi- 
cato playing on the violin. 

Hoyle (" Dictionarium Musicae," 1770) de- 
scribes the harp as having, in his day, "three 
rows of strings, which in all make seventy- 
eight ; the first row contains twenty-nine, 
which makes four octaves, the second row 
makes the half turn : the third is unison with 
the first row. It's musick is like that of a 
spinet, all the strings going by semitones, 
and is played on with both hands, by pinching 
them in the same manner together. Some 
give it the name of the inverted spinet." As 
this style of stringing is nearly the same as 
the Irish method of tuning in use ages before, 
it is difficult to believe Hoyle's statement that 

the " moderns have much improved " the 
harp. The name of " inverted spinet " is 
singular, as one of the names for the spinet 
was the " Couched harp." The harp was 
not popular in those days, it required closer 
application to master its difficulties than the 
musical young people of the time cared to 
devote to it. One instrument of the harp 
kind, called the " Bell-harp," was in constant 
use in the time that Hoyle wrote, and has 
not completely disappeared in the present 
day. No great skill is required to perform 
upon it, all that is necessary is prehensile 
power and strength of wrist. The instrument 
is a wooden box a little more than two feet 
long, all closed except over the wrest pins, 
and a space near the opposite end. It is 
strung with steel wire, with eight strings or 
more, tuned with the lowest notes outside : 

Left th\imb. 



Right thumb. 

The fingers of each hand grasp the body of 
the box, leaving the thumbs free to strike the 
strings. The player swings the instrument 
as he strikes, producing the effect of the 
sound of a peal of bells borne on the wind. 

To return to the main subject ; when, in 
1820, Erard improved the harp, it became 
suddenly and widely fashionable ; nearly all 
the music published was " arranged for the 
pianoforte or harp." The instrument was as 
indispensable in the drawing-room of those 
calling themselves " musical," as the piano- 
forte is now. It was chiefly played by ladies, 
especially by those who possessed the ad- 
vantages of a pretty hand and arm, not to 
mention a " neat foot," all these motive 
powers being well shown in harp playing. 
As the fair performers grew old, the charms 
of the harp decayed, and although the instru- 
ment is still played and taught, it is not 
cultivated to the extent which its merits might 
seem to warrant. 

The derivation of the word is a matter of 
doubt, none of the earlier terms supplying 
the least etymological link. Du Cange, in 
his " Glossary," asserts that the harp takes 
its name from the Arpi, a people of Italy who 
were the first who invented it. In this he is 
not quite correct, as will be gathered from the 
foregoing account. Arpi was a ver}' ancient 
city, without doubt, it was of a higher an- 
tiquity than Livy, who mentions it as an 
Apulian city. It is not at all improbable that 
the people of Arpi may have been the first to 
adopt the instrument upon its introduction 
into Italy, and as it is not at all unlikely that 
the Northern people adopted it from the Ro- 
mans, the name may have been transmitted 
in its present form from the Arpi, the people 

( 224 ) 



whom the Romans may have believed to have 
been the inventors. That the word has a 
common origin, its similaritj' in most modem 
tongues may tend to prove. There is evidence 
enough in music to show that the name of a 
people may give a permanent title to a com- 
position, and also to an instrument. There 
is no apparent connection between the words 
Kinnor, Bouni, Saun, Chan§, Junk, Boulou. 
Ombi, Nanga, Pektis, Simekion, Epigoneion, 
Phorminx,Cithara, Clarseth.Telin, and Harp, 
the names by which the instrument has been 
called by various peoples ; but the words Earpe, 
Harp, Harpe, Harfe, and Arpa point conclu- 
sively to one origin, and Du Cange may be 
right with regard to one part of his statement, 
for it is not at all unlikely that the harp, when 
brought to and adopted by the more northern 
nations, would be called by the name given 
to it by the people from whom it was received. 
Harpe (Fr.) A harp. 
Harpist {Eng. and Ger.) A player upon 
the harp. 

Harp-Lute. An instrument of the last 
century with 12 strings, never much used. 
Harpsecol. Harpsichord. 
Harpsichord. Clavicembalo, Cembalo (It.) 
Clavecin (Fr.) Flugel [Ger.) A stringed in- 
strument with a key-board, similar in form to 
a modem grand pianoforte. As the pressure 
of the fingers upon the keys, when heavj* or 
light, made no difference in the quantity of 
tone produced, the harpsichord sometimes 
had two key-boards, one for the loud, the 
other for the soft tones. There were also 
stops in some instruments, by means of 
which the tone could be modified bv connect- 
ing the mechanism with or detaching it from 
the three or even four strings with which 
each tone was furnished. The keys were 
attached to levers, which at their ends had 
slips of wood, called "jacks," furnished with 
plectra of crow-quill or hard leather ; these 
struck or twanged the strings and produced the 
tone, which has been likened to " a scratch 
with a sound at the end of it." [Clarichord.] 
[Spinet.] [Pianoforte.] 

Harpsichord graces. Certain tums and 
ornaments employed in plajnng upon the 
harpsichord, introduced for the most part as 
compensation for the lack of sustaining power 
in the instrument. They were called by the 
general term of agremens in French, and 
Manieren in German. The chief of these 
ornaments were the following, other signs 
are explained according to alphabetical order. 
Turn OT Double {Fr.), Doppelschlag (Ger.) 

i commenced a note lower than the one over 
I which it was written : 





When the sign was placed upright it was 
understood to signify that the turn was to be 

writUn C) ' \ played ^, • * ^ ~ ^— 

%J %J •— n^^ -''S 


When the double was preceded by a small 
note or notes on the same line or space, the 
turn was to commence from that note : 

written fc 


m # 




' m » 

When the marked note was tied, the tum was 
to be commenced from the preceding note : 


^^ //.>.-^ P^^^ r'^ 

Battery, Cadence (Fr.), indicated by the 
sign + . When the cadence was written thus : 

it was played 

» m ' m-»-^ 

m ! -=^ 


and was called a full Cadence or Cadence 
pleine ; when it was written : 



it was played : 

and was called cadence brisee, or broken 

Sliding trill, Flatte [Fr.), Schleifer {Ger.) : 

written played 




Or occasionally : 
written played 

^ 1 ' z^ 

m ■ m 

Trill; Tremblement {Fr.),Pralltriller \Ger.), 
expressed by the signs tr, ^ , ^^■' 9)0. It was 
in effect a trill without the final tum, unless 
altered by other signs. There were six sorts 
of tremblements ; namely, (i) the simple 
tremblement [tremblement simple) : 

tr. y^ \*- fJt) ^^^ 

(2) The doubled or turned trill (tremblement 
double) : 

written -^—m—i played d^' • m ^ m ^ m : 

( 225 ) 


{3) The detached tv'iW {treviblement detache), 
*'hich was performed when the note which 
should begin the trill had a place in the 
melody preceding the marked note : 







(4) The tied trill (tremhlement lie) was almost 
the same at the preceding, only that the first 
two notes were tied : 






(5) The prepared trill {tremhlement appuye 
or prepare) was when a slight pause was 
made before commencing the shake, and its 
speed graduall}'^ increased : 








(6) A slided trill [tremhleynent coule) when 
the shake was preceded by a slide : 


^ ^ r.^r- ^^^ 



plaved 2 

Haupt [Ger.) Principal, chief, head ; as 
Hauptnote, the essential note in a turn or 
shake, &c. 

Hauptmanual {Ger.) The great organ. 

Hauptnote {Ger.) An essential note. 

Hauptperiode {Ger.) Principal subject. 

Hauptsatz {Ger.) Principal theme or 

Hauptschluss {Ger.) A perfect cadence. 

Hauptstimme {Ger.) Principal part. 

Hauptwerk {Ger.) The great organ. 

Hausse {Fr.) The nut of a violin bow. 

Hausser {Fr.) To raise, lift, to sharpen. 

Haut {Fr.) High ; as, hajite contre, the 
alto part ; haute dessns, treble part ; Jtaute 
taille, first or high tenor. 

Hautbois {Fr.) [Oboe.] 

Hautbois d'amour {Fr.) A small species 
of oboe, now obsolete. Music written for it 
can be played on the ordinary instrument. 

Hautboy. [Oboe.] 

H dur. {Ger.) The key of B major. 

Head, (i) The membrane stretched upon 
a drum. (2) That part of a violin or other 
stringed instrument in which the pegs are 
inserted. (3) The portion of a note which 
determines its position upon the stave, and 
to which the tail is annexed. 

Head-stall. A head-band or Capistrum, 
q. V. The use of the word stall in the sense 
of bandage is still to be found in our word 

Head-voice. The sounds produced above 
the chest-register, but not in falsetto. 

Heftig {Ger.) Boisterous, impetuous. 

Heiss {Ger.) Hot, ardent. 

Heiter {Ger.) Clear, calm. Feierlich 
heiter, solemn and calm. 

Helicon {Gk.) e\ii:wv. An instrument used 
by the Greeks in the calculation of ratios. 

Hemidiapente. An imperfect fifth. 

Hemiditone. The lesser or minor third. 

Hemiolios {Gk.) ij^ioXioc. (i) The ratio 
3 to 2. The same as the sesqtiialtera in Latin 
treatises on music. (2) A kind of metre. A 
verse consisting of a foot and a half. 

Hemiopus (G^.)»;/i/o7roc. Having a small 
number of holes. j;/x«Wot avXoi, small flutes 
with three ventages. 

Hemitone. A semitone. 

Heptachord, (i) A series of seven notes. 
A diatonic octave without the upper note. 
{2) An instrument with seven strings. 

Herabstrich [Ger.) The down stroke of 
the bow in playing stringed instruments. A 
down -bow. 

Herstrich. [Herabstrich.] 

Hexachord. A series of six sounds. 

Hey de Guise. A country dance. 

" In our antique hey de guise we go beyond all nations.'' 


[Country dance.] 

Hidden Fifths, or Octaves. [Consecu- 

Hinaufstrich 1 /^ v » 1. 

Hinstrich \^^''-) An up-bow. 

His {Ger.) The note B sharp. 
Hissing. A manner of showing dissatis- 
faction. [Applause.] [Fiasco.] 

H moll {Ger.) The key of B minor. 

Hoboe. [Oboe.] 

Hoboy. [Oboe.] [Waits.] 

Hocket, Hoket, Ochetus. A species of 

part music, in which the voices seem to have 

had to keep a large number of rests, the notes 

being divided into several parts for the purpose. 

It was the same as truncatio (truncatio idem 

est quod hoket). The truncatio was certainly 

a division of a long note into many smaller 

ones with rests between {pausatio), and was 

founded either on an original theme {tenorevi 

excogitatum), or a well-known tune {certum 

j cantiim) either popular {vulgare) or ecclesi- 

' astical {latinuyn). The application of the 

word to part-music seems to have been 

; brought about b}' its Latin synonym conductus, 

for the Greek o^e-oc signifies also a condtict 

I or conduit, and this name was commonly 

I given in the 15th century to a kind of motet, 

C 226 ) 


probably from the " bringing together" of the 

Hochzeitmarsch (Ger.) Aweddingmarch. 

Hohlflote (Ger.) [Flute.] 

Hold. An old English name for the sign 
of a pause r7\. 

Holding note. A note sustained in one 
part, v/hile the others are in motion. 

Homophony (Gk.) Unison of voices or 
' instruments of the same character. o/xd0w»'oe. 

Hopper. [Pianoforte.] 

Hopser or Hops-tanz (Ger.) A country 

Horse Canonicae. The canonical hours 
at which religious services are held. In time 
of persecution a night-service was held called 
Nocturns, which was, however, at a later 
period merged into Lauds — the thanksgiving